Dong J

References (24)

Title : Efgartigimod is a new option for the treatment of thymoma associated myasthenia gravis: A case report - Wang_2024_Int.J.Surg.Case.Rep_115_109241
Author(s) : Wang S , Wang Q , Jin L , Dong J , Ding J
Ref : Int J Surg Case Rep , 115 :109241 , 2024
Abstract : INTRODUCTION: The perioperative efficacy and safety of efgartigimod in patients with thymoma associated myasthenia gravis have not been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We described the case of a 47-year-old woman who presented thymoma associated myasthenia gravis. Primarily, the patient was treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, immunosuppressive medications, and intravenous immunoglobulin. Unfortunately, the control of symptoms was unsatisfactory. The patient was treated with recommended dosage of efgartigimod (10 mg/kg administered as a 1 h intravenous infusion once weekly for 2 weeks) combined with immunosuppressive therapy. Consequently, improved outcomes and rapid clinical remission were observed. Then, modified subxiphoid thoracoscopic thymectomy was performed smoothly and the patient was discharged from hospital after recovery in short time. DISCUSSION: Administration of efgartigimod could control symptoms significantly and rapidly. Efgartigimod provides the opportunity of thymectomy in short time. Importantly, there was no any perioperative complication or any adverse event related to efgartigimod. CONCLUSION: The improved outcomes of the patient with thymoma associated myasthenia gravis highlight the importance of efgartigimod. Large-scale clinical trials are needed to validate the safety and efficacy of efgartigimod during the perioperative period of thymectomy.
ESTHER : Wang_2024_Int.J.Surg.Case.Rep_115_109241
PubMedSearch : Wang_2024_Int.J.Surg.Case.Rep_115_109241
PubMedID: 38219512

Title : Identification and analysis of the secretome of plant pathogenic fungi reveals lifestyle adaptation - Jia_2023_Front.Microbiol_14_1171618
Author(s) : Jia M , Gong X , Fan M , Liu H , Zhou H , Gu S , Liu Y , Dong J
Ref : Front Microbiol , 14 :1171618 , 2023
Abstract : The secretory proteome plays an important role in the pathogenesis of phytopathogenic fungi. However, the relationship between the large-scale secretome of phytopathogenic fungi and their lifestyle is not fully understood. In the present study, the secretomes of 150 plant pathogenic fungi were predicted and the characteristics associated with different lifestyles were investigated. In total, 94,974 secreted proteins (SPs) were predicted from these fungi. The number of the SPs ranged from 64 to 1,662. Among these fungi, hemibiotrophic fungi had the highest number (average of 970) and proportion (7.1%) of SPs. Functional annotation showed that hemibiotrophic and necrotroph fungi, differ from biotrophic and symbiotic fungi, contained much more carbohydrate enzymes, especially polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases. Furthermore, the core and lifestyle-specific SPs orthogroups were identified. Twenty-seven core orthogroups contained 16% of the total SPs and their motif function annotation was represented by serine carboxypeptidase, carboxylesterase and asparaginase. In contrast, 97 lifestyle-specific orthogroups contained only 1% of the total SPs, with diverse functions such as PAN_AP in hemibiotroph-specific and flavin monooxygenases in necrotroph-specific. Moreover, obligate biotrophic fungi had the largest number of effectors (average of 150), followed by hemibiotrophic fungi (average of 120). Among these effectors, 4,155 had known functional annotation and pectin lyase had the highest proportion in the functionally annotated effectors. In addition, 32 sets of RNA-Seq data on pathogen-host interactions were collected and the expression levels of SPs were higher than that of non-SPs, and the expression level of effector genes was higher in biotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungi than in necrotrophic fungi, while secretase genes were highly expressed in necrotrophic fungi. Finally, the secretory activity of five predicted SPs from Setosphearia turcica was experimentally verified. In conclusion, our results provide a foundation for the study of pathogen-host interaction and help us to understand the fungal lifestyle adaptation.
ESTHER : Jia_2023_Front.Microbiol_14_1171618
PubMedSearch : Jia_2023_Front.Microbiol_14_1171618
PubMedID: 37152749

Title : Abamectin induced brain and liver toxicity in carp: The healing potential of silybin and potential molecular mechanisms - Wu_2023_Fish.Shellfish.Immunol__109152
Author(s) : Wu X , Xin Y , Ma Y , Ping K , Li Q , Sun Y , Hu Z , Dong J
Ref : Fish Shellfish Immunol , :109152 , 2023
Abstract : Abamectin (ABM) abuse contaminated aquatic environment and posed a potential threat to fish health as well as public safety. Silybin (SIL), a flavonoid, has been widely used as a novel feed additive to promote fish health. This research was to explore the potential antagonistic mechanism between ABM and SIL on brain and liver toxicity was investigated in common carp. Sixty carp were divided into four groups at random: the Control group, the SIL group, the ABM group, and ABM + SIL group. This experiment lasted for 30 d. According to behavioral observation, the detection of levels of acetylcholinesterase (AchE), iron, and mRNA expression levels of blood-brain barrier (BBB) related tight junction proteins (ZO-1, Claudin7, Occludin, MMP2, MMP9, and MMP13) in brain tissues, it was found that SIL relieved neurobehavioral disorders caused by ABM-induced BBB destruction in carp. H&E staining showed SIL mitigated nerve injury and liver injury caused by ABM. Oil red O staining and liver-related parameters showed that SIL alleviated hepatotoxicity and lipid metabolism disorder caused by ABM exposure. Furthermore, this work also explored the specific molecular mechanism of SIL in liver protection and neuroprotection. It was shown that SIL lowered ROS levels in liver and brain tissues via the GSK-3beta/TSC2/TOR pathway. Simultaneously, SIL inhibited NF-kappaB signaling pathway and played an anti-inflammatory role. In conclusion, we believed that SIL supplementation has a protective effect on the brain and liver by regulating oxidative stress and inflammation.
ESTHER : Wu_2023_Fish.Shellfish.Immunol__109152
PubMedSearch : Wu_2023_Fish.Shellfish.Immunol__109152
PubMedID: 37821005

