Kim HS

References (58)

Title : Improvement of Cognitive Function by Fermented Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer Berries Extracts in an AF64A-Induced Memory Deficit Model - Yoon_2023_Nutrients_15_
Author(s) : Yoon EJ , Ahn JW , Kim HS , Choi Y , Jeong J , Joo SS , Park D
Ref : Nutrients , 15 : , 2023
Abstract : This study investigated the potential therapeutic properties of fermented ginseng berry extract (GBE) for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fermented GBE was examined for its ginsenoside content and physiological properties, which have been suggested to have neuroprotective effects and improve cognitive function. The results showed that fermented GBE contains high levels of major active ginsenosides and exhibits antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Post-fermented GBE demonstrated therapeutic potential in AF64A-induced damaged neural stem cells and an animal model of AD. These findings suggest that fermented GBE may hold promise as a candidate for developing new therapeutic interventions for memory deficits and cognitive disorders associated with AD and other neurodegenerative conditions. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of fermented GBE in human subjects and to determine its clinical applications. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that fermented GBE has potential as a natural product for the prevention and treatment of AD. The high levels of active ginsenosides and antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of fermented GBE suggest that it may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive function and reducing neurodegeneration.
ESTHER : Yoon_2023_Nutrients_15_
PubMedSearch : Yoon_2023_Nutrients_15_
PubMedID: 37571326

Title : Optimization of Solid-Phase Extraction of a Degradation Product of Novichok (A234) and Its Application to Environmental Samples - Lee_2023_J.Anal.Toxicol_47_81
Author(s) : Lee JY , Shin JY , Kim HS
Ref : J Anal Toxicol , 47 :81 , 2023
Abstract : There have been no detailed investigations regarding solid-phase-extraction (SPE) optimization and screening for the degradation products of ethyl (1-(diethylamino)ethylidene)phosphoramidofluoridate (A234) in various environmental samples. Therefore, as a first step in the selective SPE of the degradation products of A234, we optimized the SPE adsorption and extraction parameters for the A234 degradation product ethylhydrogen (1-(diethylamino)ethylidene)phosphoramidate (cpd 1). Among various SPE cartridges, the Si cartridge (500 mg, 3 mL) selectively extracted cpd 1 using an elution volume of 4 mL of 25% H2O in acetonitrile, which eliminated most interference without cpd 1 loss during loading and washing. In addition, the sorbent capacity is also critical in the adsorption of cpd 1. The Si cartridge (500 mg, 3 mL) retained cpd 1 in the concentration range 1-10 microg/mL. The linearity of detector response of cpd 1 in deionized H2O was studied in the range of 1.0-100 ng/mL and showed good linearity with gamma2 ranging from 0.9979 to 0.996. The limits of detection for cpd 1 are 10 ng/mL in the product-scan mode and 100 ng/mL in the full-scan mode. Also, after we optimized the SPE method, we validated the precision and accuracy of the Si-cartridge extraction method in real soil samples with diverse concentrations. The precision ranged from 2.5% to 5.3%. This newly developed SPE is applicable to the analysis of a degradation product of Novichok A234 in various environmental matrices, such as water, soil and sand, in the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) proficiency test and unknown samples collected from suspected sites.
ESTHER : Lee_2023_J.Anal.Toxicol_47_81
PubMedSearch : Lee_2023_J.Anal.Toxicol_47_81
PubMedID: 35640302

Title : Synergistic Associations of PNPLA3 I148M Variant, Alcohol Intake, and Obesity With Risk of Cirrhosis, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and Mortality - Kim_2022_JAMA.Netw.Open_5_e2234221
Author(s) : Kim HS , Xiao X , Byun J , Jun G , DeSantis SM , Chen H , Thrift AP , El-Serag HB , Kanwal F , Amos CI
Ref : JAMA Netw Open , 5 :e2234221 , 2022
Abstract : IMPORTANCE: Alcohol drinking and obesity are associated with an increased risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the risk is not uniform among people with these risk factors. Genetic variants, such as I148M in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene, may play an important role in modulating cirrhosis and HCC risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the joint associations of the PNPLA3 I148M variant, alcohol intake, and obesity with the risk of cirrhosis, HCC, and liver disease-related mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This prospective cohort study analyzed 414 209 participants enrolled in the UK Biobank study from March 2006 to December 2010. Participants had no previous diagnosis of cirrhosis and HCC and were followed up through March 2021. EXPOSURES: Self-reported alcohol intake (nonexcessive vs excessive), obesity (body mass index <=30 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]), and PNPLA3 I148M variant status (noncarrier, heterozygous carrier, or homozygous carrier) from initial assessment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcomes were incident cirrhosis and HCC cases and liver disease-related death ascertained from inpatient hospitalization records and death registry. The risks were calculated by Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: A total of 414 209 participants (mean [SD] age, 56.3 [8.09] years; 218 567 women [52.8%]; 389 452 White race and ethnicity [94.0%]) were included. Of these participants, 2398 participants (0.6%) developed cirrhosis (5.07 [95% CI, 4.87-5.28] cases per 100 person-years), 323 (0.1%) developed HCC (0.68 [95% CI, 0.61-0.76] cases per 100 person-years), and 878 (0.2%) died from a liver disease-related cause (1.76 [95% CI, 1.64-1.88] cases per 100 person-years) during a median follow-up of 10.9 years. Synergistic interactions between the PNPLA3 I148M variant, obesity, and alcohol intake were associated with the risk of cirrhosis, HCC, and liver disease-related mortality. The risk of cirrhosis increased supramultiplicatively (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 17.52; 95% CI, 12.84-23.90) in individuals with obesity, with excessive drinking, and who were homozygous carriers compared with those with no obesity, with nonexcessive drinking, and who were noncarriers. Supramultiplicative associations between the 3 factors and risks of HCC were found in individuals with 3 risk factors (aHR, 30.13; 95% CI, 16.51-54.98) and liver disease-related mortality (aHR, 21.82; 95% CI, 13.78-34.56). The PNPLA3 I148M variant status significantly differentiated the risk of cirrhosis, HCC, and liver disease-related mortality in persons with excessive drinking and obesity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study found synergistic associations of the PNPLA3 I148M variant, excessive alcohol intake, and obesity with increased risk of cirrhosis, HCC, and liver disease-related death in the general population. The PNPLA3 I148M variant status may help refine the risk stratification for liver disease in persons with excessive drinking and obesity who may need early preventive measures.
ESTHER : Kim_2022_JAMA.Netw.Open_5_e2234221
PubMedSearch : Kim_2022_JAMA.Netw.Open_5_e2234221
PubMedID: 36190732

Title : Cacao powder supplementation attenuates oxidative stress, cholinergic impairment, and apoptosis in D-galactose-induced aging rat brain - Yoo_2021_Sci.Rep_11_17914
Author(s) : Yoo H , Kim HS
Ref : Sci Rep , 11 :17914 , 2021
Abstract : Aging, a critical risk factor of several diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, affects an ever-growing number of people. Cacao supplementation has been suggested to improve age-related neuronal deficits. Therefore, this study investigated the protective effects of raw cacao powder on oxidative stress-induced aging. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: Control (C), D-galactose-induced aging (G), D-galactose injection with 10% (LC), and 16% (HC) cacao powder mixed diet. D-galactose (300 mg/3 mL/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into all but the control group for 12 weeks. Cacao supplemented diets were provided for 8 weeks. The levels of serum Malondialdehyde (MDA), Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs), brain and liver MDA, the indicators of the D-galactose induced oxidative stress were significantly decreased in LC and HC but increased in G. The Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of brain showed that the cholinergic impairment was significantly lower in LC, and HC than G. Furthermore, the expression levels of catalase (CAT), phospho-Akt/Akt, and procaspase-3 were significantly increased in LC and HC. In conclusion, cacao consumption attenuated the effects of oxidative stress, cholinergic impairment and apoptosis, indicating its potential in future clinical studies.
ESTHER : Yoo_2021_Sci.Rep_11_17914
PubMedSearch : Yoo_2021_Sci.Rep_11_17914
PubMedID: 34504131

Title : Identification and Study of Biomarkers from Novichok-Inhibited Butyrylcholinesterase in Human Plasma - Jeong_2021_Molecules_26_3810
Author(s) : Jeong WH , Lee JY , Lim KC , Kim HS
Ref : Molecules , 26 : , 2021
Abstract : To identify biomarkers of ethyl (1-(diethylamino)ethylidene)phosphoramidofluoridate (A234)- or methyl (1-(diethylamino)ethylidene)phosphoramidofluoridate (A232)-inhibited butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), we investigated nonapeptide adducts containing the active site serine, which plays a key role in enzyme activity, using LC-MS/HRMS. Biomarkers were acquired as expected, and they exhibited a significant amount of fragment ions from the inhibiting agent itself, in contrast to the MS2 spectra of conventional nerve agents. These biomarkers had a higher abundance of [M+2H](2+) ions than [M+H](+) ions, making doubly charged ions more suitable for trace analysis.
ESTHER : Jeong_2021_Molecules_26_3810
PubMedSearch : Jeong_2021_Molecules_26_3810
PubMedID: 34206601

Title : Characterization and Study on Fragmentation Pathways of a Novel Nerve Agent, 'Novichok (A234)', in Aqueous Solution by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry - Lee_2021_Molecules_26_
Author(s) : Lee JY , Lim KC , Kim HS
Ref : Molecules , 26 : , 2021
Abstract : As a first step toward studying the properties of Novichok (ethyl (1-(diethylamino)ethylidene)phosphoramidofluoridate (A234)), we investigated its degradation products and fragmentation pathways in aqueous solution at different pH levels by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A234 was synthesized in our laboratory and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Three sets of aqueous samples were prepared at different pH levels. A stock solution of A234 was prepared in acetonitrile at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and stored at -20 degreesC until use. Aqueous samples (0.1 mg/mL) were prepared by diluting the stock solution with deionized water. The acidic aqueous sample (pH = 3.5) and basic aqueous sample (pH = 9.4) were prepared using 0.01 M acetic acid and 0.01 M potassium carbonate, respectively. The analysis of the fragmentation patterns and degradation pathways of A234 showed that the same degradation products were formed at all pH levels. However, the hydrolysis rate of A234 was fastest under acidic conditions. In all three conditions, the fragmentation pattern and the major degradation product of A234 were determined. This information will be applicable to studies regarding the decontamination of Novichok and the trace analysis of its degradation products in various environmental matrices.
ESTHER : Lee_2021_Molecules_26_
PubMedSearch : Lee_2021_Molecules_26_
PubMedID: 33670472

Title : Functional expression of polyethylene terephthalate-degrading enzyme (PETase) in green microalgae - Kim_2020_Microb.Cell.Fact_19_97
Author(s) : Kim JW , Park SB , Tran QG , Cho DH , Choi DY , Lee YJ , Kim HS
Ref : Microb Cell Fact , 19 :97 , 2020
Abstract : BACKGROUND: For decades, plastic has been a valuable global product due to its convenience and low price. For example, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was one of the most popular materials for disposable bottles due to its beneficial properties, namely impact resistance, high clarity, and light weight. Increasing demand of plastic resulted in indiscriminate disposal by consumers, causing severe accumulation of plastic wastes. Because of this, scientists have made great efforts to find a way to biologically treat plastic wastes. As a result, a novel plastic degradation enzyme, PETase, which can hydrolyze PET, was discovered in Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 in 2016. RESULTS: A green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which produces PETase, was developed for this study. Two representative strains (C. reinhardtii CC-124 and CC-503) were examined, and we found that CC-124 could express PETase well. To verify the catalytic activity of PETase produced by C. reinhardtii, cell lysate of the transformant and PET samples were co-incubated at 30 degC for up to 4 weeks. After incubation, terephthalic acid (TPA), i.e. the fully-degraded form of PET, was detected by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Additionally, morphological changes, such as holes and dents on the surface of PET film, were observed using scanning electron microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: A PET hydrolyzing enzyme, PETase, was successfully expressed in C. reinhardtii, and its catalytic activity was demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of PETase expression in green algae.
ESTHER : Kim_2020_Microb.Cell.Fact_19_97
PubMedSearch : Kim_2020_Microb.Cell.Fact_19_97
PubMedID: 32345276

