Hwang SH

References (78)

Title : Enhancing cancer immunotherapy via inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase - Kelly_2024_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_121_e2314085121
Author(s) : Kelly AG , Wang W , Rothenberger E , Yang J , Gilligan MM , Kipper FC , Attaya A , Gartung A , Hwang SH , Gillespie MJ , Bayer RL , Quinlivan KM , Torres KL , Huang S , Mitsiades N , Yang H , Hammock BD , Panigrahy D
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 121 :e2314085121 , 2024
Abstract : Cancer therapy, including immunotherapy, is inherently limited by chronic inflammation-induced tumorigenesis and toxicity within the tumor microenvironment. Thus, stimulating the resolution of inflammation may enhance immunotherapy and improve the toxicity of immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI). As epoxy-fatty acids (EpFAs) are degraded by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), the inhibition of sEH increases endogenous EpFA levels to promote the resolution of cancer-associated inflammation. Here, we demonstrate that systemic treatment with ICI induces sEH expression in multiple murine cancer models. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and pharmacologic sEH inhibition, both alone and in combination, significantly enhance anti-tumor activity of ICI in these models. Notably, pharmacological abrogation of the sEH pathway alone or in combination with ICI counter-regulates an ICI-induced pro-inflammatory and pro-tumorigenic cytokine storm. Thus, modulating endogenous EpFA levels through dietary supplementation or sEH inhibition may represent a unique strategy to enhance the anti-tumor activity of paradigm cancer therapies.
ESTHER : Kelly_2024_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_121_e2314085121
PubMedSearch : Kelly_2024_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_121_e2314085121
PubMedID: 38330013

Title : Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Reduces Inflammation and Myocardial Injury in Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy - Panigrahy_2024_bioRxiv__
Author(s) : Panigrahy D , Kelly A , Wang W , Yang J , Hwang SH , Gillespie M , Howard I , Bueno-Beti C , Asimaki A , Penna V , Lavine K , Edin M , Zeldin D , Hammock B , Saffitz J
Ref : Biorxiv , : , 2024
Abstract : Previous studies have implicated persistent innate immune signaling in the pathogenesis of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), a familial non-ischemic heart muscle disease characterized by life-threatening arrhythmias and progressive myocardial injury. Here, we provide new evidence implicating inflammatory lipid autocoids in ACM. We show that specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators are reduced in hearts of Dsg2mut/mut mice, a well characterized mouse model of ACM. We also found that ACM disease features can be reversed in rat ventricular myocytes expressing mutant JUP by the pro-resolving epoxy fatty acid (EpFA) 14,15-eicosatrienoic acid (14-15-EET), whereas 14,15-EE-5(Z)E which antagonizes actions of the putative 14,15-EET receptor, intensified nuclear accumulation of the desmosomal protein plakoglobin. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), an enzyme that rapidly converts pro-resolving EpFAs into polar, far less active or even pro-inflammatory diols, is highly expressed in cardiac myocytes in Dsg2mut/mut mice. Inhibition of sEH prevented progression of myocardial injury in Dsg2mut/mut mice and led to recovery of contractile function. This was associated with reduced myocardial expression of genes involved in the innate immune response and fewer pro-inflammatory macrophages expressing CCR2, which mediate myocardial injury in Dsg2mut/mut mice. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory eicosanoids contribute to the pathogenesis of ACM and, further, that inhibition of sEH may be an effective, mechanism-based therapy for ACM patients.
ESTHER : Panigrahy_2024_bioRxiv__
PubMedSearch : Panigrahy_2024_bioRxiv__
PubMedID: 38463975

Title : Effects of chronic secondhand smoke exposure on cardiovascular regulation and the role of soluble epoxide hydrolase in mice - Pan_2023_Front.Physiol_14_1185744
Author(s) : Pan S , Karey E , Nieves-Cintron M , Chen YJ , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Pinkerton KE , Chen CY
Ref : Front Physiol , 14 :1185744 , 2023
Abstract : Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with an estimated 80% of SHS-related deaths attributed to cardiovascular causes. Public health measures and smoking bans have been successful both in reducing SHS exposure and improving cardiovascular outcomes in non-smokers. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors have been shown to attenuate tobacco exposure-induced lung inflammatory responses, making them a promising target for mitigating SHS exposure-induced cardiovascular outcomes. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine 1) effects of environmentally relevant SHS exposure on cardiac autonomic function and blood pressure (BP) regulation and 2) whether prophylactic administration of an sEH inhibitor (TPPU) can reduce the adverse cardiovascular effects of SHS exposure. Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice (11 weeks old) implanted with BP/electrocardiogram (ECG) telemetry devices were exposed to filtered air or 3 mg/m(3) of SHS (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk) for 12 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of recovery in filtered air. Some mice received TPPU in drinking water (15 mg/L) throughout SHS exposure. BP, heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and BP variability were determined monthly. Results: SHS exposure significantly decreased 1) short-term HRV by -20% (p < 0.05) within 4 weeks; 2) overall HRV with maximum effect at 12 weeks (-15%, p < 0.05); 3) pulse pressure (-8%, p < 0.05) as early as week 4; and 4) BRS with maximum effect at 12 weeks (-11%, p < 0.05). Four weeks of recovery following 12 weeks of SHS ameliorated all SHS-induced cardiovascular detriments. Importantly, mice exposed to TPPU in drinking water during SHS-related exposure were protected from SHS cardiovascular consequences. Discussion: The data suggest that 1) environmental relevant SHS exposure significantly alters cardiac autonomic function and BP regulation; 2) cardiovascular consequences from SHS can be reversed by discontinuing SHS exposure; and 3) inhibiting sEH can prevent SHS-induced cardiovascular consequences.
ESTHER : Pan_2023_Front.Physiol_14_1185744
PubMedSearch : Pan_2023_Front.Physiol_14_1185744
PubMedID: 37362438