Title : Deficiency in endocannabinoid synthase DAGLB contributes to early onset Parkinsonism and murine nigral dopaminergic neuron dysfunction - Liu_2022_Nat.Commun_13_3490
Author(s) : Liu Z , Yang N , Dong J , Tian W , Chang L , Ma J , Guo J , Tan J , Dong A , He K , Zhou J , Cinar R , Wu J , Salinas AG , Sun L , Kumar M , Sullivan BT , Oldham BB , Pitz V , Makarious MB , Ding J , Kung J , Xie C , Hawes SL , Wang L , Wang T , Chan P , Zhang Z , Le W , Chen S , Lovinger DM , Blauwendraat C , Singleton AB , Cui G , Li Y , Cai H , Tang B
Ref : Nat Commun , 13 :3490 , 2022
Abstract : Endocannabinoid (eCB), 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), the most abundant eCB in the brain, regulates diverse neural functions. Here we linked multiple homozygous loss-of-function mutations in 2-AG synthase diacylglycerol lipase beta (DAGLB) to an early onset autosomal recessive Parkinsonism. DAGLB is the main 2-AG synthase in human and mouse substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic neurons (DANs). In mice, the SN 2-AG levels were markedly correlated with motor performance during locomotor skill acquisition. Genetic knockdown of Daglb in nigral DANs substantially reduced SN 2-AG levels and impaired locomotor skill learning, particularly the across-session learning. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of 2-AG degradation increased nigral 2-AG levels, DAN activity and dopamine release and rescued the locomotor skill learning deficits. Together, we demonstrate that DAGLB-deficiency contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinsonism, reveal the importance of DAGLB-mediated 2-AG biosynthesis in nigral DANs in regulating neuronal activity and dopamine release, and suggest potential benefits of 2-AG augmentation in alleviating Parkinsonism.
ESTHER : Liu_2022_Nat.Commun_13_3490
PubMedSearch : Liu_2022_Nat.Commun_13_3490
PubMedID: 35715418
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DAGLB , mouse-DGLB

Title : Ultrasensitive Acetylcholinesterase detection based on a surface-enhanced Raman scattering lever strategy for identifying nerve fibers - Li_2022_Talanta_252_123867
Author(s) : Li T , Sui T , Wang B , Xu K , Zhang S , Cao X , Wang Y , Qian W , Dong J
Ref : Talanta , 252 :123867 , 2022
Abstract : Accurate discriminating nerve fibers is a prerequisite for right suturing nerves in nerve transfer operation. Various methods have been developed for identification of motor and sensory fibers, but no simple method meets the requirements in clinic. In this study, a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) lever strategy is designed and developed to detect Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) ultrasensitively, in which using produced thiocholine with weak intrinsic Raman activity (four ounces) to adjust absorbance of Rhodamine B with strong intrinsic Raman activity (thousand catties) on SERS-active substrates is to increase the sensitivity. Employing a miniaturized SERS substrate, SERS-active microneedles, is to decrease the volume of enzymolysis systems. Adopting an internal reference is to increase the repeatability of collected signal. The ultrasensitive AchE detection method discriminate samples with four times of difference in enzyme activity between 1-1 x 10(-4) U/mL in about 10 min of enzymolysis time. AchE amounts in 2-mm-long segments of ventral and dorsal roots were about 0.00025-0.001 U and 0.01-0.02 U, respectively. The developed method would be a reliable method met the requirements of identifying motor and sensory fibers in clinic.
ESTHER : Li_2022_Talanta_252_123867
PubMedSearch : Li_2022_Talanta_252_123867
PubMedID: 36041317

Title : Design and synthesis of novel tacrine-dipicolylamine dimers that are multiple-target-directed ligands with potential to treat Alzheimer's disease - Zhang_2021_Bioorg.Chem_116_105387
Author(s) : Zhang P , Wang Z , Mou C , Zou J , Xie Y , Liu Z , Benjamin Naman C , Mao Y , Wei J , Huang X , Dong J , Yang M , Wang N , Jin H , Liu F , Lin D , Liu H , Zhou F , He S , Zhang B , Cui W
Ref : Bioorg Chem , 116 :105387 , 2021
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that has multiple causes. Therefore, multiple-target-directed ligands (MTDLs), which act on multiple targets, have been developed as a novel strategy for AD therapy. In this study, novel drug candidates were designed and synthesized by the covalent linkings of tacrine, a previously used anti-AD acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, and dipicolylamine, an beta-amyloid (Abeta) aggregation inhibitor. Most tacrine-dipicolylamine dimers potently inhibited AChE and Abeta(1-42) aggregation in vitro, and 13a exhibited nanomolar level inhibition. Molecular docking analysis suggested that 13a could interact with the catalytic active sites and the peripheral anion site of AChE, and bind to Abeta(1-42) pentamers. Moreover, 13a effectively attenuated Abeta(1-42) oligomers-induced cognitive dysfunction in mice by activating the cAMP-response element binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathway, decreasing tau phosphorylation, preventing synaptic toxicity, and inhibiting neuroinflammation. The safety profile of 13a in mice was demonstrated by acute toxicity experiments. All these results suggested that novel tacrine-dipicolylamine dimers, especially 13a, have multi-target neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing potentials, and therefore might be developed as MTDLs to combat AD.
ESTHER : Zhang_2021_Bioorg.Chem_116_105387
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2021_Bioorg.Chem_116_105387
PubMedID: 34628225