Title : Pharmacological evaluation and safety of a donepezil patch - Shin_2020_Pharmazie_75_656
Author(s) : Shin CY , Kim HS , Cha K , Kim HJ , Choi WS , Jang SW , Sohn UD
Ref : Pharmazie , 75 :656 , 2020
Abstract : Our aim was to assess the feasibility of transdermal delivery of donepezil and evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and safety of donepezil patch in vitro and in vivo. Donepezil patches were applied to the skin of rabbits and humans for 7 days, then, the PK profiles were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Donepezil was continuously released from the patch for 7 days as compared to oral administration in hairless rats and rabbits. In hairless rats, peak acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of 34.7+/-2.0% was observed within 8 h after oral administration of 4 mg/head donepezil, and lasted for less than 24 h, consistent with changes in the plasma donepezil concentration. Peak AChE inhibition by the donepezil patch was equivalent to that in the orally administered group. Donepezil was released continuously from the patch for 7 days with a linear PK in both rats and rabbits. AChE activity inhibition was dependent on donepezil plasma concentration. The data exhibited excellent PK/PD correlation. There was no dermal irritation (erythema/edema) in placebo or donepezil patch group during the study period in minipigs. Thus, Dong-A's donepezil patch appeared to be generally safe and was well tolerated.
ESTHER : Shin_2020_Pharmazie_75_656
PubMedSearch : Shin_2020_Pharmazie_75_656
PubMedID: 33303060

Title : Undibacterium piscinae sp. nov., isolated from Korean shiner intestine - Lee_2019_Int.J.Syst.Evol.Microbiol_69_3148
Author(s) : Lee SY , Kang W , Kim PS , Kim HS , Sung H , Shin NR , Whon TW , Yun JH , Lee JY , Jung MJ , Jeong YS , Tak EJ , Han JE , Hyun DW , Kang MS , Lee KE , Lee BH , Bae JW
Ref : Int J Syst Evol Microbiol , 69 :3148 , 2019
Abstract : A novel Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, obligate aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, and flagellated bacterium, designated S11R28(T), was isolated from the intestinal tract of a Korean shiner, Coreoleuciscus splendidus. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain S11R28(T) was identified as member of the genus Undibacterium in class Betaproteobacteria, and was closely related to Undibacterium parvum DSM 23061(T) (98.49%). The isolate grew at 4-25 degreesC, pH 6-9, with 0% (w/v) NaCl, and grew optimally at 20 degreesC, pH 8, in the absence of NaCl. The main cellular fatty acids were C(16:0) and summed features 3 (C(16:1)omega7c and/or C(16:1)omega6c). The strain possessed diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylethanolamine as predominant polar lipids, and ubiquinone Q-8 as a respiratory quinone. The polyamine profile composed of 2-hydroxyputrescine, spermidine, putrescine, and benzoic acid. A genomic DNA G+C content was 51.4 mol%. The average nucleotide identity between strains S11R28(T) and U. parvum DSM 23061(T) was 78.66%. Thus, Undibacterium piscinae can be considered a novel species within the genus Undibacterium with the type strain S11R28(T) (=KCTC 62668(T)=JCM 33224(T)).
ESTHER : Lee_2019_Int.J.Syst.Evol.Microbiol_69_3148
PubMedSearch : Lee_2019_Int.J.Syst.Evol.Microbiol_69_3148
PubMedID: 31385778
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9burk-a0a6m4abh3

Title : WS-5 Extract of Curcuma longa, Chaenomeles sinensis, and Zingiber officinale Contains Anti-AChE Compounds and Improves beta-Amyloid-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice - Kim_2019_Evid.Based.Complement.Alternat.Med_2019_5160293
Author(s) : Kim JE , Shrestha AC , Kim HS , Ham HN , Kim JH , Kim YJ , Noh YJ , Kim SJ , Kim DK , Jo HK , Kim DS , Moon KH , Lee JH , Jeong KO , Leem JY
Ref : Evid Based Complement Alternat Med , 2019 :5160293 , 2019
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is linked to an extensive neuron loss via accumulation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) as senile plaques associated with reactive astrocytes and microglial activation in the brain. The objective of this study was to assess the therapeutic effect of WS-5 ethanol extract in vitro and in vivo against Abeta-induced AD in mice and to identify the extract's active constituents. In the present study, WS-5 exerted a significant inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that WS-5 prevented Abeta oligomerization via inhibition of Abeta 1-42 aggregation. Evaluation of antioxidant activities using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) demonstrated that WS-5 possessed a high antioxidant activity, which was confirmed by measuring the total antioxidant status (TAS). Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory properties of WS-5 were examined using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. WS-5 significantly inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and two proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha and IL-6. The memory impairment in mice with Abeta-induced AD was studied using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance test. Immunohistochemistry was performed to monitor pathological changes in the hippocampus and cortex region of the mouse brain. The animal study showed that WS-5 (250 mg/kg) treatment improved learning and suppressed memory impairment as well as reduced Abeta plaque accumulation in Abeta-induced AD. HPLC analysis identified the extract's active compounds that exert anti-AChE activity. In summary, our findings suggest that WS-5 could be applied as a natural product therapy with a focus on neuroinflammation-related neurodegenerative disorders.
ESTHER : Kim_2019_Evid.Based.Complement.Alternat.Med_2019_5160293
PubMedSearch : Kim_2019_Evid.Based.Complement.Alternat.Med_2019_5160293
PubMedID: 31057649

Title : Evolution of structural diversity of trichothecenes, a family of toxins produced by plant pathogenic and entomopathogenic fungi - Proctor_2018_PLoS.Pathog_14_e1006946
Author(s) : Proctor RH , McCormick SP , Kim HS , Cardoza RE , Stanley AM , Lindo L , Kelly A , Brown DW , Lee T , Vaughan MM , Alexander NJ , Busman M , Gutierrez S
Ref : PLoS Pathog , 14 :e1006946 , 2018
Abstract : Trichothecenes are a family of terpenoid toxins produced by multiple genera of fungi, including plant and insect pathogens. Some trichothecenes produced by the fungus Fusarium are among the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety because of their toxicity and frequent occurrence in cereal crops, and trichothecene production contributes to pathogenesis of some Fusarium species on plants. Collectively, fungi produce over 150 trichothecene analogs: i.e., molecules that share the same core structure but differ in patterns of substituents attached to the core structure. Here, we carried out genomic, phylogenetic, gene-function, and analytical chemistry studies of strains from nine fungal genera to identify genetic variation responsible for trichothecene structural diversity and to gain insight into evolutionary processes that have contributed to the variation. The results indicate that structural diversity has resulted from gain, loss, and functional changes of trichothecene biosynthetic (TRI) genes. The results also indicate that the presence of some substituents has arisen independently in different fungi by gain of different genes with the same function. Variation in TRI gene duplication and number of TRI loci was also observed among the fungi examined, but there was no evidence that such genetic differences have contributed to trichothecene structural variation. We also inferred ancestral states of the TRI cluster and trichothecene biosynthetic pathway, and proposed scenarios for changes in trichothecene structures during divergence of TRI cluster homologs. Together, our findings provide insight into evolutionary processes responsible for structural diversification of toxins produced by pathogenic fungi.
ESTHER : Proctor_2018_PLoS.Pathog_14_e1006946
PubMedSearch : Proctor_2018_PLoS.Pathog_14_e1006946
PubMedID: 29649280
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9hypo-a0a395s326 , gibze-i1rkc4 , triar-a0a395nwj2 , gibze-a0a1c3ylb1 , 9hypo-a0a395t5y9 , triar-a0a395nq82 , triar-a0a395nkh6

Title : The genome of the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma - Kim_2018_Mol.Ecol.Resour_18_656
Author(s) : Kim HS , Lee BY , Han J , Jeong CB , Hwang DS , Lee MC , Kang HM , Kim DH , Lee D , Kim J , Choi IY , Lee JS
Ref : Mol Ecol Resour , 18 :656 , 2018
Abstract : Marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) is considered to be a useful fish model for marine and estuarine ecotoxicology studies and has good potential for field-based population genomics because of its geographical distribution in Asian estuarine and coastal areas. In this study, we present the first whole-genome draft of O. melastigma. The genome assembly consists of 8,602 scaffolds (N50 = 23.737 Mb) and a total genome length of 779.4 Mb. A total of 23,528 genes were predicted, and 12,670 gene families shared with three teleost species (Japanese medaka, mangrove killifish and zebrafish) were identified. Genome analyses revealed that the O. melastigma genome is highly heterozygous and contains a large number of repeat sequences. This assembly represents a useful genomic resource for fish scientists.
ESTHER : Kim_2018_Mol.Ecol.Resour_18_656
PubMedSearch : Kim_2018_Mol.Ecol.Resour_18_656
PubMedID: 29451363
Gene_locus related to this paper: oryme-a0a3b3dpk3 , oryme-a0a3b3c959 , oryme-a0a3b3d3r3 , oryme-a0a3b3d4c8 , oryme-a0a3b3bnt1 , oryme-a0a3b3caa8 , oryme-a0a3b3bl32 , oryme-a0a3b3da95 , oryme-a0a3b3dps7 , oryme-a0a3b3dej7 , oryme-a0a3b3bpw5 , oryme-a0a3b3c014

Title : The Effects of Donepezil, an Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor, on Impaired Learning and Memory in Rodents - Shin_2018_Biomol.Ther.(Seoul)_26_274
Author(s) : Shin CY , Kim HS , Cha KH , Won DH , Lee JY , Jang SW , Sohn UD
Ref : Biomol Ther (Seoul) , 26 :274 , 2018
Abstract : A previous study in humans demonstrated the sustained inhibitory effects of donepezil on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity; however, the effective concentration of donepezil in humans and animals is unclear. This study aimed to characterize the effective concentration of donepezil on AChE inhibition and impaired learning and memory in rodents. A pharmacokinetic study of donepezil showed a mean peak plasma concentration of donepezil after oral treatment (3 and 10 mg/kg) of approximately 1.2 +/- 0.4 h and 1.4 +/- 0.5 h, respectively; absolute bioavailability was calculated as 3.6%. Further, AChE activity was inhibited by increasing plasma concentrations of donepezil, and a maximum inhibition of 31.5 +/- 5.7% was observed after donepezil treatment in hairless rats. Plasma AChE activity was negatively correlated with plasma donepezil concentration. The pharmacological effects of donepezil are dependent upon its concentration and AChE activity; therefore, we assessed the effects of donepezil on learning and memory using a Y-maze in mice. Donepezil treatment (3 mg/kg) significantly prevented the progression of scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. As the concentration of donepezil in the brain increased, the recovery of spontaneous alternations also improved; maximal improvement was observed at 46.5 +/- 3.5 ng/g in the brain. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the AChE inhibitory activity and pharmacological effects of donepezil can be predicted by the concentration of donepezil. Further, 46.5 +/- 3.5 ng/g donepezil is an efficacious target concentration in the brain for treating learning and memory impairment in rodents.
ESTHER : Shin_2018_Biomol.Ther.(Seoul)_26_274
PubMedSearch : Shin_2018_Biomol.Ther.(Seoul)_26_274
PubMedID: 29463072

Title : Erucamide from Radish Leaves Has an Inhibitory Effect Against Acetylcholinesterase and Prevents Memory Deficit Induced by Trimethyltin - Kim_2018_J.Med.Food_21_769
Author(s) : Kim CR , Kim HS , Choi SJ , Kim JK , Gim MC , Kim YJ , Shin DH
Ref : J Med Food , 21 :769 , 2018
Abstract : In this study, we investigated a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that was isolated from radish leaf (Raphanus sativus L.) extracts. Through sequential fractionation of radish leaf extract, the active constituent was identified as cis-13-docosenamide (erucamide). To validate the potency, erucamide derived from radish leaves was supplemented in diets and then fed to trimethyltin (TMT)-exposed mice. Specifically, mice had free access to a control diet or diets containing different concentrations of erucamide for 3 weeks, followed by an injection of TMT (2.5 mg/kg body weight). Our results showed that pretreatment of mice with erucamide (20 and 40 mg/kg body weight per day) significantly attenuated the TMT-induced learning and memory deficits that were assessed by Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. These findings suggest that radish leaves, and possibly its isolated erucamide, may have preventive effects against memory deficits related to Alzheimer's disease by modulation of cholinergic functions.
ESTHER : Kim_2018_J.Med.Food_21_769
PubMedSearch : Kim_2018_J.Med.Food_21_769
PubMedID: 30110203

