Dong L

References (40)

Title : Inhibiting PLA2G7 reverses the immunosuppressive function of intratumoral macrophages and augments immunotherapy response in hepatocellular carcinoma - Zhang_2024_J.Immunother.Cancer_12_e008094
Author(s) : Zhang F , Liu W , Meng F , Jiang Q , Tang W , Liu Z , Lin X , Xue R , Zhang S , Dong L
Ref : J Immunother Cancer , 12 : , 2024
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an exceptionally immunosuppressive malignancy characterized by limited treatment options and a dismal prognosis. Macrophages constitute the primary and heterogeneous immune cell population within the HCC microenvironment. Our objective is to identify distinct subsets of macrophages implicated in the progression of HCC and their resistance to immunotherapy. METHODS: Intratumoral macrophage-specific marker genes were identified via single-cell RNA sequencing analyses. The clinical relevance of phospholipase A2 Group VII (PLA2G7), a pivotal enzyme in phospholipid metabolism, was assessed in patients with HCC through immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Flow cytometry and an in vitro co-culture system were used to elucidate the specific role of PLA2G7 in macrophages. Orthotopic and subcutaneous HCC mouse models were employed to evaluate the potential of the PLA2G7 inhibitor in complementing immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy. RESULTS: Single-cell RNA sequencing analyses disclosed predominant PLA2G7 expression in intratumoral macrophages within the HCC microenvironment. The macrophage-specific PLA2G7 was significantly correlated with poorer prognosis and immunotherapy resistance in patients with HCC. PLA2G7(high) macrophages represent a highly immunosuppressive subset and impede CD8 T-cell activation. Pharmacological inhibition of PLA2G7 by darapladib improved the therapeutic efficacy of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibodies in the HCC mouse models. CONCLUSIONS: Macrophage-specific PLA2G7 serves as a novel biomarker capable of prognosticating immunotherapy responsiveness and inhibiting PLA2G7 has the potential to enhance the efficacy of ICB therapy for HCC.
ESTHER : Zhang_2024_J.Immunother.Cancer_12_e008094
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2024_J.Immunother.Cancer_12_e008094
PubMedID: 38272562
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PLA2G7

Title : Neuropathy target esterase activity defines phenotypes among PNPLA6 disorders - Liu_2024_Brain__
Author(s) : Liu J , He Y , Lwin C , Han M , Guan B , Naik A , Bender C , Moore N , Huryn LA , Sergeev YV , Qian H , Zeng Y , Dong L , Liu P , Lei J , Haugen CJ , Prasov L , Shi R , Dollfus H , Aristodemou P , Laich Y , Nemeth AH , Taylor J , Downes S , Krawczynski MR , Meunier I , Strassberg M , Tenney J , Gao J , Shear MA , Moore AT , Duncan JL , Menendez B , Hull S , Vincent AL , Siskind CE , Traboulsi EI , Blackstone C , Sisk RA , Miraldi Utz V , Webster AR , Michaelides M , Arno G , Synofzik M , Hufnagel RB
Ref : Brain , : , 2024
Abstract : Biallelic pathogenic variants in the PNPLA6 gene cause a broad spectrum of disorders leading to gait disturbance, visual impairment, anterior hypopituitarism and hair anomalies. PNPLA6 encodes neuropathy target esterase (NTE), yet the role of NTE dysfunction on affected tissues in the large spectrum of associated disease remains unclear. We present a systematic evidence-based review of a novel cohort of 23 new patients along with 95 reported individuals with PNPLA6 variants that implicate missense variants as a driver of disease pathogenesis. Measuring esterase activity of 46 disease-associated and 20 common variants observed across PNPLA6-associated clinical diagnoses unambiguously reclassified 36 variants as pathogenic and 10 variants as likely pathogenic, establishing a robust functional assay for classifying PNPLA6 variants of unknown significance. Estimating the overall NTE activity of affected individuals revealed a striking inverse relationship between NTE activity and the presence of retinopathy and endocrinopathy. This phenomenon was recaptured in vivo in an allelic mouse series, where a similar NTE threshold for retinopathy exists. Thus, PNPLA6 disorders, previously considered allelic, are a continuous spectrum of pleiotropic phenotypes defined by an NTE genotype:activity:phenotype relationship. This relationship, and the generation of a preclinical animal model, pave the way for therapeutic trials, using NTE as a biomarker.
ESTHER : Liu_2024_Brain__
PubMedSearch : Liu_2024_Brain__
PubMedID: 38735647

Title : Co-occurrence, toxicity, and biotransformation pathways of metformin and its intermediate product guanylurea: Current state and future prospects for enhanced biodegradation strategy - Dong_2024_Sci.Total.Environ_921_171108
Author(s) : Dong L , Li S , Huang J , Li WJ , Ali M
Ref : Sci Total Environ , 921 :171108 , 2024
Abstract : Accumulation of metformin and its biotransformation product "guanylurea" are posing an increasing concern due to their low biodegradability under natural attenuated conditions. Therefore, in this study, we reviewed the unavoidable function of metformin in human body and the route of its release in different water ecosystems. In addition, metformin and its biotransformation product guanylurea in aquatic environments caused certain toxic effects on aquatic organisms which include neurotoxicity, endocrine disruption, production of ROS, and acetylcholinesterase disturbance in aquatic organisms. Moreover, microorganisms are the first to expose and deal with the release of these contaminants, therefore, the mechanisms of biodegradation pathways of metformin and guanylurea under aerobic and anaerobic environments were studied. It has been reported that certain microbes, such as Aminobacter sp. and Pseudomonas putida can carry potential enzymatic pathways to degrade the dead-end product "guanylurea", and hence guanylurea is no longer the dead-end product of metformin. However, these microbes can easily be affected by certain geochemical cycles, therefore, we proposed certain strategies that can be helpful in the enhanced biodegradation of metformin and its biotransformation product guanylurea. A better understanding of the biodegradation potential is imperative to improve the use of these approaches for the sustainable and cost-effective remediation of the emerging contaminants of concern, metformin and guanylurea in the near future.
ESTHER : Dong_2024_Sci.Total.Environ_921_171108
PubMedSearch : Dong_2024_Sci.Total.Environ_921_171108
PubMedID: 38395159

Title : Neuropathy target esterase activity predicts retinopathy among PNPLA6 disorders - Liu_2023_bioRxiv__
Author(s) : Liu J , He Y , Lwin C , Han M , Guan B , Naik A , Bender C , Moore N , Huryn LA , Sergeev Y , Qian H , Zeng Y , Dong L , Liu P , Lei J , Haugen CJ , Prasov L , Shi R , Dollfus H , Aristodemou P , Laich Y , Nemeth AH , Taylor J , Downes S , Krawczynski M , Meunier I , Strassberg M , Tenney J , Gao J , Shear MA , Moore AT , Duncan JL , Menendez B , Hull S , Vincent A , Siskind CE , Traboulsi EI , Blackstone C , Sisk R , Utz V , Webster AR , Michaelides M , Arno G , Synofzik M , Hufnagel RB
Ref : Biorxiv , : , 2023
Abstract : Biallelic pathogenic variants in the PNPLA6 gene cause a broad spectrum of disorders leading to gait disturbance, visual impairment, anterior hypopituitarism, and hair anomalies. PNPLA6 encodes Neuropathy target esterase (NTE), yet the role of NTE dysfunction on affected tissues in the large spectrum of associated disease remains unclear. We present a clinical meta-analysis of a novel cohort of 23 new patients along with 95 reported individuals with PNPLA6 variants that implicate missense variants as a driver of disease pathogenesis. Measuring esterase activity of 46 disease-associated and 20 common variants observed across PNPLA6 -associated clinical diagnoses unambiguously reclassified 10 variants as likely pathogenic and 36 variants as pathogenic, establishing a robust functional assay for classifying PNPLA6 variants of unknown significance. Estimating the overall NTE activity of affected individuals revealed a striking inverse relationship between NTE activity and the presence of retinopathy and endocrinopathy. This phenomenon was recaptured in vivo in an allelic mouse series, where a similar NTE threshold for retinopathy exists. Thus, PNPLA6 disorders, previously considered allelic, are a continuous spectrum of pleiotropic phenotypes defined by an NTE genotype:activity:phenotype relationship. This relationship and the generation of a preclinical animal model pave the way for therapeutic trials, using NTE as a biomarker.
ESTHER : Liu_2023_bioRxiv__
PubMedSearch : Liu_2023_bioRxiv__
PubMedID: 37333224

Title : Maize resistance to witchweed through changes in strigolactone biosynthesis - Li_2023_Science_379_94
Author(s) : Li C , Dong L , Durairaj J , Guan JC , Yoshimura M , Quinodoz P , Horber R , Gaus K , Li J , Setotaw YB , Qi J , De Groote H , Wang Y , Thiombiano B , Flokova K , Walmsley A , Charnikhova TV , Chojnacka A , Correia de Lemos S , Ding Y , Skibbe D , Hermann K , Screpanti C , De Mesmaeker A , Schmelz EA , Menkir A , Medema M , van Dijk ADJ , Wu J , Koch KE , Bouwmeester HJ
Ref : Science , 379 :94 , 2023
Abstract : Maize (Zea mays) is a major staple crop in Africa, where its yield and the livelihood of millions are compromised by the parasitic witchweed Striga. Germination of Striga is induced by strigolactones exuded from maize roots into the rhizosphere. In a maize germplasm collection, we identified two strigolactones, zealactol and zealactonoic acid, which stimulate less Striga germination than the major maize strigolactone, zealactone. We then showed that a single cytochrome P450, ZmCYP706C37, catalyzes a series of oxidative steps in the maize-strigolactone biosynthetic pathway. Reduction in activity of this enzyme and two others involved in the pathway, ZmMAX1b and ZmCLAMT1, can change strigolactone composition and reduce Striga germination and infection. These results offer prospects for breeding Striga-resistant maize.
ESTHER : Li_2023_Science_379_94
PubMedSearch : Li_2023_Science_379_94
PubMedID: 36603079