Title : (-)-Grandiflorimine, a new dibenzopyrrocoline alkaloid with cholinesterase inhibitory activity from Illigera grandiflora - Li_2021_Nat.Prod.Res_35_763
Author(s) : Li X , Dong J , Gan D , Zhou D , Cai X , Cai L , Ding Z
Ref : Nat Prod Res , 35 :763 , 2021
Abstract : A new dibenzopyrrocoline alkaloid, (-)-grandifloramine (1), together with five known ones, actinodaphnine (2), N-methyllaurotetanine (3), boldine (4), lindcarpine (5), and (+)-norboldine (6), were isolated from Illigera grandiflora W. W. Sm. et J. F. Jeff. The structure of 1 was identified by HRESIMS, 1D/2D NMR, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Compound 1 and 2 exhibited the moderate inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and 3 showed moderate butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. This is the first report of the chemical constituents of I. grandiflora.
ESTHER : Li_2021_Nat.Prod.Res_35_763
PubMedSearch : Li_2021_Nat.Prod.Res_35_763
PubMedID: 31079474

Title : Point-of-care testing of butyrylcholinesterase activity through modulating the photothermal effect of cuprous oxide nanoparticles - Ma_2021_Mikrochim.Acta_188_392
Author(s) : Ma J , Ma L , Cao L , Miao Y , Dong J , Shi YE , Wang Z
Ref : Mikrochim Acta , 188 :392 , 2021
Abstract : Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an important indicator for clinical diagnosis of liver dysfunction, organophosphate toxicity, and poststroke dementia. Point-of-care testing (POCT) of BChE activity is still a challenge, which is a critical requirement for the modern clinical diagnose. A portable photothermal BChE assay is proposed through modulating the photothermal effects of Cu(2)O nanoparticles. BChE can catalyze the decomposition of butyrylcholine, producing thiocholine, which further reduce and coordinate with CuO on surface of Cu(2)O nanoparticle. This leads to higher efficiency of formation of Cu(9)S(8) nanoparticles, through the reaction between Cu(2)O nanoparticle and NaHS, together with the promotion of photothermal conversion efficiency from 3.1 to 59.0%, under the excitation of 1064 nm laser radiation. An excellent linear relationship between the temperature change and the logarithm of BChE concentration is obtained in the range 1.0 to 7.5 U/mL, with a limit of detection of 0.076 U/mL. In addition, the portable photothermal assay shows strong detection robustness, which endows the accurate detection of BChE in human serum, together with the screening and quantification of organophosphorus pesticides. Such a simple, sensitive, and robust assay shows great potential for the applications to clinical BChE detection and brings a new horizon for the development of temperature based POCT.
ESTHER : Ma_2021_Mikrochim.Acta_188_392
PubMedSearch : Ma_2021_Mikrochim.Acta_188_392
PubMedID: 34697648

Title : NDRG1 facilitates lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by maintaining the stability of the KSHV helicase - Dong_2021_PLoS.Pathog_17_e1009645
Author(s) : Dong L , Dong J , Xiang M , Lei P , Li Z , Zhang F , Sun X , Niu D , Bai L , Lan K
Ref : PLoS Pathog , 17 :e1009645 , 2021
Abstract : The presumed DNA helicase encoded by ORF44 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays a crucial role in unwinding viral double-stranded DNA and initiating DNA replication during lytic reactivation. However, the regulatory mechanism of KSHV ORF44 has not been fully elucidated. In a previous study, we identified that N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), a host scaffold protein, facilitates viral genome replication by interacting with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the latent viral protein latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) during viral latency. In the present study, we further demonstrated that NDRG1 can interact with KSHV ORF44 during viral lytic replication. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of NDRG1 were significantly increased by KSHV ORF50-encoded replication and transcription activator (RTA). Remarkably, knockdown of NDRG1 greatly decreased the protein level of ORF44 and impaired viral lytic replication. Interestingly, NDRG1 enhanced the stability of ORF44 and inhibited its ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation by reducing the polyubiquitination of the lysine residues at positions 79 and 368 in ORF44. In summary, NDRG1 is a novel binding partner of ORF44 and facilitates viral lytic replication by maintaining the stability of ORF44. This study provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying KSHV lytic replication.
ESTHER : Dong_2021_PLoS.Pathog_17_e1009645
PubMedSearch : Dong_2021_PLoS.Pathog_17_e1009645
PubMedID: 34077484
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NDRG1

Title : Enteral Nutrition Combined with Improved-Sijunzi Decoction Shows Positive Effect in Precachexia Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Analysis - Li_2021_Evid.Based.Complement.Alternat.Med_2021_7357521
Author(s) : Li Y , Chen Y , Zeng Y , Dong J , Li C , Jia Y , Zhao Y , Wang K
Ref : Evid Based Complement Alternat Med , 2021 :7357521 , 2021
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Cancer has been considered as the leading cause of death in the world. In patients with cancer, up to 80% display a cachectic period after diagnosis. Cachexia is known to have a negative impact on function, treatment tolerance, higher rates of hospitalizations, and mortality. Anorexia is often used as a warning sign of precachexia. Long-term anorexia may lead to malnutrition and, then, accelerate the occurrence of cachexia. A safe and effective treatment, which can both improve appetite and assist nutritional support for precachexia cancer patients shows its particular important role. METHODS: A retrospective analysis comparing the different therapeutic effects on precachexia cancer patients with anorexia-malnutrition. We recorded 46 patients with the improved-Sijunzi decoction combined with enteral nutrition emulsion (ISJZ group) and 35 patients with single enteral nutrition emulsion (SEN group). The different therapeutic effects of the two groups were observed by recording indicators before and 2 weeks after treatment, including patient-generated subjective global assessment score, quality of life score, Karnofsky performance status scale, Eastern cooperative oncology group scale standard and traditional Chinese medicine syndrome, daily total dietary intake, red blood cells, hemoglobin, prealbumin, albumin, total protein cholinesterase, C-reactive protein, leukocytes, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, urea nitrogen, and creatinine. RESULTS: ISJZ group exhibited prominent improvement of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome (TCMS), nutritional condition, and quality of life compared with the SEN group (QOL: p=0.0001, PG-SGA: p=0.019, dietary intake: p=0.0001, TCMS: p=0.0001). The levels of HGB (p=0.006), PAlb (p=0.001), Alb (p=0.0001), TP (p=0.008), and ChE (p=0.0001) in the ISJZ group were higher than the SEN group after treatment. Moreover, the ratios of CRP/ALB (p=0.028) and CRP/PALB (p=0.005) in the two groups have obvious differences; they were lower for the ISJZ group than the SEN group. CONCLUSIONS: Enteral nutrition combined with ISJZ decoction is an effective treatment in precachexia cancer patients for the prevention of cachexia. This treatment therapy can alleviate the inflammatory response, improve malnutrition state, and promote the performance status. Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital approved this study (Trial No. 1913).
ESTHER : Li_2021_Evid.Based.Complement.Alternat.Med_2021_7357521
PubMedSearch : Li_2021_Evid.Based.Complement.Alternat.Med_2021_7357521
PubMedID: 34603476