Title : Differential Effects of sEH Inhibitors on the Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells - Kim_2017_Int.J.Mol.Sci_18_
Author(s) : Kim HS , Kim SK , Kang KW
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 18 : , 2017
Abstract : Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) is a cardioprotective metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is known that soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is involved in the metabolic degradation of EET. The abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and restenosis. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of the sEH inhibitor 12-(((tricyclo(,7)dec-1-ylamino)carbonyl)amino)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation and migration in rat VSMCs. AUDA significantly inhibited PDGF-induced rat VSMC proliferation, which coincided with Pin1 suppression and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) upregulation. However, exogenous 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 14,15-EET treatments did not alter Pin1 or HO-1 levels and had little effect on the proliferation of rat VSMCs. On the other hand, AUDA enhanced the PDGF-stimulated cell migration of rat VSMCs. Furthermore, AUDA-induced activation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and subsequent thromboxane A2 (TXA(2)) production were required for the enhanced migration. Additionally, EETs increased COX-2 expression but inhibited the migration of rat VSMCs. In conclusion, the present study showed that AUDA exerted differential effects on the proliferation and migration of PDGF-stimulated rat VSMCs and that these results may not depend on EET stabilization.
ESTHER : Kim_2017_Int.J.Mol.Sci_18_
PubMedSearch : Kim_2017_Int.J.Mol.Sci_18_
PubMedID: 29232926

Title : The prostate metastasis suppressor gene NDRG1 differentially regulates cell motility and invasion - Sharma_2017_Mol.Oncol_11_655
Author(s) : Sharma A , Mendonca J , Ying J , Kim HS , Verdone JE , Zarif JC , Carducci M , Hammers H , Pienta KJ , Kachhap S
Ref : Mol Oncol , 11 :655 , 2017
Abstract : Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that N-myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1) functions as a suppressor of prostate cancer metastasis. Elucidating pathways that drive survival and invasiveness of NDRG1-deficient prostate cancer cells can help in designing therapeutics to target metastatic prostate cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that lead NDRG1-deficient prostate cancer cells to increased invasiveness remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that NDRG1-deficient prostate tumors have decreased integrin expression and reduced cell adhesion and motility. Our data indicate that loss of NDRG1 differentially affects Rho GTPases. Specifically, there is a downregulation of active RhoA and Rac1 GTPases with a concomitant upregulation of active Cdc42 in NDRG1-deficient cells. Live cell imaging using a fluorescent sensor that binds to polymerized actin revealed that NDRG1-deficient cells have restricted actin dynamics, thereby affecting cell migration. These cellular and molecular characteristics are in sharp contrast to what is expected after loss of a metastasis suppressor. We further demonstrate that NDRG1-deficient cells have increased resistance to anoikis and increased invasiveness which is independent of its elevated Cdc42 activity. Furthermore, NDRG1 regulates expression and glycosylation of EMMPRIN, a master regulator of matrix metalloproteases. NDRG1 deficiency leads to an increase in EMMPRIN expression with a concomitant increase in matrix metalloproteases and thus invadopodial activity. Using a three-dimensional invasion assay and an in vivo metastasis assay for human prostate xenografts, we demonstrate that NDRG1-deficient prostate cancer cells exhibit a collective invasion phenotype and are highly invasive. Thus, our findings provide novel insights suggesting that loss of NDRG1 leads to a decrease in actin-mediated cellular motility but an increase in cellular invasion, resulting in increased tumor dissemination which positively impacts metastatic outcome.
ESTHER : Sharma_2017_Mol.Oncol_11_655
PubMedSearch : Sharma_2017_Mol.Oncol_11_655
PubMedID: 28371345

Title : Complete genome sequence and functional study of the fibrinolytic enzyme-producing bacterium Leuconostoc holzapfelii 5H4, a silage probiotic - Kim_2017_J.Genomics_5_32
Author(s) : Kim HS , Han OK , Kwak YS
Ref : J Genomics , 5 :32 , 2017
Abstract : To process silage, rye is usually removed before the heading stage but the rye biomass increased up to 30% after the heading stage. However, after the heading stage, lignification rapidly accelerated and it resulted in a poor NDF digestibility problem. This has led to a demand for a strong fibrinolytic enzyme-producing probiotic for rye silage. The Gram-positive Leuconostoc holzapfelii 5H4 was selected as a fibrinolytic enzyme-producing probiotic to overcome lignification of rye silage. The L. holzapfelii 5H4 has a relatively small circular chromosome (1,885,398 bp), but the strain has one cellulase, two xylanase, and five esterase in its genome sequence. All fibrinolytic enzyme genes were relatively highly expressed compared to housekeeping genes, and this was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of the bacterium so that fibrinolytic enzyme production and its fibrinolytic activity mechanism are better understood.
ESTHER : Kim_2017_J.Genomics_5_32
PubMedSearch : Kim_2017_J.Genomics_5_32
PubMedID: 28348641

Title : The effect of imidazolium cations on the structure and activity of the Candida antarctica Lipase B enzyme in ionic liquids - Kim_2016_Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys_18_22062
Author(s) : Kim HS , Eom D , Koo YM , Yingling YG
Ref : Phys Chem Chem Phys , 18 :22062 , 2016
Abstract : In order to understand how cations affect the structural changes and enzyme activity of Lipase B from Candida antarctica, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of CALB in four types of ionic liquids (ILs) with varying sizes of imidazolium cations and correlated these results with the experimentally determined CALB activity. The imidazolium cations under study differ in the alkyl tail length in the following order: [Emim](+) < [Bmim](+) < [Hmim](+) < [Omim](+). We observed that the best enzyme activity and structural stability of CALB are obtained in [Bmim][TfO] and [Hmim][TfO]. In contrast, in [Emim][TfO], bonding of [TfO](-) to LYS-290 disrupts the interactions between LYS-290 and ILE-285, which leads to a closed catalytic gate conformation with low accessibility of substrates to the catalytic triad. In [Omim][TfO], strong hydrophobic interactions between [Omim](+) and LEU-278 result in a significant loss of the secondary structure of the alpha-10 helix and cause the exposure of the catalytic triad to ILs, which affects the stability of the catalytic triad and consequently deteriorates the enzyme activity. Overall, our study indicates that a high ion coordination number ([Emim][TfO]) or the presence of a long hydrophobic tail ([Omim][TfO]) can facilitate ion-protein interactions that cause structural distortions and a decrease in CALB enzyme activity in ILs.
ESTHER : Kim_2016_Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys_18_22062
PubMedSearch : Kim_2016_Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys_18_22062
PubMedID: 27306260

Title : Insecticidal and Acetylcholine Esterase Inhibition Activity of Asteraceae Plant Essential Oils and Their Constituents against Adults of the German Cockroach (Blattella germanica) - Yeom_2015_J.Agric.Food.Chem_63_2241
Author(s) : Yeom HJ , Jung CS , Kang J , Kim J , Lee JH , Kim DS , Kim HS , Park PS , Kang KS , Park IK
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 63 :2241 , 2015
Abstract : The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. beta-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.
ESTHER : Yeom_2015_J.Agric.Food.Chem_63_2241
PubMedSearch : Yeom_2015_J.Agric.Food.Chem_63_2241
PubMedID: 25664467

Title : Mode of action and pharmacogenomic biomarkers for exceptional responders to didemnin B - Potts_2015_Nat.Chem.Biol_11_401
Author(s) : Potts MB , McMillan EA , Rosales TI , Kim HS , Ou YH , Toombs JE , Brekken RA , Minden MD , MacMillan JB , White MA
Ref : Nat Chemical Biology , 11 :401 , 2015
Abstract : Modern cancer treatment employs many effective chemotherapeutic agents originally discovered from natural sources. The cyclic depsipeptide didemnin B has demonstrated impressive anticancer activity in preclinical models. Clinical use has been approved but is limited by sparse patient responses combined with toxicity risk and an unclear mechanism of action. From a broad-scale effort to match antineoplastic natural products to their cellular activities, we found that didemnin B selectively induces rapid and wholesale apoptosis through dual inhibition of PPT1 and EEF1A1. Furthermore, empirical discovery of a small panel of exceptional responders to didemnin B allowed the generation of a regularized regression model to extract a sparse-feature genetic biomarker capable of predicting sensitivity to didemnin B. This may facilitate patient selection in a fashion that could enhance and expand the therapeutic application of didemnin B against neoplastic disease.
ESTHER : Potts_2015_Nat.Chem.Biol_11_401
PubMedSearch : Potts_2015_Nat.Chem.Biol_11_401
PubMedID: 25867045

Title : The relationship between enhanced enzyme activity and structural dynamics in ionic liquids: a combined computational and experimental study - Kim_2014_Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys_16_2944
Author(s) : Kim HS , Ha SH , Sethaphong L , Koo YM , Yingling YG
Ref : Phys Chem Chem Phys , 16 :2944 , 2014
Abstract : Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) is an efficient biocatalyst for hydrolysis, esterification, and polymerization reactions. In order to understand how to control enzyme activity and stability we performed a combined experimental and molecular dynamics simulation study of CALB in organic solvents and ionic liquids (ILs). Our results demonstrate that the conformational changes of the active site cavity are directly related to enzyme activity and decrease in the following order: [Bmim][TfO] > tert-butanol > [Bmim][Cl]. The entrance to the cavity is modulated by two isoleucines, ILE-189 and ILE-285, one of which is located on the alpha-10 helix. The alpha-10 helix can substantially change its conformation due to specific interactions with solvent molecules. This change is acutely evident in [Bmim][Cl] where interactions of LYS-290 with chlorine anions caused a conformational switch between alpha-helix and turn. Disruption of the alpha-10 helix structure results in a narrow cavity entrance and, thus, reduced the activity of CALB in [Bmim][Cl]. Finally, our results show that the electrostatic energy between solvents in this study and CALB is correlated with the structural changes leading to differences in enzyme activity.
ESTHER : Kim_2014_Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys_16_2944
PubMedSearch : Kim_2014_Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys_16_2944
PubMedID: 24424278

Title : Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel acetylalginate esterase gene in alg operon from Sphingomonas sp. MJ-3 - Park_2014_Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol_98_2145
Author(s) : Park YJ , Chu YJ , Shin YH , Lee EY , Kim HS
Ref : Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology , 98 :2145 , 2014
Abstract : A novel acetylalginate esterase (AcAlgE) gene was cloned and characterized from the genomic DNA library of Sphingomonas sp. MJ-3. A putative gene encoding AcAlgE protein of 292-residue precursor protein with 20-amino acid signal peptide was identified in the alg operon. The deduced AcAlgE protein has GDSL-like consensus motif and shares a highest sequence identity (51%) with GDSL family lipolytic protein from Pseudoxanthomonas suwonensis. Enzymatic assays with bacterial acetylalginate as the substrate showed that the recombinant AcAlgE protein possesses deacetylation activity. The optimal temperature and pH for the AcAlgE were 22 degrees C and pH 6.5 (citrate buffer), respectively. The recombinant AcAlgE protein catalyzed deacetylation of acetylalginate with release of acetate. The resulting de-acetylated alginate was readily degraded by alginate lyases, indicating that the recombinant AcAlgE enhanced the subsequent degradation of acetylalginate by alginate lyases. The recombinant AcAlgE can play an important role in the degradation of acetylated alginate such as mucoidal acetylalginate in cystic fibrosis patient.
ESTHER : Park_2014_Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol_98_2145
PubMedSearch : Park_2014_Appl.Microbiol.Biotechnol_98_2145
PubMedID: 23893328