Title : Fermentation of Lactobacillus fermentum NB02 with feruloyl esterase production increases the phenolic compounds content and antioxidant properties of oat bran - Li_2023_Food.Chem_437_137834
Author(s) : Li Y , Zhang Y , Dong L , Liu Y , Liu L
Ref : Food Chem , 437 :137834 , 2023
Abstract : In this study, strains producing feruloyl esterase were screened by Oxford Cup clear zones method and by evaluating the ability to decompose hydroxycinnamoyl esters. The strain was identified by 16S rDNA molecular biology. The contents of dietary fiber, reducing sugar, water-extractable arabinoxylans, phytic acid, total phenolics, total flavonoid, phenolic compounds composition, microstructure and antioxidant activity in bran before and after fermentation were studied. Eight strains producing feruloyl esterase were screened, among which strain P1 had the strongest ability to decompose hydroxycinnamoyl esters. The strain was identified and named L. fermentum NB02. Compared with unfermented bran, fermented bran exhibited higher contents of soluble dietary fiber, reducing sugar, water-extractable arabinoxylans, total phenolics, total flavonoid, and lower insoluble dietary fiber and phytic acid content. The dense surface structure of bran was destroyed, forming a porous structure. The release of phenolic compounds increased significantly. L. fermentum NB02 fermentation improved the antioxidant capacity of bran.
ESTHER : Li_2023_Food.Chem_437_137834
PubMedSearch : Li_2023_Food.Chem_437_137834
PubMedID: 37897817

Title : Development of Long-Acting Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors: Structural Evolution and Long-Acting Determinants - Li_2023_J.Med.Chem__
Author(s) : Li Q , Deng X , Xu YJ , Dong L
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , : , 2023
Abstract : Considerable effort has been made to achieve less frequent dosing in the development of DPP-4 inhibitors. Enthusiasm for long-acting DPP-4 inhibitors is based on the promise that such agents with less frequent dosing regimens are associated with improved patient adherence, but the rational design of long-acting DPP-4 inhibitors remains a major challenge. In this Perspective, the development of long-acting DPP-4 inhibitors is comprehensively summarized to highlight the evolution of initial lead compounds on the path toward developing long-acting DPP-4 inhibitors over nearly three decades. The determinants for long duration of action are then examined, including the nature of the target, potency, binding kinetics, crystal structures, selectivity, and preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. More importantly, several possible approaches for the rational design of long-acting drugs are discussed. We hope that this information will facilitate the design and development of safer and more effective long-acting DPP-4 inhibitors and other oral drugs.
ESTHER : Li_2023_J.Med.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Li_2023_J.Med.Chem__
PubMedID: 37647598

Title : Metabolomic mechanism and pharmacodynamic material basis of Buxue Yimu pills in the treatment of anaemia in women of reproductive age - Ying-Ying_2022_Front.Pharmacol_13_962850
Author(s) : Ying-Ying G , Yan-Fang W , Yan D , Su-Ying Z , Dong L , Bin L , Xue W , Miao D , Rui-Lin M , Xiao-Hui L , Yu-Pei J , Ai-Jun S
Ref : Front Pharmacol , 13 :962850 , 2022
Abstract : Objective: To explore the pharmacological basis and mechanism of Buxue Yimu pills (BYP) in the treatment of anaemia in women from the perspective of metabolomics and network analysis. Materials and Methods: Forty-six women of reproductive age with haemoglobin 70-110 g/L were recruited. Blood samples were collected before and after 4 weeks of oral BYP treatment to assess the changes in haemoglobin, coagulation function, and iron metabolism indices. An integrated analysis of metabolomics (liquid chromatography mass spectrometry) and network analysis was performed to identify the potential pharmacodynamic mechanisms of BYP. Results: After BYP treatment, the haemoglobin level of patients significantly increased from 93.67 +/- 9.77 g/L to 109.28 +/- 12.62 g/L (p < 0.01), while no significant changes were found in iron metabolism and coagulation-related indicators. A total of 22 differential metabolites were identified after metabolomics analysis, which were mainly related to the inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress. Integrating pharmacodynamics and metabolomics, a network of drug-active components-targets-metabolic pathways-metabolomics was established. Acetylcholinesterase, phospholipase A2 group IIA, and phospholipase A2 group IVA may be the most promising therapeutic targets. Conclusion: BYP can inhibit inflammation and oxidative stress as well as promote haematopoiesis, potentially improving anaemia.
ESTHER : Ying-Ying_2022_Front.Pharmacol_13_962850
PubMedSearch : Ying-Ying_2022_Front.Pharmacol_13_962850
PubMedID: 36703727

Title : The tomato cytochrome P450 CYP712G1 catalyses the double oxidation of orobanchol en route to the rhizosphere signalling strigolactone, solanacol - Wang_2022_New.Phytol__
Author(s) : Wang Y , Durairaj J , Suarez Duran HG , van Velzen R , Flokova K , Liao CY , Chojnacka A , MacFarlane S , Schranz ME , Medema MH , van Dijk ADJ , Dong L , Bouwmeester HJ
Ref : New Phytol , : , 2022
Abstract : Strigolactones (SLs) are rhizosphere signalling molecules and phytohormones. The biosynthetic pathway of SLs in tomato has been partially elucidated, but the structural diversity in tomato SLs predicts that additional biosynthetic steps are required. Here, root RNA-seq data and co-expression analysis were used for SL biosynthetic gene discovery. This strategy resulted in a candidate gene list containing several cytochrome P450s. Heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and yeast showed that one of these, CYP712G1, can catalyse the double oxidation of orobanchol, resulting in the formation of three didehydro-orobanchol (DDH) isomers. Virus-induced gene silencing and heterologous expression in yeast showed that one of these DDH isomers is converted to solanacol, one of the most abundant SLs in tomato root exudate. Protein modelling and substrate docking analysis suggest that hydroxy-orbanchol is the likely intermediate in the conversion from orobanchol to the DDH isomers. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the occurrence of CYP712G1 homologues in the Eudicots only, which fits with the reports on DDH isomers in that clade. Protein modelling and orobanchol docking of the putative tobacco CYP712G1 homologue suggest that it can convert orobanchol to similar DDH isomers as tomato.
ESTHER : Wang_2022_New.Phytol__
PubMedSearch : Wang_2022_New.Phytol__
PubMedID: 35612785

Title : Maize domestication phenotypes reveal strigolactone networks coordinating grain size evolution with kernel-bearing cupule architecture - Guan_2022_Plant.Cell__
Author(s) : Guan JC , Li C , Flint-Garcia S , Suzuki M , Wu S , Saunders JW , Dong L , Bouwmeester HJ , McCarty DR , Koch KE
Ref : Plant Cell , : , 2022
Abstract : The maize (Zea mays) ear represents one of the most striking domestication phenotypes in any crop species, with the cob conferring an exceptional yield advantage over the ancestral form of teosinte. Remodeling of the grain-bearing surface required profound developmental changes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and can only be partly attributed to the known domestication gene Teosinte glume architecture 1 (Tga1). Here we show that a more complete conversion involves strigolactones (SLs), and that these are prominent players not only in the Tga1 phenotype, but also other domestication features of the ear and kernel. Genetic combinations of a teosinte tga1 allele with three SL-related mutants progressively enhanced ancestral morphologies. The SL mutants, in addition to modulating the tga1 phenotype, also reshaped kernel-bearing pedicels and cupules in a teosinte-like manner. Genetic and molecular evidence are consistent with SL regulation of TGA1, including direct interaction of TGA1 with components of the SL-signaling system shown here to mediate TGA1 availability by sequestration. Roles of the SL network extend to enhancing maize seed size and, importantly, coordinating increased kernel growth with remodeling of protective maternal tissues. Collectively, our data show that SLs have central roles in releasing kernels from restrictive maternal encasement and coordinating other factors that increase kernel size, physical support, and their exposure on the grain-bearing surface.
ESTHER : Guan_2022_Plant.Cell__
PubMedSearch : Guan_2022_Plant.Cell__
PubMedID: 36573016

Title : A carlactonoic acid methyltransferase that contributes to the inhibition of shoot branching in Arabidopsis - Mashiguchi_2022_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_119_e2111565119
Author(s) : Mashiguchi K , Seto Y , Onozuka Y , Suzuki S , Takemoto K , Wang Y , Dong L , Asami K , Noda R , Kisugi T , Kitaoka N , Akiyama K , Bouwmeester H , Yamaguchi S
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 119 :e2111565119 , 2022
Abstract : SignificanceStrigolactones (SLs) are a group of apocarotenoid hormones, which regulates shoot branching and other diverse developmental processes in plants. The major bioactive form(s) of SLs as endogenous hormones has not yet been clarified. Here, we identify an Arabidopsis methyltransferase, CLAMT, responsible for the conversion of an inactive precursor to a biologically active SL that can interact with the SL receptor in vitro. Reverse genetic analysis showed that this enzyme plays an essential role in inhibiting shoot branching. This mutant also contributed to specifying the SL-related metabolites that could move from root to shoot in grafting experiments. Our work has identified a key enzyme necessary for the production of the bioactive form(s) of SLs.
ESTHER : Mashiguchi_2022_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_119_e2111565119
PubMedSearch : Mashiguchi_2022_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_119_e2111565119
PubMedID: 35344437