Title : An enhanced staining method K-B-2R staining for three-dimensional nerve reconstruction - Luo_2019_BMC.Neurosci_20_32
Author(s) : Luo P , Dong J , Qi J , Zhang Y , Liu X , Zhong Y , Xian CJ , Wang L
Ref : BMC Neurosci , 20 :32 , 2019
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human peripheral nerves, as a useful tool to understand the nerve internal information and functional basis, has become an important area of research in the peripheral nerve field. METHODS: In this study, we proposed a two-dimensional (2D) Karnovsky-Roots toluidine blue ponceau 2R (K-B-2R) staining method based upon conventional Karnovsky-Roots staining. It significantly improved the ability to display nerve fascicles, motor and sensory nerve fiber textures. In this method, Karnovsky-Roots staining was carried out, followed by toluidine blue counterstain and ponceau 2R counterstain. RESULTS: Comparisons were conducted between the three methods in staining of median nerve sections, which showed similar distribution characters in acetylcholinesterase-positive sites. The additional counterstaining did not change the basis of Karnovsky-Roots staining. However, the resulting images from this new method significantly facilitated the subsequent 3D nerve reconstruction and 3D printing. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the new staining method significantly enhanced the display qualities of nerve fascicle edges and fiber textures of motor and sensory nerves and facilitated 3D nerve reconstruction.
ESTHER : Luo_2019_BMC.Neurosci_20_32
PubMedSearch : Luo_2019_BMC.Neurosci_20_32
PubMedID: 31286881

Title : Enzymatic Mechanism for Arabinan Degradation and Transport in the Thermophilic Bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus - Wefers_2017_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_83_
Author(s) : Wefers D , Dong J , Abdel-Hamid AM , Paul HM , Pereira GV , Han Y , Dodd D , Baskaran R , Mayer B , Mackie RI , Cann I
Ref : Applied Environmental Microbiology , 83 : , 2017
Abstract : The plant cell wall polysaccharide arabinan provides an important supply of arabinose, and unraveling arabinan-degrading strategies by microbes is important for understanding its use as a source of energy. Here, we explored the arabinan-degrading enzymes in the thermophilic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus and identified a gene cluster encoding two glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 51 alpha-l-arabinofuranosidases (CpAbf51A, CpAbf51B), a GH43 endoarabinanase (CpAbn43A), a GH27 beta-l-arabinopyranosidase (CpAbp27A), and two GH127 beta-l-arabinofuranosidases (CpAbf127A, CpAbf127B). The genes were expressed as recombinant proteins, and the functions of the purified proteins were determined with para-nitrophenyl (pNP)-linked sugars and naturally occurring pectin structural elements as the substrates. The results demonstrated that CpAbn43A is an endoarabinanase while CpAbf51A and CpAbf51B are alpha-l-arabinofuranosidases that exhibit diverse substrate specificities, cleaving alpha-1,2, alpha-1,3, and alpha-1,5 linkages of purified arabinan-oligosaccharides. Furthermore, both CpAbf127A and CpAbf127B cleaved beta-arabinofuranose residues in complex arabinan side chains, thus providing evidence of the function of this family of enzymes on such polysaccharides. The optimal temperatures of the enzymes ranged between 60 degrees C and 75 degrees C, and CpAbf43A and CpAbf51A worked synergistically to release arabinose from branched and debranched arabinan. Furthermore, the hydrolytic activity on branched arabinan oligosaccharides and degradation of pectic substrates by the endoarabinanase and l-arabinofuranosidases suggested a microbe equipped with diverse activities to degrade complex arabinan in the environment. Based on our functional analyses of the genes in the arabinan degradation cluster and the substrate-binding studies on a component of the cognate transporter system, we propose a model for arabinan degradation and transport by C. polysaccharolyticusIMPORTANCE Genomic DNA sequencing and bioinformatic analysis allowed the identification of a gene cluster encoding several proteins predicted to function in arabinan degradation and transport in C. polysaccharolyticus The analysis of the recombinant proteins yielded detailed insights into the putative arabinan metabolism of this thermophilic bacterium. The use of various branched arabinan oligosaccharides provided a detailed understanding of the substrate specificities of the enzymes and allowed assignment of two new GH127 polypeptides as beta-l-arabinofuranosidases able to degrade pectic substrates, thus expanding our knowledge of this rare group of glycoside hydrolases. In addition, the enzymes showed synergistic effects for the degradation of arabinans at elevated temperatures. The enzymes characterized from the gene cluster are, therefore, of utility for arabinose production in both the biofuel and food industries.
ESTHER : Wefers_2017_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_83_
PubMedSearch : Wefers_2017_Appl.Environ.Microbiol_83_
PubMedID: 28710263