Title : Donepezil enhances purkinje cell survival and alleviates motor dysfunction by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis in a murine model of niemann pick disease type C - Seo_2014_J.Neuropathol.Exp.Neurol_73_234
Author(s) : Seo Y , Shin Y , Kim HS , Kang I , Hong IS , Choi SW , Yu KR , Kang KS
Ref : J Neuropathol Experimental Neurology , 73 :234 , 2014
Abstract : Neurodegenerative processes are often accompanied by disruption of cholinergic systems; therefore, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors (AChEIs) may have therapeutic potential in some neurological conditions. We evaluated the effects of administration of donepezil, a widely used AChEI, in the cerebellum in a murine model of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). The NPC mice developed Purkinje cell loss at the age of 8 weeks; 4-week-old NPC mice given donepezil led to improvement of Purkinje cell survival that was associated with improvement of motor dysfunction in the mice. Because abnormal accumulation of cholesterol caused by impaired lipid homeostasis is the principal pathogenetic mechanism underlying NPC, we investigated the effects of donepezil on cholesterol metabolism in the NPC mice. Donepezil treatment reduced cholesterol accumulation in adult neural stem cells in vitro, and it downregulated the expression of the cholesterol synthesis factors' sterol regulatory element-binding proteins and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in the cerebellum, implying that AChE activity might be associated with cholesterol homeostasis. Taken together, our findings suggest the role of a cholinergic pathway as a novel regulator of NPC progression and the potential application of AChEIs for the treatment of human NPC.
ESTHER : Seo_2014_J.Neuropathol.Exp.Neurol_73_234
PubMedSearch : Seo_2014_J.Neuropathol.Exp.Neurol_73_234
PubMedID: 24487798

Title : Highly stabilized lipase in polyaniline nanofibers for surfactant-mediated esterification of ibuprofen - Hong_2014_Langmuir_30_911
Author(s) : Hong SG , Kim HS , Kim J
Ref : Langmuir , 30 :911 , 2014
Abstract : Lipase (LP) from Candida rugosa was immobilized and stabilized in polyaniline nanofibers (PANFs) via a three-step process of enzyme adsorption, precipitation, and cross-linking, which generates the final immobilization called "EAPC". The activity of EAPC was 5.1 and 5.9 times higher than those of LP immobilizations via enzyme adsorption (EA) and enzyme adsorption/cross-linking (EAC), respectively. After incubation in an aqueous buffer under shaking (200 rpm) for 84 days, EAPC maintained 74% of its initial activity, while EA and EAC retained 11 and 24% of their initial activities, respectively. Highly stable and active EAPC was employed for the resolution of racemic ibuprofen via esterification of S-(+)-ibuprofen with 1-propanol in isooctane. The addition of 100 mM dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) into the reaction medium increased the esterification activity by 61-fold, which can be explained by the better dispersion of EAPC in isooctane. EAPC showed 42% conversion in the esterification of racemic ibuprofen after 102 h, whereas EA and EAC showed only 1.2 and 1.4% conversion in the same condition, respectively. The EAPC approach increases both loading and stability of LP, and the combination of EAPC with the surfactant addition can be employed for efficient enzymatic reactions in organic solvents.
ESTHER : Hong_2014_Langmuir_30_911
PubMedSearch : Hong_2014_Langmuir_30_911
PubMedID: 24417226

Title : Lipase-catalyzed enantioselective synthesis of (R,R)-lactide from alkyl lactate to produce PDLA (poly D-lactic acid) and stereocomplex PLA (poly lactic acid) - Jeon_2013_J.Biotechnol_168_201
Author(s) : Jeon BW , Lee J , Kim HS , Cho DH , Lee H , Chang R , Kim YH
Ref : J Biotechnol , 168 :201 , 2013
Abstract : R-lactide, a pivotal monomer for the production of poly (D-lactic acid) (PDLA) or stereocomplex poly (lactic acid) (PLA) was synthesized from alkyl (R)-lactate through a lipase-catalyzed reaction without racemization. From among several types of lipase, only lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435; CAL-B) was effective in the reaction that synthesized (R,R)-lactide. Enantiopure (R,R)-lactide, which consisted of over 99% enantiomeric excess, was synthesized from methyl (R)-lactate through CAL-B catalysis. Removal of the methanol by-product was critical to obtain a high level of lactide conversion. The (R,R)-lactide yield was 56% in a reaction containing 100 mg of Novozym 435, 10 mM methyl (R)-lactate and 1500 mg of molecular sieve 5A in methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). The important monomer (R,R)-lactide that is required for the production of the widely recognized bio-plastic PDLA and the PLA stereocomplex can be obtained using this novel synthetic method.
ESTHER : Jeon_2013_J.Biotechnol_168_201
PubMedSearch : Jeon_2013_J.Biotechnol_168_201
PubMedID: 23845270
Gene_locus related to this paper: canar-LipB

Title : Neuroligin-1 controls synaptic abundance of NMDA-type glutamate receptors through extracellular coupling - Budreck_2013_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_110_725
Author(s) : Budreck EC , Kwon OB , Jung JH , Baudouin S , Thommen A , Kim HS , Fukazawa Y , Harada H , Tabuchi K , Shigemoto R , Scheiffele P , Kim JH
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 110 :725 , 2013
Abstract : Despite the pivotal functions of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) for neural circuit development and synaptic plasticity, the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamics of NMDAR trafficking are poorly understood. The cell adhesion molecule neuroligin-1 (NL1) modifies NMDAR-dependent synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity, but it is unclear whether NL1 controls synaptic accumulation or function of the receptors. Here, we provide evidence that NL1 regulates the abundance of NMDARs at postsynaptic sites. This function relies on extracellular, NL1 isoform-specific sequences that facilitate biochemical interactions between NL1 and the NMDAR GluN1 subunit. Our work uncovers NL1 isoform-specific cis-interactions with ionotropic glutamate receptors as a key mechanism for controlling synaptic properties.
ESTHER : Budreck_2013_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_110_725
PubMedSearch : Budreck_2013_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_110_725
PubMedID: 23269831

Title : DA-1229, a novel and potent DPP4 inhibitor, improves insulin resistance and delays the onset of diabetes - Kim_2012_Life.Sci_90_21
Author(s) : Kim MK , Chae YN , Kim HD , Yang EK , Cho EJ , Choi SH , Cheong YH , Kim HS , Kim HJ , Jo YW , Son MH , Kim SH , Shin CY
Ref : Life Sciences , 90 :21 , 2012
Abstract : AIM: To characterize the pharmacodynamic profile of DA-1229, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 inhibitor. MAIN
METHODS: Enzyme inhibition assays against DPP4, DPP8 and DPP9. Antidiabetic effects of DA-1229 in HF-DIO mice and young db/db mice. KEY FINDINGS: DA-1229 was shown to potently inhibit the DPP4 enzyme in human and murine soluble forms and the human membrane-bound form with IC(50) values of 0.98, 3.59 and 1.26 nM, respectively. As a reversible and competitive inhibitor, DA-1229 was more selective to human DPP4 (6000-fold) than to human DPP8 and DPP9. DA-1229 (0.1-3mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited plasma DPP4 activity, leading to increased levels of plasma GLP-1 and insulin, and thereby lowering blood glucose levels in mice. In high fat diet-fed (HF) mice, a single oral dose of 100mg/kg of DA-1229 reduced plasma DPP4 activity by over 80% during a 24h period. Long-term treatment with DA-1229 for 8 weeks revealed significant improvements in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, accompanied by significant body weight reduction. However, it remains unclear whether there is a direct causal relationship between DPP4 inhibition and body weight reduction. In young db/db mice, the DA-1229 treatment significantly reduced blood glucose excursions for the first 2 weeks, resulting in significantly lower levels of HbA1c at the end of the study. Furthermore, the pancreatic insulin content of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the db/db control. SIGNIFICANCE: DA-1229 as a novel and selective DPP4 inhibitor improves the insulin sensitivity in HF mice and delays the onset of diabetes in young db/db mice.
ESTHER : Kim_2012_Life.Sci_90_21
PubMedSearch : Kim_2012_Life.Sci_90_21
PubMedID: 22056373

Title : Draft genome sequence of Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. fusiforme ATCC 51190T - Park_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_5445
Author(s) : Park SN , Kong SW , Park MS , Lee JW , Cho E , Lim YK , Choi MH , Kim HS , Chang YH , Shin JH , Park HS , Choi SH , Kook JK
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 194 :5445 , 2012
Abstract : Fusobacterium nucleatum, one of the major causative bacteria of periodontitis, is classified into five subspecies (nucleatum, polymorphum, vincentii, animalis, and fusiforme) on the basis of the several phenotypic characteristics and DNA homology. This is the first report of the draft genome sequence of F. nucleatum subsp. fusiforme ATCC 51190(T).
ESTHER : Park_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_5445
PubMedSearch : Park_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_5445
PubMedID: 22965077
Gene_locus related to this paper: fusnu-j1awj6 , fusnv-c7xmx1

Title : Draft genome sequence of Fusobacterium nucleatum ChDC F128, isolated from a periodontitis lesion - Park_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_6322
Author(s) : Park SN , Kong SW , Kim HS , Park MS , Lee JW , Cho E , Lim YK , Choi MH , Chang YH , Shin JH , Park HS , Choi SH , Kook JK
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 194 :6322 , 2012
Abstract : Fusobacterium nucleatum is classified into five subspecies. F. nucleatum ChDC F128 was isolated from a periodontitis lesion and proposed as a new subspecies based on the comparison of the nucleotide sequences of the RNA polymerase beta subunit and zinc protease genes. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the strain.
ESTHER : Park_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_6322
PubMedSearch : Park_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_6322
PubMedID: 23105064
Gene_locus related to this paper: fusnu-j8vid6

Title : Limb-girdle myasthenia with tubular aggregates associated with novel GFPT1 mutations - Huh_2012_Muscle.Nerve_46_600
Author(s) : Huh SY , Kim HS , Jang HJ , Park YE , Kim DS
Ref : Muscle & Nerve , 46 :600 , 2012
Abstract : INTRODUCTION: Limb-girdle myasthenia with tubular aggregates (LGM with TAs) is a subtype of congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by recessive mutations of glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1). METHODS: Clinical and neurophysiological assessment was made in a Korean boy who had proximal limb muscle weakness. Findings suggested a diagnosis of congenital myasthenic syndrome. RESULTS: Muscle biopsy disclosed numerous TAs in muscle fibers, and DNA sequence analysis disclosed 2 novel missense mutations (p.E256Q and p.M499T) in GFPT1. Treatment with oral cholinesterase inhibitors produced a dramatic improvement in muscle strength. CONCLUSIONS: GFPT1 is the key enzyme in the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, and mutations in GFPT1 cause defective glycosylation in the proteins of the neuromuscular junction. Identification of LGM with TAs among patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome is important because treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors can produce symptomatic improvement.
ESTHER : Huh_2012_Muscle.Nerve_46_600
PubMedSearch : Huh_2012_Muscle.Nerve_46_600
PubMedID: 22987706

Title : Discovery of DA-1229: a potent, long acting dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes - Kim_2011_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_21_3809
Author(s) : Kim HJ , Kwak WY , Min JP , Lee JY , Yoon TH , Kim HD , Shin CY , Kim MK , Choi SH , Kim HS , Yang EK , Cheong YH , Chae YN , Park KJ , Jang JM , Choi SJ , Son MH , Kim SH , Yoo M , Lee BJ
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 21 :3809 , 2011
Abstract : A series of beta-amino amide containing substituted piperazine-2-one derivatives was synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl pepdidase-4 (DPP-4) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. As results of intensive SAR study of the series, (R)-4-[(R)-3-amino-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)-butanoyl]-3-(t-butoxymethyl)-piperaz in-2-one (DA-1229) displayed potent DPP-4 inhibition pattern in several animal models, was selected for clinical development.
ESTHER : Kim_2011_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_21_3809
PubMedSearch : Kim_2011_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_21_3809
PubMedID: 21570283