Title : Fine mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene MlWE74 derived from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) in an NBS-LRR gene cluster - Zhu_2022_Theor.Appl.Genet__
Author(s) : Zhu K , Li M , Wu H , Zhang D , Dong L , Wu Q , Chen Y , Xie J , Lu P , Guo G , Zhang H , Zhang P , Li B , Li W , Wang Q , Zhu J , Hu W , Guo L , Wang R , Yuan C , Li H , Liu Z , Hua W
Ref : Theor Appl Genet , : , 2022
Abstract : Powdery mildew resistance gene MlWE74, originated from wild emmer wheat accession G-748-M, was mapped in an NBS-LRR gene cluster of chromosome 2BS. Wheat powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a globally devastating disease. Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) is a valuable genetic resource for improving disease resistance in common wheat. A powdery mildew resistance gene was transferred to hexaploid wheat line WE74 from wild emmer accession G-748-M. Genetic analysis revealed that the powdery mildew resistance in WE74 is controlled by a single dominant gene, herein temporarily designated MlWE74. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and molecular mapping delimited MlWE74 to the terminal region of chromosome 2BS flanking by markers WGGBD412 and WGGBH346 within a genetic interval of 0.25 cM and corresponding to 799.9 kb genomic region in the Zavitan reference sequence. Sequence annotation revealed two phosphoglycerate mutase-like genes, an alpha/beta-hydrolases gene, and five NBS-LRR disease resistance genes that could serve as candidates for map-based cloning of MlWE74. The geographical location analysis indicated that MlWE74 is mainly distributed in Rosh Pinna and Amirim regions, in the northern part of Israel, where environmental conditions are favorable to the occurrence of powdery mildew. Moreover, the co-segregated marker WGGBD425 is helpful in marker-assisted transfer of MlWE74 into elite cultivars.
ESTHER : Zhu_2022_Theor.Appl.Genet__
PubMedSearch : Zhu_2022_Theor.Appl.Genet__
PubMedID: 35006335

Title : An esterase-activatable curcumin prodrug for tumor-targeting therapy - Liu_2022_Chem.Commun.(Camb)__
Author(s) : Liu L , Zhang L , Tao M , Wang M , Dong L , Hai Z
Ref : Chem Commun (Camb) , : , 2022
Abstract : A tumor-targeting therapy strategy is urgently needed to increase the accumulation of drugs in tumors and reduce the side effects in normal tissues. Herein, we developed an esterase-activatable curcumin prodrug Cur-RGD for tumor-targeting therapy. Armed with the tumor-targeting RGD peptide and in situ esterase-triggered drug release, this prodrug Cur-RGD can efficiently improve the therapeutic effect of curcumin in tumors.
ESTHER : Liu_2022_Chem.Commun.(Camb)__
PubMedSearch : Liu_2022_Chem.Commun.(Camb)__
PubMedID: 36373630

Title : Platelet activating-factor acetylhydrolase II: A member of phospholipase A2 family that hydrolyzes oxidized phospholipids - Dong_2021_Chem.Phys.Lipids_239_105103
Author(s) : Dong L , Li Y , Wu H
Ref : Chemistry & Physic of Lipids , 239 :105103 , 2021
Abstract : Intracellular platelet activating-factor acetylhydrolase type II (PAF-AH II) is a 40-kDa monomeric enzyme. It was originally identified as an enzyme that hydrolyzes the acetyl group of PAF (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine). As a member of phospholipase A2 super family, PAF-AH II has broad substrate specificity. It can hydrolyze phospholipids with relatively short-length or oxidatively modified sn-2 chains which endows it with various functions such as protection against oxidative stress, transacetylase activity and producing lipid mediators. PAF-AH II has been proven to be involved in several diseases such as allergic diseases, oxidative stress-induced injury and ischemia injury, thus it has drawn more attention from researchers. In this paper, we outline an entire summary of PAF-AH II, including its structure, substrate specificity, activity assay, inhibitors and biological activities.
ESTHER : Dong_2021_Chem.Phys.Lipids_239_105103
PubMedSearch : Dong_2021_Chem.Phys.Lipids_239_105103
PubMedID: 34116047
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-PAFAH2

Title : Adaptation of the parasitic plant lifecycle: germination is controlled by essential host signaling molecules - Bouwmeester_2021_Plant.Physiol_185_1292
Author(s) : Bouwmeester H , Li C , Thiombiano B , Rahimi M , Dong L
Ref : Plant Physiol , 185 :1292 , 2021
Abstract : Parasitic plants are plants that connect with a haustorium to the vasculature of another, host, plant from which they absorb water, assimilates, and nutrients. Because of this parasitic lifestyle, parasitic plants need to coordinate their lifecycle with that of their host. Parasitic plants have evolved a number of host detection/host response mechanisms of which the germination in response to chemical host signals in one of the major families of parasitic plants, the Orobanchaceae, is a striking example. In this update review, we discuss these germination stimulants. We review the different compound classes that function as germination stimulants, how they are produced, and in which host plants. We discuss why they are reliable signals, how parasitic plants have evolved mechanisms that detect and respond to them, and whether they play a role in host specificity. The advances in the knowledge underlying this signaling relationship between host and parasitic plant have greatly improved our understanding of the evolution of plant parasitism and are facilitating the development of more effective control measures in cases where these parasitic plants have developed into weeds.
ESTHER : Bouwmeester_2021_Plant.Physiol_185_1292
PubMedSearch : Bouwmeester_2021_Plant.Physiol_185_1292
PubMedID: 33793901

Title : NDRG1 facilitates lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by maintaining the stability of the KSHV helicase - Dong_2021_PLoS.Pathog_17_e1009645
Author(s) : Dong L , Dong J , Xiang M , Lei P , Li Z , Zhang F , Sun X , Niu D , Bai L , Lan K
Ref : PLoS Pathog , 17 :e1009645 , 2021
Abstract : The presumed DNA helicase encoded by ORF44 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays a crucial role in unwinding viral double-stranded DNA and initiating DNA replication during lytic reactivation. However, the regulatory mechanism of KSHV ORF44 has not been fully elucidated. In a previous study, we identified that N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), a host scaffold protein, facilitates viral genome replication by interacting with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the latent viral protein latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) during viral latency. In the present study, we further demonstrated that NDRG1 can interact with KSHV ORF44 during viral lytic replication. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of NDRG1 were significantly increased by KSHV ORF50-encoded replication and transcription activator (RTA). Remarkably, knockdown of NDRG1 greatly decreased the protein level of ORF44 and impaired viral lytic replication. Interestingly, NDRG1 enhanced the stability of ORF44 and inhibited its ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation by reducing the polyubiquitination of the lysine residues at positions 79 and 368 in ORF44. In summary, NDRG1 is a novel binding partner of ORF44 and facilitates viral lytic replication by maintaining the stability of ORF44. This study provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying KSHV lytic replication.
ESTHER : Dong_2021_PLoS.Pathog_17_e1009645
PubMedSearch : Dong_2021_PLoS.Pathog_17_e1009645
PubMedID: 34077484
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NDRG1

Title : Comparison of four markers of hepatic fibrosis and hepatic function indices in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatoma - Ma_2021_Ann.Palliat.Med__
Author(s) : Ma HY , Dong L , Quan SZ , Li RY , Wang XR
Ref : Ann Palliat Med , : , 2021
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to compare four hepatic fibrosis markers [i.e., hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen III N-terminal peptide (PIIINP), and collagen type IV (CIV)] and 16 hepatic function indices in patients with liver cirrhosis of varying etiology. METHODS: The hepatic function indices and hepatic fibrosis markers were measured in 108 patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatoma using an automatic biochemical analyzer and luminescent immune analyzer. Twenty healthy controls were enrolled to compare the differences between liver cirrhosis and hepatoma of varying etiology and to analyze the correlations between the hepatic function indices and fibrosis markers. RESULTS: There was no correlation between alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein (TP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), or the four markers of hepatic fibrosis in liver cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B (P>0.05). Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was positively correlated with HA (r=0.428, P=0.007), LN (r=0.458, P=0.004), and CIV (r=0.374, P=0.021). Total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) were positively correlated with LN (TBIL: r=0.480, P=0.002; DBIL: r=0.457, P=0.004), PIIINP (TBIL: r=0.380, P=0.017; DBIL: r=0.406, P=0.011), and CIV (TBIL: r=0.415, P=0.010; DBIL: r=0.400, P=0.013). Total bile acid (TBA) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) were positively correlated with PIIINP (TBA: r=0.363, P=0.025; GGT: r=0.353, P=0.029) and CIV (TBA: r=0.419, P=0.009; GGT: r=0.335, P=0.040). Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) was positively correlated with LN (r=0.482, P=0.002). Cholinesterase (CHE) (HA: r=-0.452, P=0.004, LN: r=-0.336, P=0.039; PIIINP: r=-0.468, P=0.003; CIV: r=-0.485, P=0.002), prealbumin (PA) (HA: r=-0.575, P=0.000, LN: r=-0.413, P=0.010; PIIINP: r=-0.344, P=0.035; CIV: r=-0.371, P=0.022), albumin (ALB) (HA: r=-0.541, P=0.000, LN: r=-0.373, P=0.021; PIIINP: r=-0.353, P=0.030; CIV: r=-0.415, P=0.010), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (HA: r=-0.334, P=0.040, LN: r=-0.347, P=0.033; PIIINP: r=-0.487, P=0.002; CIV: r=-0.536, P=0.001) were negatively correlated with the four markers of hepatic fibrosis. There was no correlation between ALT, AST, TBIL, TP, ALP, GGT, or the four hepatic fibrosis markers in hepatoma caused by hepatitis B (P>0.05). Meanwhile, DBIL and TBA were positively correlated with CIV (DBIL: r=0.519, P=0.023; TBA: r=0.563, P=0.012), while CHE (r=-0.604, P=0.006), ALB (r=-0.564, P=0.012), and SOD (r=-0.489, P=0.034) were negatively correlated with CIV. Moreover, PA was negatively correlated with LN (r=-0.510, P=0.026) and CIV (r=-0.696, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The concentrations of the serological indices differed significantly based on the specific liver cirrhosis etiology. There was a strong correlation between the hepatic function indices and four hepatic fibrosis markers. Thus, the detection of these markers might improve the diagnosis and treatment of hepatoma.
ESTHER : Ma_2021_Ann.Palliat.Med__
PubMedSearch : Ma_2021_Ann.Palliat.Med__
PubMedID: 33832299