Title : Hepatocyte-specific disruption of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm formation: novel role of the liver in aneurysm pathogenesis - Kim_2023_bioRxiv__
Author(s) : Kim D , Horimatsu T , Ogbi M , Goo B , Shi H , Veerapaneni P , Chouhaita R , Moses M , Prasad R , Benson TW , Harb R , Aboud G , Seller H , Haigh S , Fulton DJ , Csanyi G , Huo Y , Long X , Coffey P , Lee R , Guha A , Zeldin D , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Weintraub NL , Kim HW
Ref : Biorxiv , : , 2023
Abstract : INTRODUCTION: Inflammation is a key pathogenic feature of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a pro-inflammatory enzyme that converts cytochrome P450-derived epoxides of fatty acids to the corresponding diols, and pharmacological inhibition of sEH prevented AAA formation. Both cytochrome P450 enzymes and sEH are highly expressed in the liver. Here, we investigated the role of hepatic sEH in AAA using a selective pharmacological inhibitor of sEH and hepatocyte-specific Ephx2 (which encodes sEH gene) knockout (KO) mice in two models of AAA [angiotensin II (AngII) infusion and calcium chloride (CaCl (2) ) application]. METHODS AND RESULTS: sEH expression and activity were strikingly higher in mouse liver compared with aorta and further increased the context of AAA, in conjunction with elevated expression of the transcription factor Sp1 and the epigenetic regulator Jarid1b, which have been reported to positively regulate sEH expression. Pharmacological sEH inhibition, or liver-specific sEH disruption, achieved by crossing sEH floxed mice with albumin-cre mice, prevented AAA formation in both models, concomitant with reduced expression of hepatic sEH as well as complement factor 3 (C3) and serum amyloid A (SAA), liver-derived factors linked to AAA formation. Moreover, sEH antagonism markedly reduced C3 and SAA protein accumulation in the aortic wall. Co-incubation of liver ex vivo with aneurysm-prone aorta resulted in induction of sEH in the liver, concomitant with upregulation of Sp1, Jarid1b, C3 and SAA gene expression, suggesting that the aneurysm-prone aorta secretes factors that activate sEH and downstream inflammatory signaling in the liver. Using an unbiased proteomic approach, we identified a number of dysregulated proteins [ e.g., plastin-2, galectin-3 (gal-3), cathepsin S] released by aneurysm-prone aorta as potential candidate mediators of hepatic sEH induction. CONCLUSION: We provide the first direct evidence of the liver's role in orchestrating AAA via the enzyme sEH. These findings not only provide novel insight into AAA pathogenesis, but they have potentially important implications with regard to developing effective medical therapies for AAA.
ESTHER : Kim_2023_bioRxiv__
PubMedSearch : Kim_2023_bioRxiv__
PubMedID: 37503031

Title : Quantification of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors in experimental and clinical samples using the nanobody-based ELISA - Yang_2023_J.Pharm.Anal_13_1013
Author(s) : Yang H , Qi M , He Q , Hwang SH , Yang J , McCoy M , Morisseau C , Zhao S , Hammock BD
Ref : J Pharm Anal , 13 :1013 , 2023
Abstract : To ensure proper dosage of a drug, analytical quantification of it in biofluid is necessary. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the conventional method of choice as it permits accurate identification and quantification. However, it requires expensive instrumentation and is not appropriate for bedside use. Using soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors (EC5026 and TPPU) as examples, we report development of a nanobody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for such small molecules and its use to accurately quantify the drug chemicals in human samples. Under optimized conditions, two nanobody-based ELISAs were successfully established for EC5026 and TPPU with low limits of detection of 0.085 ng/mL and 0.31 ng/mL, respectively, and two order of magnitude linear ranges with high precision and accuracy. The assay was designed to detect parent and two biologically active metabolites in the investigation of a new drug candidate EC5026. In addition, the ELISAs displayed excellent correlation with LC-MS analysis and evaluation of inhibitory potency. The results indicate that nanobody-based ELISA methods can efficiently analyze drug like compounds. These methods could be easily implemented by the bedside, in the field in remote areas or in veterinary practice. This work illustrates that nanobody based assays offer alternative and supplementary analytical tools to mass spectrometry for monitoring small molecule medicines during clinical development and therapy. Attributes of nanobody based pharmaceutical assays are discussed.
ESTHER : Yang_2023_J.Pharm.Anal_13_1013
PubMedSearch : Yang_2023_J.Pharm.Anal_13_1013
PubMedID: 37842656

Title : Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Reduces Paraquat Neurotoxicity in Rodents - Atone_2023_Environ.Toxicol.Pharmacol__104070
Author(s) : Atone J , Wagner K , Koike S , Yang J , Hwang SH , Hammock BD
Ref : Environ Toxicol Pharmacol , :104070 , 2023
Abstract : Given the paucity of research surrounding the effect of chronic paraquat on striatal neurotoxicity, there is a need for further investigation into the neurotoxic effects of paraquat in mouse striatum. Furthermore, while previous studies have shown that inhibiting soluble epoxide hydrolase mitigates MPTP-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in mouse striatum, its effect on paraquat toxicity is still unknown. Thus, this study attempts to observe changes in inflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in mouse striatum following chronic paraquat administration to determine whether inhibiting soluble epoxide hydrolase mitigates paraquat-induced neurotoxicity and whether it can reduce TLR4-mediated inflammation in primary astrocytes and microglia. Our results show that while the pro-inflammatory effect of chronic paraquat is small, there is a significant induction of inflammatory and cellular stress markers, such as COX2 and CHOP, that can be mitigated through a prophylactic administration of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor.
ESTHER : Atone_2023_Environ.Toxicol.Pharmacol__104070
PubMedSearch : Atone_2023_Environ.Toxicol.Pharmacol__104070
PubMedID: 36682504