Title : Carriage of the V279F null allele within the gene encoding Lp-PLA(2) is protective from coronary artery disease in South Korean males - Jang_2011_PLoS.One_6_e18208
Author(s) : Jang Y , Waterworth D , Lee JE , Song K , Kim S , Kim HS , Park KW , Cho HJ , Oh IY , Park JE , Lee BS , Ku HJ , Shin DJ , Lee JH , Jee SH , Han BG , Jang HY , Cho EY , Vallance P , Whittaker J , Cardon L , Mooser V
Ref : PLoS ONE , 6 :e18208 , 2011
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The Asia-specific PLA2G7 994G-T transversion leads to V279F substitution within the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase-A2 (Lp-PLA(2)) and to absence of enzyme activity in plasma. This variant offers a unique natural experiment to assess the role of Lp-PLA(2) in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in humans. Given conflicting results from mostly small studies, a large two-stage case-control study was warranted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PLA2G7 V279F genotypes were initially compared in 2890 male cases diagnosed with CAD before age 60 with 3128 male controls without CAD at age 50 and above and subsequently in a second independent male dataset of 877 CAD cases and 1230 controls. In the first dataset, the prevalence of the 279F null allele was 11.5% in cases and 12.8% in controls. After adjustment for age, body mass index, diabetes, smoking, glucose and lipid levels, the OR (95% CI) for CAD for this allele was 0.80 (0.66-0.97, p = 0.02). The results were very similar in the second dataset, despite lower power, with an allele frequency of 11.2% in cases and 12.5% in controls, leading to a combined OR of 0.80 (0.69-0.92), p = 0.002. The magnitude and direction of this genetic effect were fully consistent with large epidemiological studies on plasma Lp-PLA(2) activity and CAD risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Natural deficiency in Lp-PLA(2) activity due to carriage of PLA2G7 279F allele protects from CAD in Korean men. These results provide evidence for a causal relationship between Lp-PLA(2) and CAD, and support pharmacological inhibition of this enzyme as an innovative way to prevent CAD.
ESTHER : Jang_2011_PLoS.One_6_e18208
PubMedSearch : Jang_2011_PLoS.One_6_e18208
PubMedID: 21490708
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PLA2G7

Title : BeetleBase in 2010: revisions to provide comprehensive genomic information for Tribolium castaneum - Kim_2010_Nucleic.Acids.Res_38_D437
Author(s) : Kim HS , Murphy T , Xia J , Caragea D , Park Y , Beeman RW , Lorenzen MD , Butcher S , Manak JR , Brown SJ
Ref : Nucleic Acids Research , 38 :D437 , 2010
Abstract : BeetleBase (http:\/\/ has been updated to provide more comprehensive genomic information for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. The database contains genomic sequence scaffolds mapped to 10 linkage groups (genome assembly release Tcas_3.0), genetic linkage maps, the official gene set, Reference Sequences from NCBI (RefSeq), predicted gene models, ESTs and whole-genome tiling array data representing several developmental stages. The database was reconstructed using the upgraded Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) modules. The genomic data is stored in a PostgreSQL relatational database using the Chado schema and visualized as tracks in GBrowse. The updated genetic map is visualized using the comparative genetic map viewer CMAP. To enhance the database search capabilities, the BLAST and BLAT search tools have been integrated with the GMOD tools. BeetleBase serves as a long-term repository for Tribolium genomic data, and is compatible with other model organism databases.
ESTHER : Kim_2010_Nucleic.Acids.Res_38_D437
PubMedSearch : Kim_2010_Nucleic.Acids.Res_38_D437
PubMedID: 19820115
Gene_locus related to this paper: trica-ACHE1 , trica-ACHE2 , trica-d2a0g9 , trica-d2a0h0 , trica-d2a0w9 , trica-d2a0x0 , trica-d2a0x1 , trica-d2a0x3 , trica-d2a0x4.1 , trica-d2a0x4.2 , trica-d2a0x6 , trica-d2a2b8 , trica-d2a2h1 , trica-d2a3c3 , trica-d2a3g9 , trica-d2a5y5 , trica-d2a309 , trica-d2a514 , trica-d2a515 , trica-d2a516 , trica-d2a577 , trica-d2a578 , trica-d6w6x8 , trica-d6w7f9 , trica-d6w7h2 , trica-d6w8e7 , trica-d6w9c0 , trica-d6w855 , trica-d6wac8 , trica-d6wan4 , trica-d6wd50 , trica-d6wd73 , trica-d6wd74 , trica-A0A139WM97 , trica-d6wfu3 , trica-d6wgl2 , trica-d6wj57 , trica-d6wj59 , trica-d6wjs3 , trica-d6wl31 , trica-d6wnv1 , trica-d6wpl0 , trica-d6wqd6 , trica-d6wqr4 , trica-d6ws52 , trica-d6wsm0 , trica-d6wu38 , trica-d6wu39 , trica-d6wu40 , trica-d6wu41 , trica-d6wu44 , trica-d6wvk5 , trica-d6wvz7 , trica-d6wwu9 , trica-d6wwv0 , trica-d6wxz0 , trica-d6wyy1 , trica-d6wyy2 , trica-d6x0z2 , trica-d6x0z5 , trica-d6x0z6 , trica-d6x4b2 , trica-d6x4e8 , trica-d6x4e9 , trica-d6x197 , trica-d7eip7 , trica-d7eld3 , trica-d7us45 , trica-q5wm43 , trica-q5zex9 , trica-d6wie5 , trica-d6w7t0 , trica-d6x4h0 , trica-d6x4h1 , trica-a0a139wae8 , trica-a0a139wc96 , trica-d6x325 , trica-d2a4s2 , trica-d6wvw8

Title : The crystal structure of an HSL-homolog EstE5 complex with PMSF reveals a unique configuration that inhibits the nucleophile Ser144 in catalytic triads - Nam_2009_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_389_247
Author(s) : Nam KH , Kim SJ , Priyadarshi A , Kim HS , Hwang KY
Ref : Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications , 389 :247 , 2009
Abstract : The esterase/lipase family (EC represents a diverse group of hydrolases that catalyze the cleavage of ester bonds and are widely distributed in animals, plants and microorganisms. Among these enzymes, hormone-sensitive lipases, play a critical role in the regulation of rodent fat cell lipolysis and are regarded as adipose tissue-specific enzymes. Recently, we reported the structural and biological characterization of EstE5 from the metagenome library [K.H. Nam, M.Y. Kim, S.J. Kim, A. Priyadarshi, W.H. Lee, K.Y. Hwang, Structural and functional analysis of a novel EstE5 belonging to the subfamily of hormone-sensitive lipase, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 379 (2009) 553-556]. The structure of this protein revealed that it belongs to the HSL-family. Here, we report the inhibition of the activity of the HSL-homolog EstE5 protein as determined by the use of esterase/lipase inhibitors. Our results revealed that the EstE5 protein is significantly inhibited by PMSF. In addition, this is the first study to identify the crystal structures of EstE5-PMSF at 2.4 and 2.5A among the HSL-homolog structures. This structural configuration is similar to that adopted when serine proteases are inhibited by PMSF. The results presented here provide valuable information regarding the properties of the HSL-family.
ESTHER : Nam_2009_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_389_247
PubMedSearch : Nam_2009_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_389_247
PubMedID: 19715665
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9bact-Q0GMU2

Title : Gene cloning, expression, and characterization of a new carboxylesterase from Serratia sp. SES-01: comparison with Escherichia coli BioHe enzyme - Kwon_2009_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_19_147
Author(s) : Kwon MA , Kim HS , Oh JY , Song BK , Song JK
Ref : J Microbiol Biotechnol , 19 :147 , 2009
Abstract : The carboxylesterase-encoding gene (bioHs) of a newly isolated strain, Serratia sp. SES-01, was cloned from the genomic DNA library by detecting formation of transparent halo around the colony on LB-tributyrin agar plates. The amino acid sequence of BioHs was highly similar to the members of the BioH enzyme family involved in the biotin biosynthetic pathway; it showed the highest similarity (91%) with that of Serratia proteamaculans. To compare BioHs with other BioH enzymes, the relatively well-known bioHe gene of E. coli was cloned with PCR. After we achieved high-level expression of soluble BioHs and BioHe through the exploration of different culture conditions, the purified BioHs and BioHe enzymes were characterized in terms of specificity, activity, and stability. BioHe was generally more robust to a change in temperature and pH and an addition of organic solvents than BioHs. The two enzymes exhibited a strong preference for carboxylesterase rather than for thioesterase and were optimal at relatively low temperatures (20-40 degrees ) and alkaline pHs (7.5-9.0). The results in this study strongly suggested that both the BioHs and BioHe enzymes would be potential candidates for use as a carboxylesterase in many industrial applications.
ESTHER : Kwon_2009_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_19_147
PubMedSearch : Kwon_2009_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_19_147
PubMedID: 19307763
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9entr-b0m0h6

Title : High-level expression and characterization of Fusarium solani cutinase in Pichia pastoris - Kwon_2009_Protein.Expr.Purif_68_104
Author(s) : Kwon MA , Kim HS , Yang TH , Song BK , Song JK
Ref : Protein Expr Purif , 68 :104 , 2009
Abstract : High-level extracellular production of Fusarium solani cutinase was achieved using a Pichia pastoris expression system. The cutinase-encoding gene was cloned into pPICZalphaA with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor signal sequence and methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase promoter by two different ways. The additional sequences of the c-myc epitope and (His)6-tag of the vector were fused to the C-terminus of cutinase, while the other expression vector was constructed without any additional sequence. P. pastoris expressing the non-tagged cutinase exhibited about two- and threefold higher values of protein amount and cutinase activity in the culture supernatant, respectively. After simple purification by diafiltration process, both cutinases were much the same in the specific activity and the biochemical properties such as the substrate specificity and the effects of temperature and pH. In conclusion, the high-level secretion of F. solani cutinase in P. pastoris was demonstrated for the first time and would be a promising alternative to many expression systems previously used for the large-scale production of F. solani cutinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as Escherichia coli.
ESTHER : Kwon_2009_Protein.Expr.Purif_68_104
PubMedSearch : Kwon_2009_Protein.Expr.Purif_68_104
PubMedID: 19580870
Gene_locus related to this paper: fusso-cutas

Title : Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of LC15-0444, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, after multiple dosing in healthy volunteers - Lim_2009_Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol_68_883
Author(s) : Lim KS , Cho JY , Kim BH , Kim JR , Kim HS , Kim DK , Kim SH , Yim HJ , Lee SH , Shin SG , Jang IJ , Yu KS
Ref : British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , 68 :883 , 2009
Abstract : WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: * The importance of efficient drug development using biomarkers has been increasingly emphasized, from preclinical studies to clinical trials. * However, as yet few validated or qualified biomarkers are used in early-stage drug development in terms of clinical pharmacology and disease pathophysiology. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: * This first-time-in-human study provides evidence of the pharmacological activity of LC15-0444 in humans, by using dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity and active glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations. * LC15-0444 possesses pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics that support a once-daily dosing regimen. AIMS: LC15-0444 is a selective and competitive inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV with potential for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. The aim was to investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles after multiple oral ascending doses of LC15-0444 in healthy male subjects. METHODS: A dose block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study was performed in three groups with 10 subjects (eight for active drug; two for placebo) per group; each group received 200, 400 or 600 mg of LC15-0444 once daily for 10 days. Blood and urine samples were collected up to 24 h after the first dosing and up to 72 h after the last dosing. RESULTS: The LC15-0444 concentration-time profiles exhibited characteristics of multicompartment disposition. No dose- or time-dependent change in PK parameters was observed. Mean elimination half-life was in a range 16.6-20.1 h in the dose groups. Mean renal clearance and fraction of unchanged drug excreted in urine was 18.6-21.9 and 0.40-0.48 l h(-1), respectively. In the steady state, mean accumulation ratios by dose groups were between 1.22 and 1.31. More than 80% inhibition of DPP IV activity from baseline was sustained for >24 h in all dose groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of the pharmacological activity of LC15-0444 in humans. LC15-0444 possesses PK and PD characteristics that support a once-daily dosing regimen.
ESTHER : Lim_2009_Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol_68_883
PubMedSearch : Lim_2009_Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol_68_883
PubMedID: 20002082

Title : Comparative homology modeling-inspired protein engineering for improvement of catalytic activity of Mugil cephalus epoxide hydrolase - Choi_2009_Biotechnol.Lett_31_1617
Author(s) : Choi SH , Kim HS , Lee EY
Ref : Biotechnol Lett , 31 :1617 , 2009
Abstract : The epoxide hydrolase (EH) of a marine fish, Mugil cephalus, was engineered to improve the catalytic activity based on comparative homology modeling. The 3-D crystal structure of the EH from Aspergillus niger was used as a template. A triple point mutant, F193Y for spatial orientation of the nucleophile (D199), W200L for removing electron density overlap between W200 and Y348, and E378D for good charge relay in the active site, was developed. The initial hydrolysis rate, the reaction time to reach 98 %ee, and yield were enhanced up to 35-fold, 26-fold and 32%, respectively, by homology modeling-inspired site-directed mutagenesis of M. cephalus EH.
ESTHER : Choi_2009_Biotechnol.Lett_31_1617
PubMedSearch : Choi_2009_Biotechnol.Lett_31_1617
PubMedID: 19547925