Title : Prognostic value of immunoscore to identify mortality outcomes in adults with HBV-related primary hepatocellular carcinoma - Yao_2017_Medicine.(Baltimore)_96_e6735
Author(s) : Yao Q , Bao X , Xue R , Liu H , Li J , Dong J , Duan Z , Ren M , Zhao J , Song Q , Yu H , Zhu Y , Lu J , Meng Q
Ref : Medicine (Baltimore) , 96 :e6735 , 2017
Abstract : This study aimed to determine if the immunoscore (IS) staging system would be a potential prognostic factor in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC) in China.IS was performed in a consecutive cohort of HBV-HCC patients (n= 92). CD3+, CD8+, and CD45RO+ T cells were quantified by immunohistochemical analyses. The patients were stratified into 5 IS groups: I0, I1, I2, I3, I4 for every 2 cell phenotypes (IS1 (CD8/CD45RO, IS2 (CD3/CD8), and IS3 (CD3/CD45RO), respectively. ImagePro Plus software was used in the calculation of the paraffin-embedded tumor sections.The staining of CD3+, CD8+, and CD45RO+ cells in the HBV-HCC tissue demonstrated that there were higher density and larger area of lymphocytes in the invasive margins (IM) region than in the center (CT). Univariate analysis showed that preoperative TNM staging (P = .01), serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) level (P = .03), vascular invasion (P = .00), and density of CD3+T (CT) (P = 0.01) were correlated significantly with disease-free survival (DFS); serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level (P = .02), tumor size (P = .00), serum cholinesterase (CHE) (P = .04), and GGT level (P = .01), density of CD3+T(CT) (P = .00), CD8+T(CT)(P = .00), CD45RO+T(CT) (P = .00), and CD45RO+T (IM) (P = .02) were correlated with overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis showed that TNM staging was not an independent prognostic factor of DFS and OS. Our results showed ISs did not have a significantly correlation with DFS (P = .35, .19, and .07, respectively), but it was correlated significantly with OS (P = .00, .00, and .00, respectively). There were statistical differences among the OS of every ISs subgroup except I0 and I1 by the Cox regressions analysis.The IS staging was closely related to the outcome of patients. It can compensate the TNM tumor classification system in predicting the prognosis of HBV-HCC patients.
ESTHER : Yao_2017_Medicine.(Baltimore)_96_e6735
PubMedSearch : Yao_2017_Medicine.(Baltimore)_96_e6735
PubMedID: 28445292

Title : A novel protocol for ultra-trace detection of pesticides: Combined electrochemical reduction of Ellman's reagent with acetylcholinesterase inhibition - Dong_2013_Anal.Chim.Acta_761_78
Author(s) : Dong J , Fan X , Qiao F , Ai S , Xin H
Ref : Anal Chim Acta , 761 :78 , 2013
Abstract : This paper proposed a novel method for ultra-trace detection of pesticides combining electrochemical reduction of Ellman's reagent with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. The amperometric biosensor, fabricated by immobilizing AChE on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-chitosan (MWCNTs-Chi) nanocomposites modified glassy carbon electrode, enjoyed high sensitivity owing to the excellent conductivity and favourable biocompatibility of MWCNTs-Chi nanocomposites. Meanwhile, the sensitivity of the biosensor was further enhanced using the electrochemical reduction signal of DTNB for determination. Under optimum conditions, methyl parathion was detected based on its inhibition effect on AChE activity and the subsequent change in electrochemical reduction response of DTNB. Good relationship was obtained between the reduction current and pesticide concentration in the ranges of 5.0x10(-7) to 1.0x10(-12)M with a detection limit of 7.5x10(-13)M (S/N=3). Moreover, the proposed protocol was successfully employed for the determination of methyl parathion in water and soil samples.
ESTHER : Dong_2013_Anal.Chim.Acta_761_78
PubMedSearch : Dong_2013_Anal.Chim.Acta_761_78
PubMedID: 23312317

Title : [Relation between HBsAg levels during the immune clearance phase of hepatitis B virus infection and liver pathological stages of chronic hepatitis B] - Zeng_2012_Zhonghua.Gan.Zang.Bing.Za.Zhi_20_746
Author(s) : Zeng DW , Dong J , Chen LH , Zhu YY , Chen J , Zheng Q , Liu YR , Jiang JJ
Ref : Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi , 20 :746 , 2012
Abstract : To investigate whether the level of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) represents the status of inflammation and stages of fibrosis in livers of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) during the immune clearance phase (IC). Liver biopsy samples and sera were collected from 165 consecutive patients (136 males; 29 females) with CHB in IC who were treated in our hospital between March 2009 and June 2011. Routine biochemical tests were carried out to measure indicators of liver function. The relation between HBsAg level and liver pathological stages were determined by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of HBsAg level for liver pathological stages. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze potentially relevant indicators, and liver pathology-predicting models were built and analyzed by the ROC method. The mean values of HBsAg (IU/mL) were significantly different at the different liver inflammation stages: G1, 27 716.07+/-32 870.69; G2, 34 478.75+/-40 899.55; G3, 19 408.09+/-24 881.07; G4, 14 286.31+/-28 610.14. Likewise, the mean values of HBsAg (IU/mL) were significantly different at the different liver fibrosis stages: S1, 41 337.23+/-43 236.39; S2, 27 264.32+/-32 517.29; S3, 111 541.77+/-11 538.93; S4, 11 447.37+/-22215.44. Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated a significant correlation between HBsAg level and liver inflammation stage (rs = -0.244) and fibrosis stage (rs = -0.365). ROC curve analysis of the diagnostic value of HBsAg for inflammation stages S more than or equal to 4 revealed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.70. The specificity of diagnosing S more than or equal to 4 was > 95.16% when HBsAg was less than or equal to 32995 IU/mL. Binary logistic regression analysis identified age, serum albumin, cholinesterase, and HBsAg as independent predictors of liver fibrosis. HBsAg level is negatively correlated with liver inflammation and fibrosis stages for patients with CHB in the IC phase, and might represent a useful noninvasive marker of the degree of hepatic fibrosis.
ESTHER : Zeng_2012_Zhonghua.Gan.Zang.Bing.Za.Zhi_20_746
PubMedSearch : Zeng_2012_Zhonghua.Gan.Zang.Bing.Za.Zhi_20_746
PubMedID: 23207334