Title : Neuroprotective effect of herbal extracts inhibiting soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and cyclooxygenase (COX) against chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment in mice - Kulkarni_2023_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_667_64
Author(s) : Kulkarni R , Mehta R , Goswami SK , Hammock BD , Morisseau C , Hwang SH , Mallappa O , Azeemuddin MM , Rafiq M , S NM
Ref : Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications , 667 :64 , 2023
Abstract : Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) is a novel clinical condition characterized by memory, learning, and motor function deficits. Oxidative stress and inflammation are potential factors contributing to chemotherapy's adverse effects on the brain. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been proven effective in neuroinflammation and reversal of memory impairment. The research aims to evaluate the memory protective effect of sEH inhibitor and dual inhibitor of sEH and COX and compare its impact with herbal extracts with known nootropic activity in an animal model of CICI. In vitro sEH, the inhibitory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Sizygium aromaticum, Nigella sativa, and Mesua ferrea was tested on murine and human sEH enzyme as per the protocol, and IC(50) was determined. Cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg), methotrexate (5 mg/kg), and fluorouracil (5 mg/kg) combination (CMF) were administered intraperitoneally to induce CICI. The known herbal sEH inhibitor, Lepidium meyenii and the dual inhibitor of COX and sEH (PTUPB) were tested for their protective effect in the CICI model. The herbal formulation with known nootropic activity viz Bacopa monnieri and commercial formulation (Mentat) were also used to compare the efficacy in the CICI model. Behavioral parameter such as cognitive function was assessed by Morris Water Maze besides investigating oxidative stress (GSH and LPO) and inflammatory (TNFalpha, IL-6, BDNF and COX-2) markers in the brain. CMF-induced CICI, which was associated with increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. However, treatment with PTUPB or herbal extracts inhibiting sEH preserved spatial memory via ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammation. S. aromaticum and N. sativa inhibited COX2, but M. Ferrea did not affect COX2 activity. Lepidium meyenii was the least effective, and mentat showed superior activity over Bacopa monnieri in preserving memory. Compared to untreated animals, the mice treated with PTUPB or hydroalcoholic extracts showed a discernible improvement in cognitive function in CICI.
ESTHER : Kulkarni_2023_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_667_64
PubMedSearch : Kulkarni_2023_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_667_64
PubMedID: 37209564

Title : Aflatoxin B(1) Increases Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in the Brain and Induces Neuroinflammation and Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity - Wang_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_9938
Author(s) : Wang W , Wang Y , Wagner KM , Lee RD , Hwang SH , Morisseau C , Wulff H , Hammock BD
Ref : Int J Mol Sci , 24 :9938 , 2023
Abstract : Parkinson's disease (PD) is an increasingly common neurodegenerative movement disorder with contributing factors that are still largely unexplored and currently no effective intervention strategy. Epidemiological and pre-clinical studies support the close association between environmental toxicant exposure and PD incidence. Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), a hazardous mycotoxin commonly present in food and environment, is alarmingly high in many areas of the world. Previous evidence suggests that chronic exposure to AFB(1) leads to neurological disorders as well as cancer. However, whether and how aflatoxin B(1) contributes to the pathogenesis of PD is poorly understood. Here, oral exposure to AFB(1) is shown to induce neuroinflammation, trigger the alpha-synuclein pathology, and cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity. This was accompanied by the increased expression and enzymatic activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) in the mouse brain. Importantly, genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of sEH alleviated the AFB(1)-induced neuroinflammation by reducing microglia activation and suppressing pro-inflammatory factors in the brain. Furthermore, blocking the action of sEH attenuated dopaminergic neuron dysfunction caused by AFB(1) in vivo and in vitro. Together, our findings suggest a contributing role of AFB(1) to PD etiology and highlight sEH as a potential pharmacological target for alleviating PD-related neuronal disorders caused by AFB(1) exposure.
ESTHER : Wang_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_9938
PubMedSearch : Wang_2023_Int.J.Mol.Sci_24_9938
PubMedID: 37373086

Title : Aflatoxin B(1) exposure disrupts the intestinal immune function via a soluble epoxide hydrolase-mediated manner - Wang_2022_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_249_114417
Author(s) : Wang W , Wang Y , Yang J , Wagner KM , Hwang SH , Cheng J , Singh N , Edwards P , Morisseau C , Zhang G , Panigrahy D , Hammock BD
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 249 :114417 , 2022
Abstract : Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) contamination in food and feed leads to severe global health problems. Acting as the frontier immunological barrier, the intestinal mucosa is constantly challenged by exposure to foodborne toxins such as AFB(1) via contaminated diets, but the detailed toxic mechanism and endogenous regulators of AFB(1) toxicity are still unclear. Here, we showed that AFB(1) disrupted intestinal immune function by suppressing macrophages, especially M2 macrophages, and antimicrobial peptide-secreting Paneth cells. Using an oxylipinomics approach, we identified that AFB(1) immunotoxicity is associated with decreased epoxy fatty acids, notably epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, and increased soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) levels in the intestine. Furthermore, sEH deficiency or inhibition rescued the AFB(1)-compromised intestinal immunity by restoring M2 macrophages as well as Paneth cells and their-derived lysozyme and alpha-defensin-3 in mice. Altogether, our study demonstrates that AFB(1) exposure impairs intestinal immunity, at least in part, in a sEH-mediated way. Moreover, the present study supports the potential application of pharmacological intervention by inhibiting the sEH enzyme in alleviating intestinal immunotoxicity and associated complications caused by AFB(1) global contamination.
ESTHER : Wang_2022_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_249_114417
PubMedSearch : Wang_2022_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_249_114417
PubMedID: 36525946