Title : Adenoviral gene transfer of acetylcholinesterase T subunit in the hypothalamus potentiates electroacupuncture analgesia in rats - Kim_2009_Genes.Brain.Behav_8_174
Author(s) : Kim SK , Park JY , Koo BH , Lee JH , Kim HS , Choi WK , Shim I , Lee H , Hong MC , Shin MK , Min BI , Bae H
Ref : Genes Brain Behav , 8 :174 , 2009
Abstract : Our previous studies, using cDNA microarray and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, showed that acetylcholinesterase T subunit (AChET) gene was more abundantly expressed in the hypothalamus of the responder rats that were sensitive to electroacupuncture (EA) in the tail flick latency (TFL) test than in that of the non-responder rats that were insensitive to EA. In this study, we hypothesized that the expression of the AChET gene in the hypothalamus modulates EA analgesia in rats. To explore the hypothesis, we constructed an AChET-encoding adenovirus and a control virus expressing only green fluorescence protein, either of which was then injected into the hypothalamus of Sprague-Dawley rats. The hypothalamic activity of acetylcholinesterase was significantly higher in rats that were injected with the AChET virus than in rats that were injected with the control virus. The basal pain threshold measured by a TFL test was not changed by microinjection of AChET or control virus into the hypothalamus when EA treatment was not conducted. However, the analgesic effect of EA was significantly enhanced from 7 days after microinjection of the AChET virus into the hypothalamus but not after injection of the control virus. Furthermore, expression of the AChET in the hypothalamus did not affect body core temperature, body weight, motor function or learning and memory ability. Taken together, these results suggest that adenoviral expression of the AChET gene in the hypothalamus potentiates EA analgesia in rats without apparent side-effects.
ESTHER : Kim_2009_Genes.Brain.Behav_8_174
PubMedSearch : Kim_2009_Genes.Brain.Behav_8_174
PubMedID: 19077179

Title : BT-11 improves stress-induced memory impairments through increment of glucose utilization and total neural cell adhesion molecule levels in rat brains - Shin_2009_J.Neurosci.Res_87_260
Author(s) : Shin KY , Won BY , Heo C , Kim HJ , Jang DP , Park CH , Kim S , Kim HS , Kim YB , Lee HG , Lee SH , Cho ZH , Suh YH
Ref : Journal of Neuroscience Research , 87 :260 , 2009
Abstract : In Oriental medicine, roots of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow have been known to be an important herb that exhibits sedative effects in insomnia, palpitation with anxiety, restlessness, and disorientation in humans. We previously reported that BT-11, extracted from those roots, improved scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats and inhibited acetylcholinesterase activities in vitro. Therefore, we proposed that BT-11 could remedy stress-induced memory deficits in rats. In this study, the stress-induced memory impairments in rats were significantly reversed almost to the control level by BT-11 treatment. To seek an active component of BT-11 that plays an important role in antipsychotic effects, we compared BT-11 with 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid (TMCA), which is a constituent of those root extracts. However, the effects of TMCA were less or were not consistent with those of BT-11 in some of tests. In particular, BT-11 reversed the stress-induced reduction of glucose utilization by [(18)fluorodeoxyglucose]FDG-PET and the levels of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in rat brains to the control levels, whereas TMCA did not. Therefore, BT-11 improved stress-induced memory impairments through increment of glucose utilization and total NCAM levels in rat brains. In conclusion, BT-11 may be strongly effective against stress-induced amnesia in rats, through the combined effects of TMCA and other active components of BT-11.
ESTHER : Shin_2009_J.Neurosci.Res_87_260
PubMedSearch : Shin_2009_J.Neurosci.Res_87_260
PubMedID: 18712849

Title : Neuroligin-1 is required for normal expression of LTP and associative fear memory in the amygdala of adult animals - Kim_2008_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_105_9087
Author(s) : Kim J , Jung SY , Lee YK , Park S , Choi JS , Lee CJ , Kim HS , Choi YB , Scheiffele P , Bailey CH , Kandel ER , Kim JH
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 105 :9087 , 2008
Abstract : Neuroligin-1 is a potent trigger for the de novo formation of synaptic connections, and it has recently been suggested that it is required for the maturation of functionally competent excitatory synapses. Despite evidence for the role of neuroligin-1 in specifying excitatory synapses, the underlying molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences that neuroligin-1 may have at mature synapses of normal adult animals remain unknown. By silencing endogenous neuroligin-1 acutely in the amygdala of live behaving animals, we have found that neuroligin-1 is required for the storage of associative fear memory. Subsequent cellular physiological studies showed that suppression of neuroligin-1 reduces NMDA receptor-mediated currents and prevents the expression of long-term potentiation without affecting basal synaptic connectivity at the thalamo-amygdala pathway. These results indicate that persistent expression of neuroligin-1 is required for the maintenance of NMDAR-mediated synaptic transmission, which enables normal development of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory in the amygdala of adult animals.
ESTHER : Kim_2008_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_105_9087
PubMedSearch : Kim_2008_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_105_9087
PubMedID: 18579781

Title : Biosynthesis of (R)-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol from racemic styrene oxide by using bacterial and marine fish epoxide hydrolases - Kim_2008_Biotechnol.Lett_30_127
Author(s) : Kim HS , Lee OK , Hwang S , Kim BJ , Lee EY
Ref : Biotechnol Lett , 30 :127 , 2008
Abstract : Enantio-convergent hydrolysis of racemic styrene oxides was achieved to prepare enantiopure (R)-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol by using two recombinant epoxide hydrolases (EHs) of a bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus, and a marine fish, Mugil cephalus. The recombinant C. crescentus EH primarily attacked the benzylic carbon of (S)-styrene oxide, while the M. cephalus EH preferentially attacked the terminal carbon of (R)-styrene oxide, thus leading to the formation of (R)-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol as the main product. (R)-Phenyl-1,2-ethanediol was obtained with 90% enantiomeric excess and yield as high as 94% from 50 mM racemic styrene oxides in a one-pot process.
ESTHER : Kim_2008_Biotechnol.Lett_30_127
PubMedSearch : Kim_2008_Biotechnol.Lett_30_127
PubMedID: 17665136

Title : Effect of itopride hydrochloride on the ileal and colonic motility in guinea pig in vitro - Lim_2008_Yonsei.Med.J_49_472
Author(s) : Lim HC , Kim YG , Lim JH , Kim HS , Park H
Ref : Yonsei Med J , 49 :472 , 2008
Abstract : PURPOSE: Itopride hydrochloride (itopride) inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antagonizes dopamine D(2) receptor, and has been used as a gastroprokinetic agent. However, its prokinetic effect on the small bowel or colon has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of itopride on motor functions of the ileum and colon in guinea pigs. MATERIALS AND
METHODS: The distal ileum was excised and the activity of peristaltic contraction was determined by measuring the amplitude and propagation velocity of peristaltic contraction. The distal colon was removed and connected to the chamber containing Krebs-Henseleit solution (K-H solution). Artificial fecal matter was inserted into the oral side of the lumen, and moved toward the anal side by intraluminal perfusion via peristaltic pump. Colonic transit times were measured by the time required for the artificial feces to move a total length of 10 cm with 2-cm intervals.
RESULTS: In the ileum, itopride accelerated peristaltic velocity at higher dosage (10(-10)-10(-6) M) whereas neostigmine accelerated it only with a lower dosage (10(-10)-10(-9) M). Dopamine (10(-8) M) decelerated the velocity that was recovered by itopride infusion. Itopride and neostigmine significantly shortened colonic transit at a higher dosage (10(-10)-10(-6) M). Dopamine (10(-8) M) delayed colonic transit time that was also recovered after infusion of itopride. CONCLUSION: Itopride has prokinetic effects on both the ileum and colon, which are regulated through inhibitory effects on AChE and antagonistic effects on dopamine D(2) receptor.
ESTHER : Lim_2008_Yonsei.Med.J_49_472
PubMedSearch : Lim_2008_Yonsei.Med.J_49_472
PubMedID: 18581598

Title : Lipase activity and tacrolimus production in Streptomyces clavuligerus CKD 1119 mutant strains - Kim_2007_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_17_1638
Author(s) : Kim HS , Park YI
Ref : J Microbiol Biotechnol , 17 :1638 , 2007
Abstract : The effect of carbon sources on tacrolimus production by a mutant strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus CKD 1119, an isolate from soil, was examined. Among the carbohydrates and oils tested in this work, a mixed carbon source of soluble starch and corn oil was the best. An analysis of the culture kinetics also showed that, in contrast to the carbohydrates, the corn oil was consumed later in the antibiotic production phase, implying that the oil substrate was the principal carbon source for the biosynthesis of tacrolimus, and this was directly proven by experiments using 14C-glucose and 14C-oleate substrates. Furthermore, corn oil induced the formation of lipase by the mutant strain, whereas the addition of glucose significantly repressed lipase activity. The lipase activity exhibited by the FK-506-overproducing mutants was also observed to be directly proportional to their tacrolimus yield, indicating that a high lipase activity is itself a crucial factor for tacrolimus production. A feasibility study with a 200-l pilot-scale fermentor and the best strain (Tc-XII- 15322) identified in this work revealed a high volumetric and specific productivity of about 495 mg/l and 0.34 mg/mg dry mycelium, respectively.
ESTHER : Kim_2007_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_17_1638
PubMedSearch : Kim_2007_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_17_1638
PubMedID: 18156779

Title : Cloning, expression and enantioselective hydrolytic catalysis of a microsomal epoxide hydrolase from a marine fish, Mugil cephalus - Lee_2007_Biotechnol.Lett_29_237
Author(s) : Lee SJ , Kim HS , Kim SJ , Park S , Kim BJ , Shuler ML , Lee EY
Ref : Biotechnol Lett , 29 :237 , 2007
Abstract : The cDNA of a marine fish microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) gene from Mugil cephalus was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. The homology model for the mEH of M. cephalus showed a characteristic structure of alpha/beta-hydrolase-fold main domain with a lid domain over the active site. The characteristic catalytic triad, consisting of Asp(238), His(444), and Glu(417), was highly conserved. The cloned mEH gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant mEH exhibited (R)-preferred hydrolysis activity toward racemic styrene oxide. We obtained enantiopure (S)-styrene oxide with a high enantiopurity of more than 99% enantiomeric excess and yield of 15.4% by batch kinetic resolution of 20 mM racemic styrene oxide.
ESTHER : Lee_2007_Biotechnol.Lett_29_237
PubMedSearch : Lee_2007_Biotechnol.Lett_29_237
PubMedID: 17151961
Gene_locus related to this paper: mucge-c4paw7