Title : Strigolactones regulate sepal senescence in Arabidopsis - Xu_2021_J.Exp.Bot__
Author(s) : Xu X , Jibran R , Wang Y , Dong L , Flokova K , Esfandiari A , McLachlan ARG , Heiser A , Sutherland-Smith AJ , Brummell DA , Bouwmeester HJ , Dijkwel PP , Hunter DA
Ref : J Exp Bot , : , 2021
Abstract : Flower sepals are critical for flower development and vary greatly in lifespan depending on their function post-pollination. Very little is known about what controls sepal longevity. Using a sepal senescence mutant screen, we identified two Arabidopsis mutants with delayed senescence directly connecting strigolactones (SL) with senescence regulation in a novel floral context that hitherto has not been explored. The mutations were in the SL biosynthetic gene MORE AXILLARY GROWTH1 (MAX1) and in the SL receptor DWARF14 (AtD14). The mutation in AtD14 changed the catalytic Ser97 to Phe in the enzyme active site, which is the first mutation of its kind in planta. The lesion in MAX1 was in the haem-iron ligand signature of the cytochrome P450 protein, converting the highly conserved Gly469 to Arg, which was shown in a transient expression assay to substantially inhibit activity of MAX1. The two mutations highlighted the importance of SL activity for driving to completion senescence initiated both developmentally and in response to carbon-limiting stress, as has been found for the more well-known senescence-associated regulators ethylene and abscisic acid. Analysis of transcript abundances in excised inflorescences during an extended night suggested an intricate relationship among sugar starvation, senescence and SL biosynthesis and signalling.
ESTHER : Xu_2021_J.Exp.Bot__
PubMedSearch : Xu_2021_J.Exp.Bot__
PubMedID: 33970249

Title : The cholinergic system, intelligence, and dental fluorosis in school-aged children with low-to-moderate fluoride exposure - Wang_2021_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_228_112959
Author(s) : Wang S , Zhao Q , Li G , Wang M , Liu H , Yu X , Chen J , Li P , Dong L , Zhou G , Cui Y , Liu L , Wang A
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 228 :112959 , 2021
Abstract : Disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission can affect cognition, but little is known about whether low-to-moderate fluoride exposure affects cholinergic system and its effect on the prevalence of dental fluorosis (DF) and intelligence quotient (IQ). A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the associations of moderate fluoride exposure and cholinergic system in relation to children's DF and IQ. We recruited 709 resident children in Tianjin, China. Ion selective electrode method was used to detect fluoride concentrations in water and urine. Cholinergic system was assessed by the detection of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and acetylcholine (ACh) levels in serum. Compared with children in the first quartile, those in fourth quartile the risk of either developing DF or IQ < 120 increased by 19% and 20% for water and urinary fluoride. The risk of having both increased by 58% and 62% in third and fourth quartile for water fluoride, 52% and 65% for urinary fluoride. Water fluoride concentrations were positively associated with AChE and negatively associated with ChAT and ACh, trends were same for urinary fluoride except for ACh. The risk of either developing DF or having non-high intelligence rose by 22% (95%CI: 1.07%, 1.38%) for the fourth quartile than those in the first quartile of AChE, for having the both, the risk was 1.27 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.50), 1.37 (95%CI: 1.17, 1.62) and 1.44 (95%CI: 1.23, 1.68) in second, third and fourth quartiles. The mediation proportion by AChE between water fluoride and either developing DF or IQ < 120 was 15.7%. For both to exist, the proportion was 6.7% and 7.2% for water and urinary fluoride. Our findings suggest low-to-moderate fluoride exposure was associated with dysfunction of cholinergic system for children. AChE may partly mediate the prevalence of DF and lower probability of having superior and above intelligence.
ESTHER : Wang_2021_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_228_112959
PubMedSearch : Wang_2021_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_228_112959
PubMedID: 34808511

Title : Ultrasound Combined With Microbubbles Loading BDNF Retrovirus to Open BloodBrain Barrier for Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease - Wang_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_615104
Author(s) : Wang F , Wei XX , Chang LS , Dong L , Wang YL , Li NN
Ref : Front Pharmacol , 12 :615104 , 2021
Abstract : Background: Brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) is a promising effective target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). BDNF, which has a high molecular weight, has difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The study aimed to prepare microbubbles loading brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) retrovirus (MpLXSN-BDNF), to verify the characteristics of the microbubbles, and to study the therapeutic effect of the microbubbles combined with ultrasound on the opening of the blood-brain barrier in an AD rat model. Methods: 32 adult male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, ultrasound + pLXSN-EGFP microbubble group (U + MpLXSN-BDNF), ultrasound + pLXSN-BDNF microbubble group, and ultrasound + microbubble + pLXSN-BDNF virus group (U + MpLXSN-BDNF), with eight rats in each group. At the same time, the left hippocampus of rats was irradiated with low-frequency focused ultrasound guided by MRI to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The effects of BDNF overexpression on AD rats were evaluated behaviorally before and 1 month after the treatment. The number of acetylcholinesterase (ChAT)-positive cells and the content of acetylcholine (ACh) in brain tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. IF staining of synaptic spines and Western blot of synaptophysin presented herein detected synaptic density recovery. Results: Signal intensity enhancement at the BBB disruption sites could be observed on the MR images. The behavioral evaluation showed that the times of crossing the original platform in the U + MpLXSN-BDNF group increased significantly after treatment. Immunohistochemistry and HPLC revealed that the number of ChAT-positive neurons and the contents of ACh in the brain were significantly decreased in the treated groups compared with the controls. IF staining of synaptic spines and Western blot data of synaptophysin showed that the U + MpLXSN-BDNF group can recover the synaptic loss better by BDNF supplementation than the other treatment groups. Conclusion: Ultrasound combined with viral microbubbles carrying BDNF can increase the transfection efficiency of brain neurons, promote the high expression of exogenous gene BDNF, and play a therapeutic role in the AD model rats.
ESTHER : Wang_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_615104
PubMedSearch : Wang_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_615104
PubMedID: 33746754

Title : Crystal structure of fungal tannase from Aspergillus niger - Dong_2021_Acta.Crystallogr.D.Struct.Biol_77_267
Author(s) : Dong L , McKinstry WJ , Pan L , Newman J , Ren B
Ref : Acta Crystallographica D Struct Biol , 77 :267 , 2021
Abstract : Tannases are serine esterases that were first discovered in fungi more than one and half centuries ago. They catalyze the hydrolysis of the gallolyl ester bonds in gallotannins to release gallic acid, which is an important intermediate in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Since their discovery, fungal tannases have found wide industrial applications, although there is scarce knowledge about these enzymes at the molecular level, including their catalytic and substrate-binding sites. While this lack of knowledge hinders engineering efforts to modify the enzymes, many tannases have been isolated from various fungal strains in a search for the desired enzymatic properties. Here, the first crystal structure of a fungal tannase, that from Aspergillus niger, is reported. The enzyme possesses a typical alpha/beta-hydrolase-fold domain with a large inserted cap domain, which together form a bowl-shaped hemispherical shape with a surface concavity surrounded by N-linked glycans. Gallic acid is bound at the junction of the two domains within the concavity by forming two hydrogen-bonding networks with neighbouring residues. One is formed around the carboxyl group of the gallic acid and involves residues from the hydrolase-fold domain, including those from the catalytic triad, which consists of Ser206, His485 and Asp439. The other is formed around the three hydroxyl groups of the compound, with the involvement of residues mainly from the cap domain, including Gln238, Gln239, His242 and Ser441. Gallic acid is bound in a sandwich-like mode by forming a hydrophobic contact with Ile442. All of these residues are found to be highly conserved among fungal and yeast tannases.
ESTHER : Dong_2021_Acta.Crystallogr.D.Struct.Biol_77_267
PubMedSearch : Dong_2021_Acta.Crystallogr.D.Struct.Biol_77_267
PubMedID: 33559614
Gene_locus related to this paper: aspnc-a2qir3

Title : Dammarane Sapogenins Improving Simulated Weightlessness-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Cognitive Dysfunction in Rats - Wang_2021_Front.Psychiatry_12_638328
Author(s) : Wang Q , Dong L , Wang M , Chen S , Li S , Chen Y , He W , Zhang H , Zhang Y , Pires Dias AC , Yang S , Liu X
Ref : Front Psychiatry , 12 :638328 , 2021
Abstract : Background: Our studies demonstrated that the space environment has an impact on the brain function of astronauts. Numerous ground-based microgravity and social isolation showed that the space environment can induce brain function damages in humans and animals. Dammarane sapogenins (DS), an active fraction from oriental ginseng, possesses neuropsychic protective effects and has been shown to improve depression and memory. This study aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of DS in attenuating depressive-like behaviors and cognitive deficiency induced by simulated weightlessness and isolation [hindlimb suspension and isolation (HLSI)] in rats. Methods: Male rats were orally administered with two different doses of DS (37.5, 75 mg/kg) for 14 days, and huperzine-A (1 mg/kg) served as positive control. Rats were subjected to HLSI for 14 days except the control group during drug administration. The depressive-like behaviors were then evaluated by the open-field test, the novel object recognition test, and the forced swimming test. The spatial memory and working memory were evaluated by the Morris water maze (MWM) test, and the related mechanism was further explored by analyzing the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus of rats. Results: The results showed that DS treatment significantly reversed the HLSI-induced depressive-like behaviors in the open-field test, the novel object recognition test, and the forced swimming test and improved the HLSI-induced cognitive impairment in the MWM test. Furthermore, after DS treatment, the ChAT and SOD activities of HLSI rats were increased while AChE activity was significantly suppressed. Conclusions: These findings clearly demonstrated that DS might exert a significant neuropsychic protective effect induced by spaceflight environment, driven in part by the modulation of cholinergic system and anti-oxidation in the hippocampus.
ESTHER : Wang_2021_Front.Psychiatry_12_638328
PubMedSearch : Wang_2021_Front.Psychiatry_12_638328
PubMedID: 33841208