Title : Discovery of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitors from Chemical Synthesis and Natural Products - Sun_2021_J.Med.Chem_64_184
Author(s) : Sun CP , Zhang XY , Morisseau C , Hwang SH , Zhang ZJ , Hammock BD , Ma XC
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 64 :184 , 2021
Abstract : Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an alpha/beta hydrolase fold protein and widely distributed in numerous organs including the liver, kidney, and brain. The inhibition of sEH can effectively maintain endogenous epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) levels and reduce dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) levels, resulting in therapeutic potentials for cardiovascular, central nervous system, and metabolic diseases. Therefore, since the beginning of this century, the development of sEH inhibitors is a hot research topic. A variety of potent sEH inhibitors have been developed by chemical synthesis or isolated from natural sources. In this review, we mainly summarized the interconnected aspects of sEH with cardiovascular, central nervous system, and metabolic diseases and then focus on representative inhibitors, which would provide some useful guidance for the future development of potential sEH inhibitors.
ESTHER : Sun_2021_J.Med.Chem_64_184
PubMedSearch : Sun_2021_J.Med.Chem_64_184
PubMedID: 33369424

Title : Movement to the Clinic of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor EC5026 as an Analgesic for Neuropathic Pain and for Use as a Nonaddictive Opioid Alternative - Hammock_2021_J.Med.Chem__
Author(s) : Hammock BD , McReynolds CB , Wagner K , Buckpitt A , Cortes-Puch I , Croston G , Lee KSS , Yang J , Schmidt WK , Hwang SH
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , : , 2021
Abstract : This report describes the development of an orally active analgesic that resolves inflammation and neuropathic pain without the addictive potential of opioids. EC5026 acts on the cytochrome P450 branch of the arachidonate cascade to stabilize epoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids (EpFA), which are natural mediators that reduce pain, resolve inflammation, and maintain normal blood pressure. EC5026 is a slow-tight binding transition-state mimic that inhibits the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) at picomolar concentrations. The sEH rapidly degrades EpFA; thus, inhibiting sEH increases EpFA in vivo and confers beneficial effects. This mechanism addresses disease states by shifting endoplasmic reticulum stress from promoting cellular senescence and inflammation toward cell survival and homeostasis. We describe the synthesis and optimization of EC5026 and its development through human Phase 1a trials with no drug-related adverse events. Additionally, we outline fundamental work leading to discovery of the analgesic and inflammation-resolving CYP450 branch of the arachidonate cascade.
ESTHER : Hammock_2021_J.Med.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Hammock_2021_J.Med.Chem__
PubMedID: 33550801

Title : Species Differences in Metabolism of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor, EC1728, Highlight the Importance of Clinically Relevant Screening Mechanisms in Drug Development - McReynolds_2021_Molecules_26_
Author(s) : McReynolds CB , Yang J , Guedes A , Morisseau C , Garcia R , Knych H , Tearney C , Hamamoto B , Hwang SH , Wagner K , Hammock BD
Ref : Molecules , 26 : , 2021
Abstract : There are few novel therapeutic options available for companion animals, and medications rely heavily on repurposed drugs developed for other species. Considering the diversity of species and breeds in companion animal medicine, comprehensive PK exposures in the companion animal patient is often lacking. The purpose of this paper was to assess the pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous dosing in domesticated animal species (dogs, cats, and horses) of a novel soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, EC1728, being developed for the treatment of pain in animals. Results: Intravenous and oral administration revealed that bioavailability was similar for dogs, and horses (42 and 50% F) but lower in mice and cats (34 and 8%, respectively). Additionally, clearance was similar between cats and mice, but >2x faster in cats vs. dogs and horses. Efficacy with EC1728 has been demonstrated in mice, dogs, and horses, and despite the rapid clearance of EC1728 in cats, analgesic efficacy was demonstrated in an acute pain model after intravenous but not oral dosing. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that exposures across species can vary, and investigation of therapeutic exposures in target species is needed to provide adequate care that addresses efficacy and avoids toxicity.
ESTHER : McReynolds_2021_Molecules_26_
PubMedSearch : McReynolds_2021_Molecules_26_
PubMedID: 34443621

Title : Dual sEH\/COX-2 Inhibition Using PTUPB-A Promising Approach to Antiangiogenesis-Induced Nephrotoxicity - Jankiewicz_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_744776
Author(s) : Jankiewicz WK , Barnett SD , Stavniichuk A , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Belayet JB , Khan AH , Imig JD
Ref : Front Pharmacol , 12 :744776 , 2021
Abstract : Kidney injury from antiangiogenic chemotherapy is a significant clinical challenge, and we currently lack the ability to effectively treat it with pharmacological agents. Thus, we set out to investigate whether simultaneous soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition using a dual sEH/COX-2 inhibitor PTUPB could be an effective strategy for treating antiangiogenic therapy-induced kidney damage. We used a multikinase inhibitor, sorafenib, which is known to cause serious renal side effects. The drug was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats that were on a high-salt diet. Sorafenib was administered over the course of 56 days. The study included three experimental groups; 1) control group (naive rats), 2) sorafenib group [rats treated with sorafenib only (20 mg/kg/day p.o.)], and 3) sorafenib + PTUPB group (rats treated with sorafenib only for the initial 28 days and subsequently coadministered PTUPB (10 mg/kg/day i.p.) from days 28 through 56). Blood pressure was measured every 2 weeks. After 28 days, sorafenib-treated rats developed hypertension (161 +/- 4 mmHg). Over the remainder of the study, sorafenib treatment resulted in a further elevation in blood pressure through day 56 (200 +/- 7 mmHg). PTUPB treatment attenuated the sorafenib-induced blood pressure elevation and by day 56, blood pressure was 159 +/- 4 mmHg. Urine was collected every 2 weeks for biochemical analysis. After 28 days, sorafenib rats developed pronounced proteinuria (9.7 +/- 0.2 P/C), which intensified significantly (35.8 +/- 3.5 P/C) by the end of day 56 compared with control (2.6 +/- 0.4 P/C). PTUPB mitigated sorafenib-induced proteinuria, and by day 56, it reduced proteinuria by 73%. Plasma and kidney tissues were collected on day 56. Kidney histopathology revealed intratubular cast formation, interstitial fibrosis, glomerular injury, and glomerular nephrin loss at day 56 in sorafenib-treated rats. PTUPB treatment reduced histological features by 30%-70% compared with the sorafenib-treated group and restored glomerular nephrin levels. Furthermore, PTUPB also acted on the glomerular permeability barrier by decreasing angiotensin-II-induced glomerular permeability to albumin. Finally, PTUPB improved in vitro the viability of human mesangial cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate the potential of using PTUPB or dual sEH/COX-2 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy against sorafenib-induced glomerular nephrotoxicity.
ESTHER : Jankiewicz_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_744776
PubMedSearch : Jankiewicz_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_744776
PubMedID: 34955823