Title : [Expression and molecular evolution of recombinant acetylcholinesterase for detection of pesticide residues: a review] - Dong_2012_Sheng.Wu.Gong.Cheng.Xue.Bao_28_557
Author(s) : Dong J , Li Z , Lei H , He Y , Wang H , Sun Y
Ref : Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao , 28 :557 , 2012
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a key role in the pesticide determination. However, the extraction of AChE from natural materials has the disadvantages of low yield, complex purification and poor stability. Therefore, the preparation of recombinant AChE with high performance becomes the hot topic of researchers in recent years. In this article we summarize the progress in the expression of recombinant AChE and the improvement of its analytical characteristic. Finally, we point out that the directed evolution strategy combined with surface display technology is the future trend on improving recombinant AChE activity.
ESTHER : Dong_2012_Sheng.Wu.Gong.Cheng.Xue.Bao_28_557
PubMedSearch : Dong_2012_Sheng.Wu.Gong.Cheng.Xue.Bao_28_557
PubMedID: 22916494

Title : Complete genome sequence of the nitrogen-fixing and rhizosphere-associated bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DSM4166 - Yu_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_3422
Author(s) : Yu H , Yuan M , Lu W , Yang J , Dai S , Li Q , Yang Z , Dong J , Sun L , Deng Z , Zhang W , Chen M , Ping S , Han Y , Zhan Y , Yan Y , Jin Q , Lin M
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 193 :3422 , 2011
Abstract : We present here the analysis of the whole-genome sequence of Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DSM4166, a diazotrophic isolate from the rhizosphere of a Sorghum nutans cultivar. To our knowledge, this is the second genome to be sequenced for P. stutzeri. The availability and analysis of the genome provide insight into the evolution of the nitrogen fixation property and identification of rhizosphere competence traits required in interactions with host plants.
ESTHER : Yu_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_3422
PubMedSearch : Yu_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_3422
PubMedID: 21515765
Gene_locus related to this paper: pseu5-a4vfn0 , pseu5-a4vj02 , pseu5-a4vrl9 , pseut-f8h720 , pseu5-a4vkl7 , pseu5-a4vgd4 , pseu5-a4vr33

Title : Ablation of ligament of Marshall attenuates atrial vulnerability to fibrillation induced by inferior left atrial fat pad stimulation in dogs - Liu_2010_J.Cardiovasc.Electrophysiol_21_1024
Author(s) : Liu X , Yan Q , Li H , Tian Y , Su J , Tang R , Lu C , Dong J , Ma C
Ref : J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol , 21 :1024 , 2010
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The role of ligament of Marshall (LOM) in the mechanism of "vagal" atrial fibrillation (AF) is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of LOM ablation on atrial vulnerability to AF induced by inferior left atrial fat pad (ILAFP) stimulation in dogs. METHODS: AF inducibility and atrial effective refractory period (ERP) were elevated before and after LOM ablation in 8 of 14 dogs (the ablation group). Same protocol but without LOM ablation was conducted in the remaining 6 dogs (the control group). The activation patterns of LOM and left pulmonary veins (LPVs) during sustained AF were analyzed. The distribution of epicardial cholinergic nerve fibers between LOM and ILAFP was investigated in the control group. RESULTS: Ablation of LOM significantly attenuated AF inducibility (87.5% vs 33.3%, P < 0.001) and prolonged ERPs of the structures in contiguity with LOM (P < 0.05) in the ablation group. In contrast, there was no significant change in ERPs and AF inducibility in the control group. During sustained AF, fractionated atrial electrograms were more common in the LOM area than the LPVs (84% vs 18% of the analyzed episodes, P < 0.001). In 46.7% of the episodes with identifiable LOM spikes, atrial potentials, and LOM spikes were related in 2:1 or 3:2 pattern during the intermittent organized activity. Acetylcholinesterase staining revealed a close cholinergic nerved relationship between LOM and ILAFP. CONCLUSIONS: LOM plays a critical role in maintaining AF induced by stimulation of ILAFP. Ablation of LOM can markedly attenuate AF inducibility in this model.
ESTHER : Liu_2010_J.Cardiovasc.Electrophysiol_21_1024
PubMedSearch : Liu_2010_J.Cardiovasc.Electrophysiol_21_1024
PubMedID: 20367662

Title : Complete genome sequence of Haemophilus parasuis SH0165 - Yue_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_1359
Author(s) : Yue M , Yang F , Yang J , Bei W , Cai X , Chen L , Dong J , Zhou R , Jin M , Jin Q , Chen H
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 191 :1359 , 2009
Abstract : Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glasser's disease, which produces big losses in swine populations worldwide. H. parasuis SH0165, belonging to the dominant serovar 5 in China, is a clinically isolated strain with high-level virulence. Here, we report the first completed genome sequence of this species.
ESTHER : Yue_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_1359
PubMedSearch : Yue_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_1359
PubMedID: 19074396
Gene_locus related to this paper: haepr-b0qsi5 , haepr-b0qve9 , haeps-b8f6u1 , haeps-b8f692 , haeps-b8f714