Title : Red ginseng has stronger anti-aging effects compared to ginseng possibly due to its regulation of oxidative stress and the gut microbiota - Peng_2021_Phytomedicine_93_153772
Author(s) : Peng X , Hao M , Zhao Y , Cai Y , Chen X , Chen H , Zhang Y , Dong L , Liu X , Ding C , Liu W , Yang M , Luo Y
Ref : Phytomedicine , 93 :153772 , 2021
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng (PG) and red ginseng (RG) are considered to be effective anti-aging treatments. However, evidence of their therapeutic mechanisms and difference in anti-aging effects is lacking. PURPOSE: To explore the potential therapeutic mechanisms of RG and PG in brain damage in D-Gal-induced aging mice, and evaluate the difference in anti-aging effects caused by their compositional differences. METHODS: We first tested the chemical components in PG and RG. In D-Gal aging mouse model, RG and PG (800 mg/kg) were orally administered for 9 weeks. The mice performed the Radial Arm Maze (RAM) behavior test. We collected blood, brain tissue, and fecal samples and performed biochemical analysis, histological examination, western blot, and Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis. RESULTS: The results of component analysis showed that the total polyphenols and rare ginsenosides were present in RG in 3.2, and 2.2 fold greater concentrations, respectively, compared to PG, while the proportion of non-starch polysaccharides in the crude polysaccharides of RG was 1.94 fold greater than that of PG. In D-Gal-induced aging mice, both PG and RG could prevent the increase in acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and improved the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in the serum. Meanwhile, both PG and RG could ameliorate brain tissue architecture and behavioral trial. In addition, the D-Gal-induced translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), as well as activation of the pro-apoptotic factors Caspase-3 and the PI3K/Akt pathways were inhibited by PG and RG. Overall, both PG and RG exerted anti-aging effects, with RG stronger than PG. Finally, although both PG and RG regulated the diversity of gut microbes, RG appeared to aggravate the increase in probiotics, such as Bifidobacterium and Akkermania, and the decrease in inflammatory bacteria to a greater extent compared to PG. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that RG is more conducive to delay the D-Gal-induced aging process than PG, with possible mechanisms including beneficial changes in brain structure, cognitive functions, oxidative stress inhibition, and gut microbiome structure and diversity than PG, These mechanisms may rely on the presence of more total polyphenols, rare ginsenosides and non-starch polysaccharides in RG.
ESTHER : Peng_2021_Phytomedicine_93_153772
PubMedSearch : Peng_2021_Phytomedicine_93_153772
PubMedID: 34753028

Title : In vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of phytosterol oleogels: influence of self-assembled microstructures on emulsification efficiency and lipase activity - Dong_2020_Food.Funct_11_9503
Author(s) : Dong L , Lv M , Gao X , Zhang L , Rogers M , Cao Y , Lan Y
Ref : Food Funct , 11 :9503 , 2020
Abstract : The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of self-assembled microstructure on lipid digestibility in phytosterol (gamma-oryzanol and beta-sitosterol) oleogels. Different molar ratios of gamma-oryzanol and beta-sitosterol yielded a variety of crystal morphologies; the resulting gels were tested for their lipid emulsification efficiency, release rate of free fatty acids (FFAs) during lipolysis, and their effect on lipase behavior. Results indicated that oleogels were harder to emulsify when compared to oil samples. The emulsification efficiencly was affected by both the gel strength and crystal morphology of the self-assembled structures within phytosterol oleogels. In oil emulsions, intestinal digestion resulted in more extensive lipid droplet coalescence with increased particle size when compared to oleogel emulsions. The FFA release rate suggested that the extent of lipid digestion was correlated to the emulsification efficiency. The interfacial binding of lipase indicated that the amount of lipase adsorption was positively correlated to the interface area created during the emulsification process. Finally, isothermal titration calorimetry results indicated that self-assembled structures within these oleogels physically obstructed the interaction between lipase and lipid. Ultimately, this led to lower reaction rate during gastrointestinal digestion. Collectively, these results may have important implications in designing oleogel systems with controlled lipid digestibility as well as controlling the bioavailability of delivered lipid-soluble bioactive compounds.
ESTHER : Dong_2020_Food.Funct_11_9503
PubMedSearch : Dong_2020_Food.Funct_11_9503
PubMedID: 32955534

Title : Insecticide Resistance Status and Mechanisms of Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Wenzhou, an Important Coastal Port City in China - Chen_2019_J.Med.Entomol_56_803
Author(s) : Chen S , Qin Q , Zhong D , Fang X , He H , Wang L , Dong L , Lin H , Zhang M , Cui L , Yan G
Ref : Journal of Medical Entomology , 56 :803 , 2019
Abstract : Although scaled-up interventions and effective control efforts have drastically reduced malaria morbidity and mortality, malaria remains a serious threat to public health worldwide. Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann 1828 is a historically important vector of Plasmodium vivax (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) malaria in China. Insecticide resistance has become a major obstacle to vector-borne disease control. However, little is known about the insecticide resistance of An. sinensis in Wenzhou, an important coastal port city in Zhejiang province, China. The aim of this study was to examine insecticide resistance and mechanisms in An. sinensis field mosquito populations. Evidence of multiple insecticide resistance was found in An. sinensis adult female populations. Medium to high frequencies of target site kdr together with fixed ace-1 mutations was detected in both the Ruian and Yongjia populations. Both populations showed an association between kdr L1014 mutation and resistance phenotype when tested against deltamethrin and DDT. Significantly different metabolic enzyme activities were found between the susceptible laboratory strain and field-collected mosquitoes from both Ruian and Yongjia. Both field collected An. sinensis populations exhibited significantly higher P450 enzyme activity compared with the laboratory strain, while the field-collected resistant mosquitoes exhibited various GST and COE enzyme activities. These results indicate multiple resistance mechanisms in An. sinensis field populations. Effective implementation of insecticide resistance management strategies is urgently needed. The data collected in this study will be valuable for modeling insecticide resistance spread and vector-control interventions.
ESTHER : Chen_2019_J.Med.Entomol_56_803
PubMedSearch : Chen_2019_J.Med.Entomol_56_803
PubMedID: 30715428

Title : Neuroprotective effects of 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT) on scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in mice - Lu_2018_Phytother.Res_32_1056
Author(s) : Lu C , Lv J , Dong L , Jiang N , Wang Y , Wang Q , Li Y , Chen S , Fan B , Wang F , Liu X
Ref : Phytother Res , 32 :1056 , 2018
Abstract : 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), one of the ginsenosides from Panax ginseng, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects and to improve memory. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of PPT on scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were pretreated with 2 different doses of PPT (20 and 40 mumol/kg) for 27 days by intraperitoneal injection, and scopolamine (0.75 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 9 days to induce memory impairment. Thirty minutes after the last pretreatment, the locomotor activity was firstly examined to evaluate the motor function of mice. Then, memory-related behaviors were evaluated, and the related mechanism was further researched. It was founded that PPT treatment significantly reversed scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the object location recognition experiment, the Morris water maze test, and the passive avoidance task, showing memory-improving effects. PPT also significantly improved cholinergic system reactivity and suppressed oxidative stress, indicated by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity, elevation of acetylcholine levels, increasing superoxide dismutase activity and lowering levels of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus. In addition, the expression levels of Egr-1, c-Jun, and cAMP responsive element binding in the hippocampus were significantly elevated by PPT administration. These results suggest that PPT may be a potential drug candidate for the treatment of cognitive deficit in Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Lu_2018_Phytother.Res_32_1056
PubMedSearch : Lu_2018_Phytother.Res_32_1056
PubMedID: 29468740

Title : Expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase in renal tubular epithelial cells regulates macrophage infiltration and polarization in IgA nephropathy - Wang_2018_Am.J.Physiol.Renal.Physiol_315_F915
Author(s) : Wang Q , Liang Y , Qiao Y , Zhao X , Yang Y , Yang S , Li B , Zhao Q , Dong L , Quan S , Tian R , Liu Z
Ref : American Journal of Physiology Renal Physiol , 315 :F915 , 2018
Abstract : Tubulointerstitial inflammatory cell infiltration and activation contribute to kidney inflammation and fibrosis. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which are rapidly metabolized to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), have multiple biological functions, including vasodilation, anti-inflammatory action, and others. Inhibition of sEH has been demonstrated to attenuate inflammation in many renal disease models. However, the relationship between sEH expression and macrophage polarization in the kidney remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the relationships between the level of sEH and clinical and pathological parameters in IgA nephropathy. The level of sEH expression positively correlated with proteinuria and infiltration of macrophages. sEH-positive tubules were found to be surrounded by macrophages. Furthermore, we found that incubation of immortalized human proximal tubular HK-2 cells with total urinary protein and overexpression of sEH promoted inflammatory factor production, which was associated with M1 polarization. We also exposed RAW264.7 mouse leukemic monocytes/macrophages to different HK-2 cell culture media conditioned by incubation with various substances affecting sEH amount or activity. We found that the upregulation of sEH promoted M1 polarization. However, pharmacological inhibition of sEH and supplementation with EETs reversed the conditioning effects of urinary proteins by inhibiting M1 polarization through the NF-kappaB pathway and stimulating M2 polarization through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. These data suggest that inhibition of sEH could be a new strategy to prevent the progression of inflammation and to attenuate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis.
ESTHER : Wang_2018_Am.J.Physiol.Renal.Physiol_315_F915
PubMedSearch : Wang_2018_Am.J.Physiol.Renal.Physiol_315_F915
PubMedID: 29717935