Title : Multitarget molecule,PTUPB, to treat diabetic nephropathy in rats - Hye_2021_Br.J.Pharmacol_178_4468
Author(s) : Hye Khan MA , Hwang SH , Barnett SD , Stavniichuk A , Jankiewicz WK , Hammock BD , Imig JD
Ref : British Journal of Pharmacology , 178 :4468 , 2021
Abstract : Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most common complications that is related to high morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. We investigated ability of a novel dual modulator, PTUPB that concurrently acts as a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor and as a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor against diabetic nephropathy. Sixteen week-old type 2 diabetic and proteinuric obese ZSF1 rats were treated with vehicle, PTUPB, or enalapril for 8 weeks. Obese ZSF1 rats were diabetic with 5-fold higher fasting blood glucose levels and markedly higher HbA1c levels compared to lean ZSF1 rats. Neither PTUPB nor enalapril reduced fasting blood glucose or HbA1c in obese ZSF1 rats. The obese ZSF1 rats also developed diabetic nephropathy with elevated albuminuria and tubular and glomerular injuries. PTUPB alleviated diabetic nephropathy in obese ZSF1 rats by reducing albuminuria by 50%, renal cortical and medullary cast formation by 60-70%, renal fibrosis by 40-50%, and glomerular injury by 55%. In PTUPB treated obese ZSF1 rats, glomerular nephrin expression was preserved. Enalapril treatment demonstrated an effect comparable to PTUPB and alleviated diabetic nephropathy in obese ZSF1 rats by reducing all kidney injury parameters by 30 to 50%. Diabetic renal injury in obese ZSF1 rats was accompanied by renal inflammation with 6-7fold higher urinary MCP-1 level and renal infiltration of CD-68 positive cells. PTUPB and enalapril treatment reduced renal inflammation with significantly reduced urinary MCP-1 levels and renal mRNA expression of cytokines. PTUPB demonstrated superior anti-inflammatory actions compared to enalapril treatment. Obese ZSF1 rats were also hypertensive, hyperlipidemic, and exhibited liver injury. Both PTUPB and enalapril lowered blood pressure in obese ZSF1 rats. Interestingly, PTUPB but not enalapril decreased hyperlipidemia and liver injury in Obese ZSF1 rats. Overall, we demonstrate that a dual modulator PTUPB does not treat hyperglycemia, but can effectively alleviate hypertension, diabetic nephropathy, hyperlipidemia and liver injury in type 2 diabetic rats. Our data further demonstrate that the renal actions of PTUPB is comparable to a current standard diabetic nephropathy treatment.
ESTHER : Hye_2021_Br.J.Pharmacol_178_4468
PubMedSearch : Hye_2021_Br.J.Pharmacol_178_4468
PubMedID: 34255857

Title : COX-2\/sEH Dual Inhibitor PTUPB Alleviates CCl (4) -Induced Liver Fibrosis and Portal Hypertension - Zhao_2021_Front.Med.(Lausanne)_8_761517
Author(s) : Zhao Z , Zhang C , Lin J , Zheng L , Li H , Qi X , Huo H , Lou X , Hammock BD , Hwang SH , Bao Y , Luo M
Ref : Front Med (Lausanne) , 8 :761517 , 2021
Abstract : Background: 4-(5-phenyl-3-{3-[3-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-ureido]-propyl}-pyrazol-1-yl) -benzenesulfonamide (PTUPB), a dual cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor, was found to alleviate renal, pulmonary fibrosis and liver injury. However, few is known about the effect of PTUPB on liver cirrhosis. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of PTUPB in liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (PHT). Method: Rat liver cirrhosis model was established via subcutaneous injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) for 16 weeks. The experimental group received oral administration of PTUPB (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. We subsequently analyzed portal pressure (PP), liver fibrosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and intra- or extrahepatic vascular remodeling. Additionally, network pharmacology was used to investigate the possible mechanisms of PTUPB in live fibrosis. Results: CCl(4) exposure induced liver fibrosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, vascular remodeling and PHT, and PTUPB alleviated these changes. PTUPB decreased PP from 17.50 +/- 4.65 to 6.37 +/- 1.40 mmHg, reduced collagen deposition and profibrotic factor. PTUPB alleviated the inflammation and bile duct proliferation, as indicated by decrease in serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), liver cytokeratin 19 (CK-19), transaminase, and macrophage infiltration. PTUPB also restored vessel wall thickness of superior mesenteric arteries (SMA) and inhibited intra- or extrahepatic angiogenesis and vascular remodeling via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), von Willebrand factor (vWF), etc. Moreover, PTUPB induced sinusoidal vasodilation by upregulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1). In enrichment analysis, PTUPB engaged in multiple biological functions related to cirrhosis, including blood pressure, tissue remodeling, immunological inflammation, macrophage activation, and fibroblast proliferation. Additionally, PTUPB suppressed hepatic expression of sEH, COX-2, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Conclusion: 4-(5-phenyl-3-{3-[3-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-ureido]-propyl}-pyrazol-1-yl)- benzenesulfonamide ameliorated liver fibrosis and PHT by inhibiting fibrotic deposition, inflammation, angiogenesis, sinusoidal, and SMA remodeling. The molecular mechanism may be mediated via the downregulation of the sEH/COX-2/TGF-beta.
ESTHER : Zhao_2021_Front.Med.(Lausanne)_8_761517
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2021_Front.Med.(Lausanne)_8_761517
PubMedID: 35004731