Title : Complete genome sequence of Shigella flexneri 5b and comparison with Shigella flexneri 2a - Nie_2006_BMC.Genomics_7_173
Author(s) : Nie H , Yang F , Zhang X , Yang J , Chen L , Wang J , Xiong Z , Peng J , Sun L , Dong J , Xue Y , Xu X , Chen S , Yao Z , Shen Y , Jin Q
Ref : BMC Genomics , 7 :173 , 2006
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Shigella bacteria cause dysentery, which remains a significant threat to public health. Shigella flexneri is the most common species in both developing and developed countries. Five Shigella genomes have been sequenced, revealing dynamic and diverse features. To investigate the intra-species diversity of S. flexneri genomes further, we have sequenced the complete genome of S. flexneri 5b strain 8401 (abbreviated Sf8401) and compared it with S. flexneri 2a (Sf301).
RESULTS: The Sf8401 chromosome is 4.5-Mb in size, a little smaller than that of Sf301, mainly because the former lacks the SHI-1 pathogenicity island (PAI). Compared with Sf301, there are 6 inversions and one translocation in Sf8401, which are probably mediated by insertion sequences (IS). There are clear differences in the known PAIs between these two genomes. The bacteriophage SfV segment remaining in SHI-O of Sf8401 is clearly larger than the remnants of bacteriophage SfII in Sf301. SHI-1 is absent from Sf8401 but a specific related protein is found next to the pheV locus. SHI-2 is involved in one intra-replichore inversion near the origin of replication, which may change the expression of iut/iuc genes. Moreover, genes related to the glycine-betaine biosynthesis pathway are present only in Sf8401 among the known Shigella genomes. CONCLUSION: Our data show that the two S. flexneri genomes are very similar, which suggests a high level of structural and functional conservation between the two serotypes. The differences reflect different selection pressures during evolution. The ancestor of S. flexneri probably acquired SHI-1 and SHI-2 before SHI-O was integrated and the serotypes diverged. SHI-1 was subsequently deleted from the S. flexneri 5b genome by recombination, but stabilized in the S. flexneri 2a genome. These events may have contributed to the differences in pathogenicity and epidemicity between the two serotypes of S. flexneri.
ESTHER : Nie_2006_BMC.Genomics_7_173
PubMedSearch : Nie_2006_BMC.Genomics_7_173
PubMedID: 16822325
Gene_locus related to this paper: shifl-AES , shifl-BIOH , shifl-entf , shifl-FES , shifl-PTRB , shifl-S2753 , shifl-SF1808 , shifl-SF3046 , shifl-yafa , shifl-YBFF , shifl-YCDJ , shifl-ycfp , shifl-YCJY , shifl-YFBB , shifl-YHET , shifl-YIEL , shifl-YJFP , shifl-YPFH , shiss-yeiG , shiss-yqia

Title : Hormone-sensitive lipase knockout mice have increased hepatic insulin sensitivity and are protected from short-term diet-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and heart - Park_2005_Am.J.Physiol.Endocrinol.Metab_289_E30
Author(s) : Park SY , Kim HJ , Wang S , Higashimori T , Dong J , Kim YJ , Cline G , Li H , Prentki M , Shulman GI , Mitchell GA , Kim JK
Ref : American Journal of Physiology Endocrinol Metab , 289 :E30 , 2005
Abstract : Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and heart plays a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes and diabetic heart failure and may be causally associated with altered lipid metabolism. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is a rate-determining enzyme in the hydrolysis of triglyceride in adipocytes, and HSL-deficient mice have reduced circulating fatty acids and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. To determine the metabolic role of HSL, we examined the changes in tissue-specific insulin action and glucose metabolism in vivo during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps after 3 wk of high-fat or normal chow diet in awake, HSL-deficient (HSL-KO) mice. On normal diet, HSL-KO mice showed a twofold increase in hepatic insulin action but a 40% decrease in insulin-stimulated cardiac glucose uptake compared with wild-type littermates. High-fat feeding caused a similar increase in whole body fat mass in both groups of mice. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was reduced by 50-80% in skeletal muscle and heart of wild-type mice after high-fat feeding. In contrast, HSL-KO mice were protected from diet-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and heart, and these effects were associated with reduced intramuscular triglyceride and fatty acyl-CoA levels in the fat-fed HSL-KO mice. Overall, these findings demonstrate the important role of HSL on skeletal muscle, heart, and liver glucose metabolism.
ESTHER : Park_2005_Am.J.Physiol.Endocrinol.Metab_289_E30
PubMedSearch : Park_2005_Am.J.Physiol.Endocrinol.Metab_289_E30
PubMedID: 15701680
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-hslip

Title : Genome dynamics and diversity of Shigella species, the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery - Yang_2005_Nucleic.Acids.Res_33_6445
Author(s) : Yang F , Yang J , Zhang X , Chen L , Jiang Y , Yan Y , Tang X , Wang J , Xiong Z , Dong J , Xue Y , Zhu Y , Xu X , Sun L , Chen S , Nie H , Peng J , Xu J , Wang Y , Yuan Z , Wen Y , Yao Z , Shen Y , Qiang B , Hou Y , Yu J , Jin Q
Ref : Nucleic Acids Research , 33 :6445 , 2005
Abstract : The Shigella bacteria cause bacillary dysentery, which remains a significant threat to public health. The genus status and species classification appear no longer valid, as compelling evidence indicates that Shigella, as well as enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, are derived from multiple origins of E.coli and form a single pathovar. Nevertheless, Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 causes deadly epidemics but Shigella boydii is restricted to the Indian subcontinent, while Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei are prevalent in developing and developed countries respectively. To begin to explain these distinctive epidemiological and pathological features at the genome level, we have carried out comparative genomics on four representative strains. Each of the Shigella genomes includes a virulence plasmid that encodes conserved primary virulence determinants. The Shigella chromosomes share most of their genes with that of E.coli K12 strain MG1655, but each has over 200 pseudogenes, 300 approximately 700 copies of insertion sequence (IS) elements, and numerous deletions, insertions, translocations and inversions. There is extensive diversity of putative virulence genes, mostly acquired via bacteriophage-mediated lateral gene transfer. Hence, via convergent evolution involving gain and loss of functions, through bacteriophage-mediated gene acquisition, IS-mediated DNA rearrangements and formation of pseudogenes, the Shigella spp. became highly specific human pathogens with variable epidemiological and pathological features.
ESTHER : Yang_2005_Nucleic.Acids.Res_33_6445
PubMedSearch : Yang_2005_Nucleic.Acids.Res_33_6445
PubMedID: 16275786
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-yeiG , shidy-IROD , shidy-q67dv1 , shifl-AES , shifl-BIOH , shifl-entf , shifl-FES , shifl-PLDB , shifl-PTRB , shifl-S2753 , shifl-SF1334 , shifl-SF1808 , shifl-SF3046 , shifl-SF3908 , shifl-yafa , shifl-YBFF , shifl-YCDJ , shifl-ycfp , shifl-YCJY , shifl-YFBB , shifl-YHET , shifl-YJFP , shifl-YPFH , shiss-yaim , shiss-yeiG , shiss-yqia