Title : A water-assisted nucleophilic mechanism utilized by BphD, the meta-cleavage product hydrolase in biphenyl degradation - Dong_2017_J.Mol.Graph.Model_76_448
Author(s) : Dong L , Zhang S , Liu Y
Ref : J Mol Graph Model , 76 :448 , 2017
Abstract : As members of the alpha/beta-hydrolase superfamily, Meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolases generally utilize a Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad to hydrolyze the cleavage of CC bond during the aerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by bacteria. BphD is one kind of MCP hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA) to 2-hydroxypenta-2,4-dienoic acid (HPD) and benzoate. In this article, a combined quantum mechanics and molecule mechanics (QM/MM) approach has been employed to explore the reaction mechanism of BphD from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. On the basis of the recently resolved crystal structures, three computational models have been constructed. Our calculation results reveal that BphD utilizes a water-assisted nucleophilic mechanism, which contains acylation and deacylation stages. In acylation reaction, an active site water molecule assists the proton transfer from Ser112 to the carbanion intermediate (substrate) by forming hydrogen bonds with Ser112 and His265, and this proton transfer is in concert with the nucleophilic attack of deprotonated Ser112 on the C6-carbonyl of substrate to form the acylated intermediate. In deacylation, the Asp237-His265 dyad acts as a general base to activate the hydrolytic water, whose nucleophilic attack leads to the collapses of acyl-enzyme intermediate. The acylation and deacylation process correspond to the highest energy barriers of 21.0 and 23.9kcal/mol, respectively. During the catalytic reaction, the active site water and Asp237-His265 dyad play an important role for each elementary steps.
ESTHER : Dong_2017_J.Mol.Graph.Model_76_448
PubMedSearch : Dong_2017_J.Mol.Graph.Model_76_448
PubMedID: 28783597
Gene_locus related to this paper: burxl-bphD

Title : 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment via regulation of cholinergic and antioxidant systems, and expression of Egr-1, c-Fos and c-Jun in mice - Lu_2017_Chem.Biol.Interact_279_64
Author(s) : Lu C , Dong L , Lv J , Wang Y , Fan B , Wang F , Liu X
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 279 :64 , 2017
Abstract : 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) possesses various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anti-fatigue properties. Recent studies found that PPD functioned as a neurotrophic agent to ameliorate the sensory deficit caused by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity through its antioxidant effects and exhibited strong antidepressant-like effects in vivo. The objective of the present study was first to investigate the effect of PPD in scopolamine (SCOP)-induced memory deficit in mice and the potential mechanisms involved. In this study, mice were pretreated with PPD (20 and 40 mumol/kg) and donepezil (1.6 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p) for 14 days. Then, open field test was used to assess the effect of PPD on the locomotor activity and mice were daily injected with SCOP (0.75 mg/kg) to induce cognitive deficits and then subjected to behavioral tests by object location recognition (OLR) experiment and Morris water maze (MWM) task. The cholinergic system function, oxidative stress biomarkers and protein expression of Egr-1, c-Fos, and c-Jun in mouse hippocampus were examined. PPD was found to significantly improve the performance of amnesia mice in OLR and MWM tests. PPD regulated cholinergic function by inhibiting SCOP-induced elevation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, decline of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and decrease of acetylcholine (Ach) level. PPD suppressed oxidative stress by increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lowering maleic diadehyde (MDA) level. Additionally, PPD significantly elevated the expression of Egr-1, c-Fos, and c-Jun in hippocampus at protein level. Taken together, all these results suggested that 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) may be a candidate compound for the prevention against memory loss in some neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD).
ESTHER : Lu_2017_Chem.Biol.Interact_279_64
PubMedSearch : Lu_2017_Chem.Biol.Interact_279_64
PubMedID: 29133030

Title : The Protective Effect of Lavender Essential Oil and Its Main Component Linalool against the Cognitive Deficits Induced by D-Galactose and Aluminum Trichloride in Mice - Xu_2017_Evid.Based.Complement.Alternat.Med_2017_7426538
Author(s) : Xu P , Wang K , Lu C , Dong L , Gao L , Yan M , Aibai S , Yang Y , Liu X
Ref : Evid Based Complement Alternat Med , 2017 :7426538 , 2017
Abstract : Lavender essential oil (LO) is a traditional medicine used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It was extracted from Lavandula angustifolia Mill. This study was designed to investigate the effects of lavender essential oil (LO) and its active component, linalool (LI), against cognitive impairment induced by D-galactose (D-gal) and AlCl3 in mice and to explore the related mechanisms. Our results revealed that LO (100 mg/kg) or LI (100 mg/kg) significantly protected the cognitive impairments as assessed by the Morris water maze test and step-though test. The mechanisms study demonstrated that LO and LI significantly protected the decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and protected the increased activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Besides, they protected the suppressed nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression significantly. Moreover, the decreased expression of synapse plasticity-related proteins, calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), p-CaMKII, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and TrkB in the hippocampus were increased with drug treatment. In conclusion, LO and its active component LI have protected the oxidative stress, activity of cholinergic function and expression of proteins of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, and synaptic plasticity. It suggest that LO, especially LI, could be a potential agent for improving cognitive impairment in AD.
ESTHER : Xu_2017_Evid.Based.Complement.Alternat.Med_2017_7426538
PubMedSearch : Xu_2017_Evid.Based.Complement.Alternat.Med_2017_7426538
PubMedID: 28529531

Title : Molecular Dissection of Neuroligin 2 and Slitrk3 Reveals an Essential Framework for GABAergic Synapse Development - Li_2017_Neuron_96_808
Author(s) : Li J , Han W , Pelkey KA , Duan J , Mao X , Wang YX , Craig MT , Dong L , Petralia RS , McBain CJ , Lu W
Ref : Neuron , 96 :808 , 2017
Abstract : In the brain, many types of interneurons make functionally diverse inhibitory synapses onto principal neurons. Although numerous molecules have been identified to function in inhibitory synapse development, it remains unknown whether there is a unifying mechanism for development of diverse inhibitory synapses. Here we report a general molecular mechanism underlying hippocampal inhibitory synapse development. In developing neurons, the establishment of GABAergic transmission depends on Neuroligin 2 (NL2), a synaptic cell adhesion molecule (CAM). During maturation, inhibitory synapse development requires both NL2 and Slitrk3 (ST3), another CAM. Importantly, NL2 and ST3 interact with nanomolar affinity through their extracellular domains to synergistically promote synapse development. Selective perturbation of the NL2-ST3 interaction impairs inhibitory synapse development with consequent disruptions in hippocampal network activity and increased seizure susceptibility. Our findings reveal how unique postsynaptic CAMs work in concert to control synaptogenesis and establish a general framework for GABAergic synapse development.
ESTHER : Li_2017_Neuron_96_808
PubMedSearch : Li_2017_Neuron_96_808
PubMedID: 29107521

Title : Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor Suppresses the Expression of Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1 by Inhibiting NF-kB Activation in Murine Macrophage - Dong_2017_Inflammation_40_13
Author(s) : Dong L , Zhou Y , Zhu ZQ , Liu T , Duan JX , Zhang J , Li P , Hammcok BD , Guan CX
Ref : Inflammation , 40 :13 , 2017
Abstract : Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cell-1 (TREM-1) is a superimmunoglobulin receptor expressed on myeloid cells. TREM-1 amplifies the inflammatory response. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), the metabolites of arachidonic acid derived from the cytochrome P450 enzyme, have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of EETs on TREM-1 expression under inflammatory stimulation remain unclear. Therefore, inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) with a highly selective inhibitor [1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea, TPPU] was used to stabilize EETs. LPS was intratracheally injected into mice to induce pulmonary inflammation, after TPPU treatment for 3 h. Histological examination showed TPPU treatment-alleviated LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation. TPPU decreased TREM-1 expression, but not DAP12 or MyD88 expression. Murine peritoneal macrophages were challenged with LPS in vitro. We found that TPPU reduced LPS-induced TREM-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner, but not DAP12 or MyD88 expression. TPPU also decreased downstream signal from TREM-1, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNA expression. Furthermore, TPPU treatment inhibited IkB degradation in vivo and in vitro. Our results indicate that the inhibition of sEH suppresses LPS-induced TREM-1 expression and inflammation via inhibiting NF-kB activation in murine macrophage.
ESTHER : Dong_2017_Inflammation_40_13
PubMedSearch : Dong_2017_Inflammation_40_13
PubMedID: 27696333

Title : Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury and Improves Survival in Mice - Zhou_2017_Shock_47_638
Author(s) : Zhou Y , Liu T , Duan JX , Li P , Sun GY , Liu YP , Zhang J , Dong L , Lee KSS , Hammock BD , Jiang JX , Guan CX
Ref : Shock , 47 :638 , 2017
Abstract : Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by rapid alveolar injury, vascular leakage, lung inflammation, neutrophil accumulation, and induced cytokines production leading to lung edema. The mortality rate of patients suffering from ALI remains high. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450-dependent derivatives of polyunsaturated fatty acid with antihypertensive, profibrinolytic, and anti-inflammatory functions. EETs are rapidly hydrated by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to their less potent diols. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of sEH inhibitor trifluoromethoxyphenyl propionylpiperidin urea (TPPU) and EETs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI of mice. Our studies revealed that inhibition of sEH with TPPU attenuated the morphological changes in mice, decreased the neutrophil infiltration to the lung, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1beta and TNF-alpha) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and alveolar capillary leakage (lung wet/dry ratio and total protein concentration in BALF). TPPU improved the survival rate of LPS-induced ALI. In addition, in vitro experiments revealed that both TPPU and EETs (11,12-EET and 14,15-EET) suppressed the expression of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, and LDH release in RAW264.7 cells. These results indicate that EETs play a role in dampening LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, and suggest that sEH could be a valuable candidate for the treatment of ALI.
ESTHER : Zhou_2017_Shock_47_638
PubMedSearch : Zhou_2017_Shock_47_638
PubMedID: 27753791