Title : Soluble epoxide hydrolase is an endogenous regulator of obesity-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation - Wang_2020_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_117_8431
Author(s) : Wang Y , Yang J , Wang W , Sanidad KZ , Cinelli MA , Wan D , Hwang SH , Kim D , Lee KSS , Xiao H , Hammock BD , Zhang G
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 117 :8431 , 2020
Abstract : Intestinal barrier dysfunction, which leads to translocation of bacteria or toxic bacterial products from the gut into bloodstream and results in systemic inflammation, is a key pathogenic factor in many human diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to intestinal barrier defects are not well understood, and there are currently no available therapeutic approaches to target intestinal barrier function. Here we show that soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an endogenous regulator of obesity-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. We find that sEH is overexpressed in the colons of obese mice. In addition, pharmacologic inhibition or genetic ablation of sEH abolishes obesity-induced gut leakage, translocation of endotoxin lipopolysaccharide or bacteria, and bacterial invasion-induced adipose inflammation. Furthermore, systematic treatment with sEH-produced lipid metabolites, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, induces bacterial translocation and colonic inflammation in mice. The actions of sEH are mediated by gut bacteria-dependent mechanisms, since inhibition or genetic ablation of sEH fails to attenuate obesity-induced gut leakage and adipose inflammation in mice lacking gut bacteria. Overall, these results support that sEH is a potential therapeutic target for obesity-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction, and that sEH inhibitors, which have been evaluated in human clinical trials targeting other human disorders, could be promising agents for prevention and/or treatment.
ESTHER : Wang_2020_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_117_8431
PubMedSearch : Wang_2020_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_117_8431
PubMedID: 32220957
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-EPHX2

Title : Preparation and evaluation of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors with improved physical properties and potencies for treating diabetic neuropathic pain - Lee_2020_Bioorg.Med.Chem_28_115735
Author(s) : Lee KSS , Ng JC , Yang J , Hwang SH , Morisseau C , Wagner K , Hammock BD
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 28 :115735 , 2020
Abstract : Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a novel therapeutic target for neuropathic pain, is a largely cytosolic enzyme that degrades epoxy-fatty acids (EpFAs), an important class of lipid signaling molecules. Many inhibitors of sEH have been reported, and to date, the 1,3-disubstituted urea has the highest affinity reported for the sEH among the central pharmacophores evaluated. An earlier somewhat water soluble sEH inhibitor taken to the clinic for blood pressure control had mediocre potency (both affinity and kinetics) and a short in vivo half-life. We undertook a study to overcome these difficulties, but the sEH inhibitors carrying a 1,3-disubstituted urea often suffer poor physical properties that hinder their formulation. In this report, we described new strategies to improve the physical properties of sEH inhibitors with a 1,3-disubstituted urea while maintaining their potency and drug-target residence time (a complementary in vitro parameter) against sEH. To our surprise, we identified two structural modifications that substantially improve the potency and physical properties of sEH inhibitors carrying a 1,3-disubstituted urea pharmacophore. Such improvements will greatly facilitate the movement of sEH inhibitors to the clinic.
ESTHER : Lee_2020_Bioorg.Med.Chem_28_115735
PubMedSearch : Lee_2020_Bioorg.Med.Chem_28_115735
PubMedID: 33007552

Title : Maternal glyphosate exposure causes autism-like behaviors in offspring through increased expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase - Pu_2020_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A__
Author(s) : Pu Y , Yang J , Chang L , Qu Y , Wang S , Zhang K , Xiong Z , Zhang J , Tan Y , Wang X , Fujita Y , Ishima T , Wan D , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Hashimoto K
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , : , 2020
Abstract : Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to herbicides during pregnancy might increase risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the risk of ASD by herbicides such as glyphosate remain unclear. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids is shown to play a key role in the development of ASD in offspring after maternal immune activation. Here, we found ASD-like behavioral abnormalities in juvenile offspring after maternal exposure to high levels of formulated glyphosate. Furthermore, we found higher levels of sEH in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, and striatum of juvenile offspring, and oxylipin analysis showed decreased levels of epoxy-fatty acids such as 8 (9)-EpETrE in the blood, PFC, hippocampus, and striatum of juvenile offspring after maternal glyphosate exposure, supporting increased activity of sEH in the offspring. Moreover, we found abnormal composition of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in fecal samples of juvenile offspring after maternal glyphosate exposure. Interestingly, oral administration of TPPU (an sEH inhibitor) to pregnant mothers from E5 to P21 prevented ASD-like behaviors such as social interaction deficits and increased grooming time in the juvenile offspring after maternal glyphosate exposure. These findings suggest that maternal exposure to high levels of glyphosate causes ASD-like behavioral abnormalities and abnormal composition of gut microbiota in juvenile offspring, and that increased activity of sEH might play a role in ASD-like behaviors in offspring after maternal glyphosate exposure. Therefore, sEH may represent a target for ASD in offspring after maternal stress from occupational exposure to contaminants.
ESTHER : Pu_2020_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A__
PubMedSearch : Pu_2020_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A__
PubMedID: 32398374