Title : Evolution of sensory complexity recorded in a myxobacterial genome - Goldman_2006_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_103_15200
Author(s) : Goldman BS , Nierman WC , Kaiser D , Slater SC , Durkin AS , Eisen JA , Ronning CM , Barbazuk WB , Blanchard M , Field C , Halling C , Hinkle G , Iartchuk O , Kim HS , Mackenzie C , Madupu R , Miller N , Shvartsbeyn A , Sullivan SA , Vaudin M , Wiegand R , Kaplan HB
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 103 :15200 , 2006
Abstract : Myxobacteria are single-celled, but social, eubacterial predators. Upon starvation they build multicellular fruiting bodies using a developmental program that progressively changes the pattern of cell movement and the repertoire of genes expressed. Development terminates with spore differentiation and is coordinated by both diffusible and cell-bound signals. The growth and development of Myxococcus xanthus is regulated by the integration of multiple signals from outside the cells with physiological signals from within. A collection of M. xanthus cells behaves, in many respects, like a multicellular organism. For these reasons M. xanthus offers unparalleled access to a regulatory network that controls development and that organizes cell movement on surfaces. The genome of M. xanthus is large (9.14 Mb), considerably larger than the other sequenced delta-proteobacteria. We suggest that gene duplication and divergence were major contributors to genomic expansion from its progenitor. More than 1,500 duplications specific to the myxobacterial lineage were identified, representing >15% of the total genes. Genes were not duplicated at random; rather, genes for cell-cell signaling, small molecule sensing, and integrative transcription control were amplified selectively. Families of genes encoding the production of secondary metabolites are overrepresented in the genome but may have been received by horizontal gene transfer and are likely to be important for predation.
ESTHER : Goldman_2006_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_103_15200
PubMedSearch : Goldman_2006_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_103_15200
PubMedID: 17015832
Gene_locus related to this paper: myxxa-q4vps9 , myxxa-Q8VQX5 , myxxa-Q84FB1 , myxxa-Q84FE8 , myxxd-q1cvh4 , myxxd-q1cvn3 , myxxd-q1cvz5 , myxxd-q1cw78 , myxxd-q1cwf6 , myxxd-q1cwl7 , myxxd-q1cwt9 , myxxd-q1cxe9 , myxxd-q1cxf0 , myxxd-q1cxj1 , myxxd-q1cze1 , myxxd-q1czi2 , myxxd-q1czk0 , myxxd-q1czr4 , myxxd-q1czy4 , myxxd-q1d0l8 , myxxd-q1d0y6 , myxxd-q1d1c9 , myxxd-q1d2h6 , myxxd-q1d2h8 , myxxd-q1d2m8 , myxxd-q1d2n2 , myxxd-q1d3m2 , myxxd-q1d5c1 , myxxd-q1d6k0 , myxxd-q1d6z6 , myxxd-q1d8v0 , myxxd-q1d145 , myxxd-q1d167 , myxxd-q1d458 , myxxd-q1d796 , myxxd-q1da49 , myxxd-q1dbk1 , myxxd-q1dbn0 , myxxd-q1dbn1 , myxxd-q1dbn9 , myxxd-q1dbp0 , myxxd-q1dbs7 , myxxd-q1dcd0 , myxxd-q1dcj1 , myxxd-q1ddx1 , myxxd-q1ddx8 , myxxd-q1de36 , myxxd-q1det8 , myxxd-q1dey9 , myxxd-q1df33 , myxxd-q1dfs1 , myxxd-q1dfu0 , myxxd-q1dfy2 , myxxd-q1ddu9 , myxxd-q1d1h0 , myxxd-q1cwu7 , myxxd-q1d790

Title : Bacterial genome adaptation to niches: divergence of the potential virulence genes in three Burkholderia species of different survival strategies - Kim_2005_BMC.Genomics_6_174
Author(s) : Kim HS , Schell MA , Yu Y , Ulrich RL , Sarria SH , Nierman WC , DeShazer D
Ref : BMC Genomics , 6 :174 , 2005
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Two closely related species Burkholderia mallei (Bm) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) are serious human health hazards and are potential bio-warfare agents, whereas another closely related species Burkholderia thailandensis (Bt) is a non-pathogenic saprophyte. To investigate the genomic factors resulting in such a dramatic difference, we first identified the Bm genes responsive to the mouse environment, and then examined the divergence of these genes in Bp and Bt. RESULTS: The genes down-expressed, which largely encode cell growth-related proteins, are conserved well in all three species, whereas those up-expressed, which include potential virulence genes, are less well conserved or absent notably in Bt. However, a substantial number of up-expressed genes is still conserved in Bt. Bm and Bp further diverged from each other in a small number of genes resulting from unit number changes in simple sequence repeats (ssr) in the homologs. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that divergent evolution of a small set of genes, rather than acquisition or loss of pathogenic islands, is associated with the development of different life styles in these bacteria of similar genomic contents. Further divergence between Bm and Bp mediated by ssr changes may reflect different adaptive processes of Bm and Bp fine-tuning into their host environments.
ESTHER : Kim_2005_BMC.Genomics_6_174
PubMedSearch : Kim_2005_BMC.Genomics_6_174
PubMedID: 16336651
Gene_locus related to this paper: burma-metx , burp1-q3jvq2 , burta-q2t424 , burta-q2t934 , burta-hboh , burta-q2stm9

Title : Genomic sequence of the pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus - Nierman_2005_Nature_438_1151
Author(s) : Nierman WC , Pain A , Anderson MJ , Wortman JR , Kim HS , Arroyo J , Berriman M , Abe K , Archer DB , Bermejo C , Bennett J , Bowyer P , Chen D , Collins M , Coulsen R , Davies R , Dyer PS , Farman M , Fedorova N , Feldblyum TV , Fischer R , Fosker N , Fraser A , Garcia JL , Garcia MJ , Goble A , Goldman GH , Gomi K , Griffith-Jones S , Gwilliam R , Haas B , Haas H , Harris D , Horiuchi H , Huang J , Humphray S , Jimenez J , Keller N , Khouri H , Kitamoto K , Kobayashi T , Konzack S , Kulkarni R , Kumagai T , Lafon A , Latge JP , Li W , Lord A , Lu C , Majoros WH , May GS , Miller BL , Mohamoud Y , Molina M , Monod M , Mouyna I , Mulligan S , Murphy L , O'Neil S , Paulsen I , Penalva MA , Pertea M , Price C , Pritchard BL , Quail MA , Rabbinowitsch E , Rawlins N , Rajandream MA , Reichard U , Renauld H , Robson GD , Rodriguez de Cordoba S , Rodriguez-Pena JM , Ronning CM , Rutter S , Salzberg SL , Sanchez M , Sanchez-Ferrero JC , Saunders D , Seeger K , Squares R , Squares S , Takeuchi M , Tekaia F , Turner G , Vazquez de Aldana CR , Weidman J , White O , Woodward J , Yu JH , Fraser C , Galagan JE , Asai K , Machida M , Hall N , Barrell B , Denning DW
Ref : Nature , 438 :1151 , 2005
Abstract : Aspergillus fumigatus is exceptional among microorganisms in being both a primary and opportunistic pathogen as well as a major allergen. Its conidia production is prolific, and so human respiratory tract exposure is almost constant. A. fumigatus is isolated from human habitats and vegetable compost heaps. In immunocompromised individuals, the incidence of invasive infection can be as high as 50% and the mortality rate is often about 50% (ref. 2). The interaction of A. fumigatus and other airborne fungi with the immune system is increasingly linked to severe asthma and sinusitis. Although the burden of invasive disease caused by A. fumigatus is substantial, the basic biology of the organism is mostly obscure. Here we show the complete 29.4-megabase genome sequence of the clinical isolate Af293, which consists of eight chromosomes containing 9,926 predicted genes. Microarray analysis revealed temperature-dependent expression of distinct sets of genes, as well as 700 A. fumigatus genes not present or significantly diverged in the closely related sexual species Neosartorya fischeri, many of which may have roles in the pathogenicity phenotype. The Af293 genome sequence provides an unparalleled resource for the future understanding of this remarkable fungus.
ESTHER : Nierman_2005_Nature_438_1151
PubMedSearch : Nierman_2005_Nature_438_1151
PubMedID: 16372009
Gene_locus related to this paper: aspfc-b0xp50 , aspfc-b0xu40 , aspfc-b0xzj6 , aspfc-dpp5 , aspfu-apth1 , aspfu-axe1 , aspfu-CBPYA , aspfu-faec , aspfu-kex1 , aspfu-ppme1 , aspfu-q4wa39 , aspfu-q4wa78 , aspfu-q4wf56 , aspfu-q4wg73 , aspfu-q4wk44 , aspfu-q4wkh6 , aspfu-q4wnx3 , aspfu-q4wpb9 , aspfu-q4wqv2 , aspfu-q4wub2 , aspfu-q4wxr1 , aspfu-q4x0n6 , aspfu-q4x1n0 , aspfu-q5vjg7 , neofi-a1cwa6 , neofi-a1dfr9 , aspfm-a0a084bf80 , aspfu-fmac

Title : Production of (S)-styrene oxide by recombinant Pichia pastoris containing epoxide hydrolase from Rhodotorula glutinis - Lee_2004_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_35_624
Author(s) : Lee EY , Yoo SS , Kim HS , Lee SJ , Oh YK , Park S
Ref : Enzyme Microb Technol , 35 :624 , 2004
Abstract : A recombinant yeast Pichia pastoris carrying the gene encoding epoxide hydrolase (EH) of Rhodotorula glutinis was constructed and used for producing (S)-styrene oxide by enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic mixtures of styrene oxides. The EH gene was obtained by PCR amplification of cDNA of R. glutinis and integrated into the chromosomal DNA of P. pastoris to express EH under the control of AOX promoter. The recombinant yeast has a high hydrolytic activity toward (R)-styrene oxide as 358 nmol min-1 (mg cell)-1, which is about 10-fold higher than that of wild type R. glutinis. When kinetic resolution was conducted by the recombinant yeast at a high initial epoxides concentration of 526 mM that constitutes an epoxidewater two-liquid phase, chiral (S)-styrene oxide with an enantiomeric excess (e.e.) higher than 98% was obtained as 36% yield (theoretical, 50%) at 16 h
ESTHER : Lee_2004_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_35_624
PubMedSearch : Lee_2004_Enzyme.Microb.Technol_35_624
Gene_locus related to this paper: rhogl-EPH1

Title : Structural flexibility in the Burkholderia mallei genome - Nierman_2004_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_101_14246
Author(s) : Nierman WC , DeShazer D , Kim HS , Tettelin H , Nelson KE , Feldblyum T , Ulrich RL , Ronning CM , Brinkac LM , Daugherty SC , Davidsen TD , DeBoy RT , Dimitrov G , Dodson RJ , Durkin AS , Gwinn ML , Haft DH , Khouri H , Kolonay JF , Madupu R , Mohammoud Y , Nelson WC , Radune D , Romero CM , Sarria S , Selengut J , Shamblin C , Sullivan SA , White O , Yu Y , Zafar N , Zhou L , Fraser CM
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 101 :14246 , 2004
Abstract : The complete genome sequence of Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 provides insight into this highly infectious bacterium's pathogenicity and evolutionary history. B. mallei, the etiologic agent of glanders, has come under renewed scientific investigation as a result of recent concerns about its past and potential future use as a biological weapon. Genome analysis identified a number of putative virulence factors whose function was supported by comparative genome hybridization and expression profiling of the bacterium in hamster liver in vivo. The genome contains numerous insertion sequence elements that have mediated extensive deletions and rearrangements of the genome relative to Burkholderia pseudomallei. The genome also contains a vast number (>12,000) of simple sequence repeats. Variation in simple sequence repeats in key genes can provide a mechanism for generating antigenic variation that may account for the mammalian host's inability to mount a durable adaptive immune response to a B. mallei infection.
ESTHER : Nierman_2004_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_101_14246
PubMedSearch : Nierman_2004_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_101_14246
PubMedID: 15377793
Gene_locus related to this paper: burma-a5j5w8 , burma-a5tj72 , burma-a5tq93 , burma-metx , burma-q62a61 , burma-q62ar2.1 , burma-q62ar2.2 , burma-q62ax8 , burma-q62b60 , burma-q62b79 , burma-q62bh9 , burma-q62bl4 , burma-q62bl7 , burma-q62c00 , burma-q62cg5 , burma-q62d41 , burma-q62d56 , burma-q62d83 , burma-q62dg2 , burma-q62du7 , burma-q62e67 , burma-q62eb8 , burma-q62ed8 , burma-q62f28 , burma-q62fx7 , burma-q62g26 , burma-q62gx9 , burma-q62gy2 , burma-q62hq2 , burma-q62i62 , burma-q62ib8 , burma-q62ie8 , burma-q62j07 , burma-q62j15 , burma-q62jn5 , burma-q62jy7 , burma-q62kb7 , burma-q62kg0 , burma-q62kh9 , burma-q62lp7 , burma-q62m40 , burma-q62mc3 , burma-q62mf4 , burma-q62mq7 , burma-q629m1 , burma-q629p4 , burma-q629u0 , burps-q3v7s4 , burps-hboh