Title : Protective effect of lavender oil on scopolamine induced cognitive deficits in mice and H2O2 induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells - Xu_2016_J.Ethnopharmacol_193_408
Author(s) : Xu P , Wang K , Lu C , Dong L , Gao L , Yan M , Aibai S , Liu X
Ref : J Ethnopharmacol , 193 :408 , 2016
Abstract : ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lavender essential oil (LO), an aromatic liquid extracted from Lavandula angustifolia Mill., has been traditionally used in the treatments of many nervous system diseases, and recently LO also reported to be effective for the Alzheimer's disease (AD). AIM OF THE STUDY: The improvement effect of lavender oil (LO) on the scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in mice and H2O2 induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells have been evaluated. The relevant mechanism was also researched from the perspective of antioxidant effect and cholinergic system modulation. MATERIALS AND
METHODS: Cognitive deficits were induced in C57BL/6J mice treated with scopolamine (1mg/kg, i.p.) and were assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and step-through passive avoidance tests. Then their hippocampus were removed for biochemical assays (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and malondialdehyde (MDA)). In vitro, the cytotoxicity were induced by 4h exposure to H2O2 in PC12 and evaluated by cell viability (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, nitric oxide (NO) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP).
RESULTS: The results demonstrated that LO (100mg/kg) could improve the cognitive performance of scopolamine induced mice in behavioral tests. Meanwhile, it significantly decreased the AChE activity, MDA level, and increase SOD and GPX activities of the model. Moreover, LO (12mug/mL) protected PC12 cells from H2O2 induced cytotoxicity by reducing LDH, NO release, intracellular ROS accumulation and MMP loss.
CONCLUSIONS: It was suggested that LO could show neuroprotective effect in AD model in vivo (scopolamine-treated mice) and in vitro (H2O2 induced PC12 cells) via modulating oxidative stress and AChE activity.
ESTHER : Xu_2016_J.Ethnopharmacol_193_408
PubMedSearch : Xu_2016_J.Ethnopharmacol_193_408
PubMedID: 27558947

Title : Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE): A Potential Therapeutic Target to Treat Alzheimer's Disease - Li_2015_Chem.Biol.Drug.Des_86_776
Author(s) : Li Y , Zhang XX , Jiang LJ , Yuan L , Cao TT , Li X , Dong L , Yin SF
Ref : Chemical Biology Drug Des , 86 :776 , 2015
Abstract : A new series of icariin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. Most of the tested compounds exhibited high AChE inhibition and low toxicity, and among which compounds 1, 2, and 10 were the most potent (IC50 = 71.52 +/- 22.43, 8.28 +/- 1.45, 5.830 +/- 1.78 nm, respectively).
ESTHER : Li_2015_Chem.Biol.Drug.Des_86_776
PubMedSearch : Li_2015_Chem.Biol.Drug.Des_86_776
PubMedID: 25736722

Title : Mycobacterium tuberculosis Hip1 modulates macrophage responses through proteolysis of GroEL2 - Naffin-Olivos_2014_PLoS.Pathog_10_e1004132
Author(s) : Naffin-Olivos JL , Georgieva M , Goldfarb N , Madan-Lala R , Dong L , Bizzell E , Valinetz E , Brandt GS , Yu S , Shabashvili DE , Ringe D , Dunn BM , Petsko GA , Rengarajan J
Ref : PLoS Pathog , 10 :e1004132 , 2014
Abstract : Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) employs multiple strategies to evade host immune responses and persist within macrophages. We have previously shown that the cell envelope-associated Mtb serine hydrolase, Hip1, prevents robust macrophage activation and dampens host pro-inflammatory responses, allowing Mtb to delay immune detection and accelerate disease progression. We now provide key mechanistic insights into the molecular and biochemical basis of Hip1 function. We establish that Hip1 is a serine protease with activity against protein and peptide substrates. Further, we show that the Mtb GroEL2 protein is a direct substrate of Hip1 protease activity. Cleavage of GroEL2 is specifically inhibited by serine protease inhibitors. We mapped the cleavage site within the N-terminus of GroEL2 and confirmed that this site is required for proteolysis of GroEL2 during Mtb growth. Interestingly, we discovered that Hip1-mediated cleavage of GroEL2 converts the protein from a multimeric to a monomeric form. Moreover, ectopic expression of cleaved GroEL2 monomers into the hip1 mutant complemented the hyperinflammatory phenotype of the hip1 mutant and restored wild type levels of cytokine responses in infected macrophages. Our studies point to Hip1-dependent proteolysis as a novel regulatory mechanism that helps Mtb respond rapidly to changing host immune environments during infection. These findings position Hip1 as an attractive target for inhibition for developing immunomodulatory therapeutics against Mtb.
ESTHER : Naffin-Olivos_2014_PLoS.Pathog_10_e1004132
PubMedSearch : Naffin-Olivos_2014_PLoS.Pathog_10_e1004132
PubMedID: 24830429
Gene_locus related to this paper: myctu-ym24

Title : Evaluation of the inhibitory effects of antihypertensive drugs on human carboxylesterase in vitro - Yanjiao_2013_Drug.Metab.Pharmacokinet_28_468
Author(s) : Yanjiao X , Chengliang Z , Xiping L , Tao W , Xiuhua R , Dong L
Ref : Drug Metab Pharmacokinet , 28 :468 , 2013
Abstract : Human carboxylesterase (CES) 1A and CES2, two major forms of human CES, dominate the pharmacokinetics of most prodrugs such as imidapril and irinotecan (CPT-11). Antihypertensive drugs are often prescribed for clinical therapy concurrently with others. Moreover, two or more antihypertensive drugs are ubiquitously combined. The influences of antihypertensive drugs on the activity of CES remain undefined. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of 17 antihypertensive drugs on the CES1A1 and CES2 activities were evaluated. Imidapril and CPT-11 were used as substrates and cultured with liver microsomes in vitro. The imidapril hydrolase activities by recombinant CES1A1 and human liver microsomes (HLM) were intensely inhibited by telmisartan and nitrendipine (Ki = 0.49 +/- 0.09 and 1.12 +/- 0.39 microM for CES1A1, 1.69 +/- 0.17 microM and 1.24 +/- 0.27 microM for HLM, respectively). However, other drugs did not exert strong inhibition. The enzyme hydrolase activity of recombinant CES2 was substantially inhibited by diltiazem and verapamil (Ki = 0.25 +/- 0.02 and 3.84 +/- 0.99 microM, respectively). Hence, diltiazem, verapamil, nitrendipine and telmisartan may attenuate the drug efficacy of catalyzed prodrugs by changing the activities of CES1A1 and CES2.
ESTHER : Yanjiao_2013_Drug.Metab.Pharmacokinet_28_468
PubMedSearch : Yanjiao_2013_Drug.Metab.Pharmacokinet_28_468
PubMedID: 23648675

Title : Draft genome of the wheat A-genome progenitor Triticum urartu - Ling_2013_Nature_496_87
Author(s) : Ling HQ , Zhao S , Liu D , Wang J , Sun H , Zhang C , Fan H , Li D , Dong L , Tao Y , Gao C , Wu H , Li Y , Cui Y , Guo X , Zheng S , Wang B , Yu K , Liang Q , Yang W , Lou X , Chen J , Feng M , Jian J , Zhang X , Luo G , Jiang Y , Liu J , Wang Z , Sha Y , Zhang B , Tang D , Shen Q , Xue P , Zou S , Wang X , Liu X , Wang F , Yang Y , An X , Dong Z , Zhang K , Luo MC , Dvorak J , Tong Y , Yang H , Li Z , Wang D , Zhang A
Ref : Nature , 496 :87 , 2013
Abstract : Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world. However, the complex polyploid nature of its genome makes genetic and functional analyses extremely challenging. The A genome, as a basic genome of bread wheat and other polyploid wheats, for example, T. turgidum (AABB), T. timopheevii (AAGG) and T. zhukovskyi (AAGGA(m)A(m)), is central to wheat evolution, domestication and genetic improvement. The progenitor species of the A genome is the diploid wild einkorn wheat T. urartu, which resembles cultivated wheat more extensively than do Aegilops speltoides (the ancestor of the B genome) and Ae. tauschii (the donor of the D genome), especially in the morphology and development of spike and seed. Here we present the generation, assembly and analysis of a whole-genome shotgun draft sequence of the T. urartu genome. We identified protein-coding gene models, performed genome structure analyses and assessed its utility for analysing agronomically important genes and for developing molecular markers. Our T. urartu genome assembly provides a diploid reference for analysis of polyploid wheat genomes and is a valuable resource for the genetic improvement of wheat.
ESTHER : Ling_2013_Nature_496_87
PubMedSearch : Ling_2013_Nature_496_87
PubMedID: 23535596
Gene_locus related to this paper: triua-m8a764 , triua-m8ag96 , triua-m7zp69 , wheat-w5d1z6 , wheat-w5d232 , wheat-w5bnf5 , triua-t1nm05 , wheat-w5cae4 , triua-m7ytf7 , wheat-w5f1j8 , triua-m8ad49 , wheat-a0a077s1q2 , wheat-a0a3b6c2m6 , triua-m7zi26 , wheat-a0a3b6at77 , wheat-a0a3b6atp7