Title : An epoxide hydrolase inhibitor reduces neuroinflammation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease - Ghosh_2020_Sci.Transl.Med_12_
Author(s) : Ghosh A , Comerota MM , Wan D , Chen F , Propson NE , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Zheng H
Ref : Sci Transl Med , 12 : , 2020
Abstract : Neuroinflammation has been increasingly recognized to play a critical role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The epoxy fatty acids (EpFAs) are derivatives of the arachidonic acid metabolism pathway and have anti-inflammatory activities. However, their efficacy is limited because of their rapid hydrolysis by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). We report that sEH is predominantly expressed in astrocytes and is elevated in postmortem brain tissue from patients with AD and in the 5xFAD beta amyloid mouse model of AD. The amount of sEH expressed in AD mouse brains correlated with a reduction in brain EpFA concentrations. Using a specific small-molecule sEH inhibitor, 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), we report that TPPU treatment protected wild-type mice against LPS-induced inflammation in vivo. Long-term administration of TPPU to the 5xFAD mouse model via drinking water reversed microglia and astrocyte reactivity and immune pathway dysregulation. This was associated with reduced beta amyloid pathology and improved synaptic integrity and cognitive function on two behavioral tests. TPPU treatment correlated with an increase in EpFA concentrations in the brains of 5xFAD mice, demonstrating brain penetration and target engagement of this small molecule. These findings support further investigation of TPPU as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD.
ESTHER : Ghosh_2020_Sci.Transl.Med_12_
PubMedSearch : Ghosh_2020_Sci.Transl.Med_12_
PubMedID: 33298560

Title : Selection of Potent Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase for Usage in Veterinary Medicine - Shihadih_2020_Front.Vet.Sci_7_580
Author(s) : Shihadih DS , Harris TR , Kodani SD , Hwang SH , Lee KSS , Mavangira V , Hamamoto B , Guedes A , Hammock BD , Morisseau C
Ref : Front Vet Sci , 7 :580 , 2020
Abstract : The veterinary pharmacopeia available to treat pain and inflammation is limited in number, target of action and efficacy. Inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) are a new class of anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving and analgesic drugs being tested in humans that have demonstrated efficacy in laboratory animals. They block the hydrolysis, and thus, increase endogenous concentrations of analgesic and anti-inflammatory signaling molecules called epoxy-fatty acids. Here, we screened a library of 2,300 inhibitors of the sEH human against partially purified feline, canine and equine hepatic sEH to identify inhibitors that are broadly potent among species. Six very potent sEH inhibitors (IC(50) < 1 nM for each enzyme tested) were identified. Their microsomal stability was then measured in hepatic extracts from cat, dog and horse, as well as their solubility in solvents suitable for the formulation of drugs. The trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-benzoic acid (t-TUCB, 1,728) appears to be the best compromise between stability and potency across species. Thus, it was selected for further testing in veterinary clinical trials of pain and inflammation in animals.
ESTHER : Shihadih_2020_Front.Vet.Sci_7_580
PubMedSearch : Shihadih_2020_Front.Vet.Sci_7_580
PubMedID: 33005645

Title : PTUPB ameliorates high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation in mice - Sun_2020_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun__
Author(s) : Sun CC , Zhang CY , Duan JX , Guan XX , Yang HH , Jiang HL , Hammock BD , Hwang SH , Zhou Y , Guan CX , Liu SK , Zhang J
Ref : Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications , : , 2020
Abstract : Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 25% of the global adult population, and no effective pharmacological treatment has been found. Products of arachidonic acid metabolism have been developed into a novel therapy for metabolic syndrome and diabetes. It has been demonstrated that protective actions of a novel dual cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor, PTUPB, on the metabolic abnormalities. Here, we investigated the effects of PTUPB on hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, as well as in hepatocytes in vitro. We found that PTUPB treatment reduced body weight, liver weight, liver triglyceride and cholesterol content, and the expression of lipolytic/lipogenic and lipid uptake related genes (Acc, Cd36, and Cidec) in HFD mice. In addition, PTUPB treatment arrested fibrotic progression with a decrease of collagen deposition and expression of Col1a1, Col1a3, and alpha-SMA. In vitro, PTUPB decreased palmitic acid-induced lipid deposition and downregulation of lipolytic/lipogenic genes (Acc and Cd36) in hepatocytes. Additionally, we found that PTUPB reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppressed the NLRP3 inflammasome activation in HFD mice and hepatocytes. In conclusion, dual inhibition of COX-2/sEH attenuates hepatic steatosis by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. PTUPB might be a promising potential therapy for liver steatosis associated with obesity.
ESTHER : Sun_2020_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun__
PubMedSearch : Sun_2020_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun__
PubMedID: 31973813

Title : A COX-2\/sEH dual inhibitor PTUPB alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation - Yang_2020_Theranostics_10_4749
Author(s) : Yang HH , Duan JX , Liu SK , Xiong JB , Guan XX , Zhong WJ , Sun CC , Zhang CY , Luo XQ , Zhang YF , Chen P , Hammock BD , Hwang SH , Jiang JX , Zhou Y , Guan CX
Ref : Theranostics , 10 :4749 , 2020
Abstract : Rationale: Dysregulation of arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolism results in inflammation; however, its role in acute lung injury (ALI) remains elusive. In this study, we addressed the role of dysregulated ARA metabolism in cytochromes P450 (CYPs) /cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways in the pathogenesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice. Methods: The metabolism of CYPs/COX-2-derived ARA in the lungs of LPS-induced ALI was investigated in C57BL/6 mice. The COX-2/sEH dual inhibitor PTUPB was used to establish the function of CYPs/COX-2 dysregulation in ALI. Primary murine macrophages were used to evaluate the underlying mechanism of PTUPB involved in the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro. Results: Dysregulation of CYPs/COX-2 metabolism of ARA occurred in the lungs and in primary macrophages under the LPS challenge. Decrease mRNA expression of Cyp2j9, Cyp2j6, and Cyp2j5 was observed, which metabolize ARA into epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). The expressions of COX-2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), on the other hand, was significantly upregulated. Pre-treatment with the dual COX-2 and sEH inhibitor, PTUPB, attenuated the pathological injury of lung tissues and reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, PTUPB decreased the pro-inflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and activation of NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in LPS-induced ALI mice. PTUPB pre-treatment remarkably reduced the activation of macrophages and NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro. Significantly, both preventive and therapeutic treatment with PTUPB improved the survival rate of mice receiving a lethal dose of LPS. Conclusion: The dysregulation of CYPs/COX-2 metabolized ARA contributes to the uncontrolled inflammatory response in ALI. The dual COX-2 and sEH inhibitor PTUPB exerts anti-inflammatory effects in treating ALI by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
ESTHER : Yang_2020_Theranostics_10_4749
PubMedSearch : Yang_2020_Theranostics_10_4749
PubMedID: 32308747