Title : The strength of dehalogenase-substrate hydrogen bonding correlates with the rate of Meisenheimer intermediate formation - Dong_2003_Biochemistry_42_9482
Author(s) : Dong J , Lu X , Wei Y , Luo L , Dunaway-Mariano D , Carey PR
Ref : Biochemistry , 42 :9482 , 2003
Abstract : 4-Chlorobenzoyl-coenzyme A (4-CBA-CoA) dehalogenase catalyzes the hydrolytic dehalogenation of 4-CBA-CoA to 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA by using an active site aspartate as the nucleophile. Formation of the corresponding Meisenheimer complex (EMc) is followed by chloride ion expulsion which forms the arylated intermediate (EAr). This is then hydrolyzed to the product. In this paper, we explore the relationship between active site polarizing forces acting on the benzoyl carbonyl and the rate of formation of the Meisenheimer complex. The polarizing forces at the C[double bond]O group were modulated by introducing site-selected mutations (A112V, Y65D, G113A, G113S, G113N, and F64P), near the C[double bond]O binding site. Using either the substrate, 4-CBA-CoA, or the substrate analogue, 4-methylbenzoyl-CoA (4-MBA-CoA), Raman difference spectroscopy provided the position of the C[double bond]O stretching frequency (nu(C)[double bond](O)) for a total of 10 enzyme-ligand complexes. In turn, the values of the C[double bond]O frequencies could be converted to differences in effective hydrogen bonding strengths between members of the series, based on earlier model studies [Clarkson, J., Tonge, P. J., Taylor, K. L., Dunaway-Mariano, D., and Carey, P. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 10192-10199]. Catalysis in the F64P, G113A, G113S, and G113N dehalogenase mutants was very slow with k(cat) values ranging from 8 x 10(-3) to 7.6 x 10(-6) s(-1). The EAr intermediate did not accumulate to a detectable level on these enzymes during a single turnover. Catalysis in the Y65D and A112V dehalogenase mutants were almost as efficient as catalysis in wild-type dehalogenase with k(cat) values of 0.1-0.6 s(-1). In wild-type dehalogenase, 22% of the bound substrate accumulated as the EAr intermediate during a single turnover (k(obs) for EAr formation = 24 s(-(1)); in the Y65D mutant, the level of accumulation is 17% (k(obs) for EAr formation = 3 s(-1)), and in the A112V mutant, the level is 23% (k(obs) for EAr formation = 17 s(-1)). The k(obs) for EAr formation in wild-type dehalogenase and the more active dehalogenase mutants (Y65D and A112V) was taken to be an estimate of the k for EMc formation, and the k(obs) for EP formation in a single turnover was taken to be an estimate of the k for EMc formation in the severely impaired mutants (F64P, G113A, G113S, and G113N). A plot of the log k(obs) for EMc formation versus the C[double bond]O stretching frequency of bound 4-CBA-CoA (or 4-MBA-CoA) is a straight line (R(2) = 0.9584). Throughout the series, nu(C)[double bond](O) varied by 61 cm(-1), corresponding to the change in hydrogen bonding enthalpy of 67 kJ/mol. The results show that changes in polarizing forces at the benzoyl carbonyl are transmitted to the benzoyl (4) position and correlate with the rate of aromatic nucleophilic addition five chemical bonds away. Interestingly, the relationship between effective polarizing forces and reactivity seen here for dehalogenase is similar to that reported for the addition-elimination reaction involving the hydrolysis of a series of acyl serine proteases.
ESTHER : Dong_2003_Biochemistry_42_9482
PubMedSearch : Dong_2003_Biochemistry_42_9482
PubMedID: 12899635

Title : Genome sequence of Shigella flexneri 2a: insights into pathogenicity through comparison with genomes of Escherichia coli K12 and O157 - Jin_2002_Nucleic.Acids.Res_30_4432
Author(s) : Jin Q , Yuan Z , Xu J , Wang Y , Shen Y , Lu W , Wang J , Liu H , Yang J , Yang F , Zhang X , Zhang J , Yang G , Wu H , Qu D , Dong J , Sun L , Xue Y , Zhao A , Gao Y , Zhu J , Kan B , Ding K , Chen S , Cheng H , Yao Z , He B , Chen R , Ma D , Qiang B , Wen Y , Hou Y , Yu J
Ref : Nucleic Acids Research , 30 :4432 , 2002
Abstract : We have sequenced the genome of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a, the most prevalent species and serotype that causes bacillary dysentery or shigellosis in man. The whole genome is composed of a 4 607 203 bp chromosome and a 221 618 bp virulence plasmid, designated pCP301. While the plasmid shows minor divergence from that sequenced in serotype 5a, striking characteristics of the chromosome have been revealed. The S.flexneri chromosome has, astonishingly, 314 IS elements, more than 7-fold over those possessed by its close relatives, the non-pathogenic K12 strain and enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 strain of Escherichia coli. There are 13 translocations and inversions compared with the E.coli sequences, all involve a segment larger than 5 kb, and most are associated with deletions or acquired DNA sequences, of which several are likely to be bacteriophage-transmitted pathogenicity islands. Furthermore, S.flexneri, resembling another human-restricted enteric pathogen, Salmonella typhi, also has hundreds of pseudogenes compared with the E.coli strains. All of these could be subjected to investigations towards novel preventative and treatment strategies against shigellosis.
ESTHER : Jin_2002_Nucleic.Acids.Res_30_4432
PubMedSearch : Jin_2002_Nucleic.Acids.Res_30_4432
PubMedID: 12384590
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-Aes , ecoli-yafa , ecoli-ycfp , ecoli-yqia , ecoli-YfhR , shifl-AES , shifl-BIOH , shifl-entf , shifl-FES , shifl-PLDB , shifl-PTRB , shifl-SF1334 , shifl-SF1808 , shifl-SF3046 , shifl-SF3908 , shifl-yafa , shifl-YBFF , shifl-YCDJ , shifl-YCJY , shifl-YFBB , shifl-YHET , shifl-YIEL , shifl-YJFP , shifl-YPFH