Title : Immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase on hydrophobic\/strong cation-exchange functional silica particles for biocatalytic synthesis of phytosterol esters - Zheng_2012_Bioresour.Technol_115_141
Author(s) : Zheng MM , Lu Y , Dong L , Guo PM , Deng QC , Li WL , Feng YQ , Huang FH
Ref : Bioresour Technol , 115 :141 , 2012
Abstract : In this work, mixed-mode silica particles functionalized with octyl and sulfonic acid groups was conveniently prepared by co-bonding a mixture of n-octyltriethoxysilane and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane and then oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) was immobilized on the mixed-mode silica particles via hydrophobic and strong cation-exchange interaction. The resulting immobilized CRL increased remarkably its stability at high temperature in comparison to free CRL. The immobilized CRL was used as biocatalysts for enzymatic esterification of phytosterols with free fatty acids (FFAs) to produce phytosterol esters. The phytosterols linolenate esterification degree of 95.3% was obtained under the optimized condition. Phytosterols esters could also been converted in high yields to the corresponding long-chain acyl esters via transesterification with methyl esters of fatty acids (80.5%) or triacylglycerols (above 95.5%) using mixed-mode silica particles immobilized CRL as biocatalyst. Furthermore, the immobilized CRL by absorption retained 78.6% of their initial activity after 7 recycles.
ESTHER : Zheng_2012_Bioresour.Technol_115_141
PubMedSearch : Zheng_2012_Bioresour.Technol_115_141
PubMedID: 22209442

Title : The Genomes of Oryza sativa: a history of duplications - Yu_2005_PLoS.Biol_3_e38
Author(s) : Yu J , Wang J , Lin W , Li S , Li H , Zhou J , Ni P , Dong W , Hu S , Zeng C , Zhang J , Zhang Y , Li R , Xu Z , Li X , Zheng H , Cong L , Lin L , Yin J , Geng J , Li G , Shi J , Liu J , Lv H , Li J , Deng Y , Ran L , Shi X , Wang X , Wu Q , Li C , Ren X , Li D , Liu D , Zhang X , Ji Z , Zhao W , Sun Y , Zhang Z , Bao J , Han Y , Dong L , Ji J , Chen P , Wu S , Xiao Y , Bu D , Tan J , Yang L , Ye C , Xu J , Zhou Y , Yu Y , Zhang B , Zhuang S , Wei H , Liu B , Lei M , Yu H , Li Y , Xu H , Wei S , He X , Fang L , Huang X , Su Z , Tong W , Tong Z , Ye J , Wang L , Lei T , Chen C , Chen H , Huang H , Zhang F , Li N , Zhao C , Huang Y , Li L , Xi Y , Qi Q , Li W , Hu W , Tian X , Jiao Y , Liang X , Jin J , Gao L , Zheng W , Hao B , Liu S , Wang W , Yuan L , Cao M , McDermott J , Samudrala R , Wong GK , Yang H
Ref : PLoS Biol , 3 :e38 , 2005
Abstract : We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the other genome. We introduce a gene identification procedure for plants that does not rely on similarity to known genes to remove erroneous predictions resulting from transposable elements. Using the available EST data to adjust for residual errors in the predictions, the estimated gene count is at least 38,000-40,000. Only 2%-3% of the genes are unique to any one subspecies, comparable to the amount of sequence that might still be missing. Despite this lack of variation in gene content, there is enormous variation in the intergenic regions. At least a quarter of the two sequences could not be aligned, and where they could be aligned, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rates varied from as little as 3.0 SNP/kb in the coding regions to 27.6 SNP/kb in the transposable elements. A more inclusive new approach for analyzing duplication history is introduced here. It reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication, a recent segmental duplication on Chromosomes 11 and 12, and massive ongoing individual gene duplications. We find 18 distinct pairs of duplicated segments that cover 65.7% of the genome; 17 of these pairs date back to a common time before the divergence of the grasses. More important, ongoing individual gene duplications provide a never-ending source of raw material for gene genesis and are major contributors to the differences between members of the grass family.
ESTHER : Yu_2005_PLoS.Biol_3_e38
PubMedSearch : Yu_2005_PLoS.Biol_3_e38
PubMedID: 15685292
Gene_locus related to this paper: orysa-Q7XTC5 , orysa-Q852M6 , orysa-Q8GSE8 , orysa-Q9S7P1 , orysa-Q9FYP7 , orysa-Q5ZBH3 , orysa-Q5ZA26 , orysa-Q5JLP6 , orysa-Q8H5P9 , orysa-Q8H5P5 , orysa-Q7F1Y5 , orysa-Q949C9 , orysa-cbp1 , orysa-cbp3 , orysa-cbpx , orysa-Q33B71 , orysa-Q8GSJ3 , orysa-LPL1 , orysa-Q6YSZ8 , orysa-Q8S5X5 , orysa-Q8LIG3 , orysa-Q6K7F5 , orysa-Q7F1B1 , orysa-Q8H4S9 , orysa-Q69UB1 , orysa-Q9FW17 , orysa-Q337C3 , orysa-Q7F959 , orysa-Q84QZ6 , orysa-Q84QY7 , orysa-Q851E3 , orysa-Q6YTH5 , orysa-Q0JK71 , orysa-Q8S1D9 , orysa-Q5N8V4 , orysa-Q0JCY4 , orysa-Q8GTK2 , orysa-B9EWJ8 , orysa-Q8H3K6 , orysa-Q6ZDG8 , orysa-Q6ZDG6 , orysa-Q6ZDG5 , orysa-Q6ZDG4 , orysa-Q5NAI4 , orysa-Q658B2 , orysa-Q5JMQ8 , orysa-Q5QMD9 , orysa-Q5N7L1 , orysa-Q8RYV9 , orysa-Q8H3R3 , orysa-Q5SNH3 , orysa-Q8W0F0 , orysa-pir7a , orysa-pir7b , orysa-q2qlm4 , orysa-q2qm78 , orysa-q2qm82 , orysa-q2qn31 , orysa-q2qnj4 , orysa-q2qnt9 , orysa-q2qur1 , orysa-q2qx94 , orysa-q2qyi1 , orysa-q2qyj1 , orysa-q2r051 , orysa-q2r077 , orysa-q2ram0 , orysa-q2rat1 , orysa-q2rbb3 , orysa-Q4VWY7 , orysa-q5na00 , orysa-q5nbu1 , orysa-Q5QLC0 , orysa-q5smv5 , orysa-Q5VP27 , orysa-q5vrt2 , orysa-q5w6c5 , orysa-q5z5a3 , orysa-q5z9i2 , orysa-q5z417 , orysa-q5z901 , orysa-Q5ZAM8 , orysa-Q5ZBI5 , orysa-Q5ZCR3 , orysa-q6atz0 , orysa-q6ave2 , orysa-q6f358 , orysa-q6h6s1 , orysa-q6h7i6 , orysa-q6i5q3 , orysa-q6i5u7 , orysa-q6j657 , orysa-q6k3d9 , orysa-q6k4q2 , orysa-q6k880 , orysa-q6l5b6 , orysa-Q6L5F5 , orysa-q6l556 , orysj-q6yse8 , orysa-q6yy42 , orysa-q6yzk1 , orysa-q6z8b1 , orysa-q6z995 , orysa-q6zc62 , orysa-q6zia4 , orysa-q6zjq6 , orysa-q7x7y5 , orysa-Q7XC50 , orysa-q7xej4 , orysa-q7xem8 , orysa-q7xkj9 , orysa-q7xr62 , orysa-q7xr63 , orysa-q7xr64 , orysa-q7xsg1 , orysa-q7xsq2 , orysa-q7xts6 , orysa-q7xv53 , orysa-Q7XVB5 , orysa-Q8L562 , orysa-Q8LQS5 , orysa-Q8RZ40 , orysa-Q8RZ79 , orysa-Q8S0U8 , orysa-Q8S0V0 , orysa-Q8S125 , orysa-Q8SAY7 , orysa-Q8SAY9 , orysa-Q8W3C6 , orysa-Q8W3F2 , orysa-Q8W3F4 , orysa-Q8W3F6 , orysa-Q9LHX5 , orysa-q33aq0 , orysa-q53lh1 , orysa-q53m20 , orysa-q53nd8 , orysa-q60e79 , orysa-q60ew8 , orysa-q67iz2 , orysa-q67iz3 , orysa-q67iz7 , orysa-q67iz8 , orysa-q67j02 , orysa-q67j05 , orysa-q67j07 , orysa-q67j09 , orysa-q67j10 , orysa-q67tr6 , orysa-q67tv0 , orysa-q67uz1 , orysa-q67v34 , orysa-q67wz5 , orysa-q69j38 , orysa-q69k08 , orysa-q69md7 , orysa-q69me0 , orysa-q69pf3 , orysa-q69ti3 , orysa-q69xr2 , orysa-q69y12 , orysa-q69y21 , orysa-q75hy2 , orysa-q75i01 , orysa-Q94JD7 , orysa-Q0J0A4 , orysa-q651a8 , orysa-q651z3 , orysa-q652g4 , orysa-q688m0 , orysa-q688m8 , orysa-q688m9 , orysa-Q6H8G1 , orysi-a2wn01 , orysi-a2xc83 , orysi-a2yh83 , orysi-a2z179 , orysi-a2zef2 , orysi-b8a7e6 , orysi-b8a7e7 , orysi-b8bfe5 , orysi-b8bhp9 , orysj-a3b9l8 , orysj-b9eub8 , orysj-b9eya5 , orysj-b9fi05 , orysj-b9fkb0 , orysj-b9fn42 , orysj-b9gbb7 , orysj-cgep , orysj-PLA7 , orysj-q0d4u5 , orysj-q0djj0 , orysj-q0jaf0 , orysj-q5jl22 , orysj-q5jlw7 , orysj-q5z419 , orysj-q6h7q9 , orysj-q6yvk6 , orysj-q6z6i1 , orysj-q7f8x1 , orysj-q7xcx3 , orysj-q9fwm6 , orysj-q10j20 , orysj-q10ss2 , orysj-q69uw6 , orysj-q94d71 , orysj-q338c0 , orysi-b8bly4 , orysj-b9gbs4 , orysi-a2zb88 , orysj-b9gbs1 , orysi-b8b698 , orysj-pla4 , orysj-pla1