Title : The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment - Clark_2003_Genome.Res_13_2265
Author(s) : Clark HF , Gurney AL , Abaya E , Baker K , Baldwin D , Brush J , Chen J , Chow B , Chui C , Crowley C , Currell B , Deuel B , Dowd P , Eaton D , Foster J , Grimaldi C , Gu Q , Hass PE , Heldens S , Huang A , Kim HS , Klimowski L , Jin Y , Johnson S , Lee J , Lewis L , Liao D , Mark M , Robbie E , Sanchez C , Schoenfeld J , Seshagiri S , Simmons L , Singh J , Smith V , Stinson J , Vagts A , Vandlen R , Watanabe C , Wieand D , Woods K , Xie MH , Yansura D , Yi S , Yu G , Yuan J , Zhang M , Zhang Z , Goddard A , Wood WI , Godowski P , Gray A
Ref : Genome Res , 13 :2265 , 2003
Abstract : A large-scale effort, termed the Secreted Protein Discovery Initiative (SPDI), was undertaken to identify novel secreted and transmembrane proteins. In the first of several approaches, a biological signal sequence trap in yeast cells was utilized to identify cDNA clones encoding putative secreted proteins. A second strategy utilized various algorithms that recognize features such as the hydrophobic properties of signal sequences to identify putative proteins encoded by expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from human cDNA libraries. A third approach surveyed ESTs for protein sequence similarity to a set of known receptors and their ligands with the BLAST algorithm. Finally, both signal-sequence prediction algorithms and BLAST were used to identify single exons of potential genes from within human genomic sequence. The isolation of full-length cDNA clones for each of these candidate genes resulted in the identification of >1000 novel proteins. A total of 256 of these cDNAs are still novel, including variants and novel genes, per the most recent GenBank release version. The success of this large-scale effort was assessed by a bioinformatics analysis of the proteins through predictions of protein domains, subcellular localizations, and possible functional roles. The SPDI collection should facilitate efforts to better understand intercellular communication, may lead to new understandings of human diseases, and provides potential opportunities for the development of therapeutics.
ESTHER : Clark_2003_Genome.Res_13_2265
PubMedSearch : Clark_2003_Genome.Res_13_2265
PubMedID: 12975309
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES3 , human-CES4A

Title : Hepatic lipase C514T polymorphism and its relationship with plasma HDL-C levels and coronary artery disease in Koreans - Park_2003_J.Biochem.Mol.Biol_36_237
Author(s) : Park KW , Choi JH , Chae IH , Cho HJ , Oh S , Kim HS , Lee MM , Park YB , Choi YS
Ref : J Biochem Mol Biol , 36 :237 , 2003
Abstract : Hepatic lipase is a key enzyme that is involved in HDL-C metabolism. The goal of this study was to find out the frequency of the hepatic lipase C514T polymorphism, and evaluate its relationship with plasma HDL-C levels and coronary artery disease (CAD) in Koreans. Two hundred and twenty four subjects with no previous history of lipid-lowering therapy, 118 patients with significant CAD, and 106 controls were examined with respect to their genotypes, lipid profiles, and other risk factors for CAD. The frequency of the -514T allele was 0.37 in men and 0.35 in women, which were higher than the frequency that was reported in Caucasians, but lower than the frequency that was reported in African-Americans. The -514T allele was associated with significantly higher HDL-C levels in women. After controlling for age, gender, BMI, DM, and smoking, the non-CC genotype was significantly associated with HDL-C levels, and explained 6% of the HDL-C variation in this study. When the genotypes-distribution was compared between the CAD and non-CAD patients, the hepatic lipase C-514T polymorphism was not associated with the presence of CAD. Koreans have a higher frequency of the hepatic lipase gene 514T allele than Caucasians, and the -514T allele is associated with higher plasma HDL-C levels in Korean women, and perhaps non-smoking men. However, our data does not suggest an association between the polymorphism and an increased risk of CAD.
ESTHER : Park_2003_J.Biochem.Mol.Biol_36_237
PubMedSearch : Park_2003_J.Biochem.Mol.Biol_36_237
PubMedID: 12689525

Title : Novel cognitive improving and neuroprotective activities of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow extract, BT-11 - Park_2002_J.Neurosci.Res_70_484
Author(s) : Park CH , Choi SH , Koo JW , Seo JH , Kim HS , Jeong SJ , Suh YH
Ref : Journal of Neuroscience Research , 70 :484 , 2002
Abstract : We carried out this study to search a new active constituent that had cognitive enhancing activity and low side effects from natural source. We found that the extract of dried root of Polygala tenuifolia Willdenow (BT-11, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) could significantly reverse scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in rat, using a passive avoidance and a water maze test. We also investigated the effects of BT-11 on neurotoxicity induced by glutamate (Glu) and toxic metabolites of amyloid precursor protein (APP) such as amyloid beta protein (A beta) and C-terminal fragment of APP (CT) in primary cultured neurons of rat. The pretreatment of BT-11 (0.5, 3, and 5 micro g/ml) significantly reduced cell death induced by Glu (1 mM), A beta (10 micro M) and CT105 (10 micro M) in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, BT-11 inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in a dose-dependent and non-competitive manner (IC(50) value; 263.7 micro g/ml). Our novel findings suggest the possibility that this extract may have some protective effects against neuronal death and cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD), or other neurodegenerative diseases related to excitotoxicity and central cholinergic dysfunction.
ESTHER : Park_2002_J.Neurosci.Res_70_484
PubMedSearch : Park_2002_J.Neurosci.Res_70_484
PubMedID: 12391609

Title : Some Biochemical Evidence on the Selective Insecticide Toxicity between the Two Aphids, Aphis citricola and Myzus malisuctus (Homoptera: Phididae), and Their Predator, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) - Cho_2002_J.Asia.Pac.Entomol_5_49
Author(s) : Cho JR , Kim YJ , Kim HS , Yoo JK
Ref : Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology , 5 :49 , 2002
Abstract : This experiment was carried out to compare the differences in biochemical enzyme activity on the selective insecticide toxicity between the two species of aphid, Aphis citricola van der Goot and Myzus malisuctus Matsumura, and their predator, Harmonia axyridis Pallas. Esterase activities between the two species of aphids and between the two stages of H. axyridis were significant different. Glutathione S-traasferase (GST) activity toward 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) was much higher than 1, 2-dichloro-4-nirobenzene (DCNB) in all species tested. No DCNB conjugation was detected in A. citricola and M. malisuctus. The predator, H. axyridis, had much higher GST activity than the preys, A. citricola and M. malisuctus. GST activity toward CDNB in H. axyridis adult was highest, even 6.2-fold higher activity than H. axyridis larva. M. malisuctus had much higher GST activity than A. citricola. The degree of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition by phosphamidon among all three species tested was significantly varied. The concentration of phosphamidon required for 50% AChE inhibition was lowest in H. axyridis larva, while highest in M. malisuctus. There fore, elevated GST activity and target-site insensitivity may be largely associated with the differential susceptibility between larva and adult of H. axyridis. However, differential susceptibility between A. citricola and M. malisuctus may be due to other various biochemical mechanisms responsible for the multiple selective toxicity, including elevated GST activity and target-site insensitivity.
ESTHER : Cho_2002_J.Asia.Pac.Entomol_5_49
PubMedSearch : Cho_2002_J.Asia.Pac.Entomol_5_49

Title : Identification of deoxynivalenol- and nivalenol-producing chemotypes of Gibberella zeae by using PCR - Lee_2001_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_67_2966
Author(s) : Lee T , Oh DW , Kim HS , Lee J , Kim YH , Yun SH , Lee YW
Ref : Applied Environmental Microbiology , 67 :2966 , 2001
Abstract : Gibberella zeae, a major cause of cereal scab, may be divided into two chemotypes based on production of the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). We cloned and sequenced the gene cluster for trichothecene biosynthesis from each chemotype. G. zeae H-11 is a DON producer isolated from corn, and G. zeae 88-1 is a NIV producer from barley. We sequenced a 23-kb gene cluster from H-11 and a 26-kb cluster from 88-1, along with the unlinked Tri101 genes. Each gene cluster contained 10 Tri gene homologues in the same order and transcriptional directions as those of Fusarium sporotrichioides. Between H-11 and 88-1 all of the Tri homologues except Tri7 were conserved, with identities ranging from 88 to 98% and 82 to 99% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. The Tri7 sequences were only 80% identical at the nucleotide level. We aligned the Tri7 genes and found that the Tri7 open reading frame of H-11 carried several mutations and an insertion containing 10 copies of an 11-bp tandem repeat. The Tri7 gene from 88-1 carried neither the repeat nor the mutations. We assayed 100 G. zeae isolates of both chemotypes by PCR amplification with a primer pair derived from the Tri7 gene and could differentiate the chemotypes by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The PCR-based method developed in this study should provide a simple and reliable diagnostic tool for differentiating the two chemotypes of G. zeae.
ESTHER : Lee_2001_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_67_2966
PubMedSearch : Lee_2001_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_67_2966
PubMedID: 11425709
Gene_locus related to this paper: gibze-Q96W93 , gibze-TRI8

Title : Synthesis of tetrakis(multifluoro-4-pyridyl)porphin derivatives as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors - Moon_2000_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_10_1435
Author(s) : Moon SC , Shin JH , Jeong BH , Kim HS , Yu BS , Lee JS , Lee BS , Namgoong SK
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 10 :1435 , 2000
Abstract : New tetrakis(multifluoro-4-pyridyl)porphin derivatives (2-4) and water soluble porphyrin (5) were synthesized to investigate their interactions with acetylcholinesterase from electric eel. These compounds have been found to be the potent reversible inhibitors of the enzyme with Ki values of microM range. In addition, porphyrin (5) showed broad spectrum of anticancer activities.
ESTHER : Moon_2000_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_10_1435
PubMedSearch : Moon_2000_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_10_1435
PubMedID: 10888326

Title : Electrophoretic Pattern of Larval Esterases in Field and Laboratory-selected Strains of the Tobacco Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) - Cho_1999_J.Asia.Pac.Entomol_2_39
Author(s) : Cho JR , Kim YJ , Kim JJ , Kim HS , Yoo JK , Lee JO
Ref : Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology , 2 :39 , 1999
Abstract : This research was performed to find out and characterize the specific esterase isozymes related to OP and pyrethroid resistance in the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius). Two laboratory strains (DSR5 and CSR4) of S. litura, selected with deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl, had higher larval esterase activities than Hamancollected (HC) strain. Ten esterase isozymes were separated in the wild HC strain on 6.5% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (pH 8.3), but only 5 of them were detected in the two strains selected with insecticides. The isozymes were designated from E1 to E10 according to their mobility to cathode. E4 was stained more strongly in both laboratory-selected strains than in HC strain. The frequency of E2 in DSR5 strain was higher than in HC strain. E2 and E4 were proved to be arylesterase and carboxyesterase, respectively, according to enzyme inhibition tests. Thus decreased number and increased intensity of esterase bands in DSR5 and CSR4 strain may be associated with insecticide resistance, resulting from selections successively with insecticides for several generations.
ESTHER : Cho_1999_J.Asia.Pac.Entomol_2_39
PubMedSearch : Cho_1999_J.Asia.Pac.Entomol_2_39

Title : Insecticide Resistance in the Tobacco Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuiae) - Yonggyun_1998_J.Asia.Pac.Entomol_1_115
Author(s) : Yonggyun K , Cho JR , Lee J , Kang S , Han SC , Hong KJ , Kim HS , Yoo JK , Lee JO
Ref : Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology , 1 :115 , 1998
Abstract : Field populations of the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), showed resistance to commonly used insecticides. Development of resistance in the field populations to pyrethroids (cypermethrin, deltamethrin, ethofenprox, ethofenprox+PAP and fenvalerate) ranged from 100- to 2,700-fold, showing the highest resistance level to deltamethrin. Resistance to organophosphorus insecticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, EPN and pyraclofos) ranged from 2- to 32-fold with the highest level to chlorpyrifos. Resistance to carbamates (carbaryl and methomyl) ranged from 4- to 80-fold with the higher level to carbaryl. Detoxifying enzyme assays revealed that esterase and glutathione S-transferase activities were varied from 2- to 6-fold among the field populations. In addition, the bimolecular rate constants for inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by dichlorvos, eserine and monocrotophos showed 1.5-, 4.5- and 4.3-fold differences, respectively, between two different field populations. These results indicated that the broad spectrum of insecticide resistance observed in the filed populations was due to multiple resistance mechanisms, including increased detoxification of these insecticides and insensitive acetyl-cholinesterase.
ESTHER : Yonggyun_1998_J.Asia.Pac.Entomol_1_115
PubMedSearch : Yonggyun_1998_J.Asia.Pac.Entomol_1_115