Title : A COX-2\/sEH dual inhibitor PTUPB ameliorates cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in mice via anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative stress - Zhang_2020_Biomed.Pharmacother_126_109907
Author(s) : Zhang YF , Sun CC , Duan JX , Yang HH , Zhang CY , Xiong JB , Zhong WJ , Zu C , Guan XX , Jiang HL , Hammock BD , Hwang SH , Zhou Y , Guan CX
Ref : Biomed Pharmacother , 126 :109907 , 2020
Abstract : Arachidonic acid can be metabolized to prostaglandins and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cytochrome P450 (CYP), respectively. While protective EETs are degraded by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) very fast. We have reported that dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH with specific inhibitor PTUPB shows anti-pulmonary fibrosis and renal protection. However, the effect of PTUPB on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis remains unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects of PTUPB against CLP-induced sepsis in mice and the underlying mechanisms. We found that COX-2 expressions were increased, while CYPs expressions were decreased in the liver, lung, and kidney of mice undergone CLP. PTUPB treatment significantly improved the survival rate, reduced the clinical scores and systemic inflammatory response, alleviated liver and kidney dysfunction, and ameliorated the multiple-organ injury of the mice with sepsis. Besides, PTUPB treatment reduced the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in the liver, lung, and kidney of septic mice. Importantly, we found that PTUPB treatment suppressed the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in the liver and lung of septic mice. Meanwhile, we found that PTUPB attenuated the oxidative stress, which contributed to the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Altogether, our data, for the first time, demonstrate that dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH with PTUPB ameliorates the multiple organ dysfunction in septic mice.
ESTHER : Zhang_2020_Biomed.Pharmacother_126_109907
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2020_Biomed.Pharmacother_126_109907
PubMedID: 32114358

Title : COX-2\/sEH dual inhibitor PTUPB alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice via inhibiting senescence - Zhang_2020_FEBS.J_287_1666
Author(s) : Zhang CY , Duan JX , Yang HH , Sun CC , Zhong WJ , Tao JH , Guan XX , Jiang HL , Hammock BD , Hwang SH , Zhou Y , Guan CX
Ref : Febs J , 287 :1666 , 2020
Abstract : Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a senescence-associated disease with poor prognosis. Currently, there is no effective therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating the disease process. Mounting evidence suggests that arachidonic acid (ARA) metabolites are involved in the pathogenesis of various fibrosis. However, the relationship between the metabolism of ARA and PF is still elusive. In this study, we observed a disorder in the cyclooxygenase-2/cytochrome P450 (COX-2/CYP) metabolism of ARA in the lungs of PF mice induced by bleomycin (BLM). Therefore, we aimed to explore the role of COX-2/CYP-derived ARA metabolic disorders in PF. PTUPB, a dual COX-2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor, was used to restore the balance of COX-2/CYP metabolism. sEH is an enzyme hydrolyzing epoxyeicosatrienoic acids derived from ARA by CYP. We found that PTUPB alleviated the pathological changes in lung tissue and collagen deposition, as well as reduced senescence marker molecules (p16(Ink4a) and p53-p21(Waf1/Cip1) ) in the lungs of mice treated by BLM. In vitro, we found that PTUPB pretreatment remarkably reduced the expression of senescence-related molecules in the alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) induced by BLM. In conclusion, our study supports the notion that the COX-2/CYP-derived ARA metabolic disorders may be a potential therapeutic target for PF via inhibiting the cellular senescence in AECs.
ESTHER : Zhang_2020_FEBS.J_287_1666
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2020_FEBS.J_287_1666
PubMedID: 31646730

Title : Development of multitarget agents possessing soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity - Hiesinger_2019_Prostaglandins.Other.Lipid.Mediat_140_31
Author(s) : Hiesinger K , Wagner KM , Hammock BD , Proschak E , Hwang SH
Ref : Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat , 140 :31 , 2019
Abstract : Over the last two decades polypharmacology has emerged as a new paradigm in drug discovery, even though developing drugs with high potency and selectivity toward a single biological target is still a major strategy. Often, targeting only a single enzyme or receptor shows lack of efficacy. High levels of inhibitor of a single target also can lead to adverse side effects. A second target may offer additive or synergistic effects to affecting the first target thereby reducing on- and off-target side effects. Therefore, drugs that inhibit multiple targets may offer a great potential for increased efficacy and reduced the adverse effects. In this review we summarize recent findings of rationally designed multitarget compounds that are aimed to improve efficacy and safety profiles compared to those that target a single enzyme or receptor. We focus on dual inhibitors/modulators that target the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) as a common part of their design to take advantage of the beneficial effects of sEH inhibition.
ESTHER : Hiesinger_2019_Prostaglandins.Other.Lipid.Mediat_140_31
PubMedSearch : Hiesinger_2019_Prostaglandins.Other.Lipid.Mediat_140_31
PubMedID: 30593866

Title : In vitro and in vivo Metabolism of a Potent Inhibitor of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase, 1-(1-Propionylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)urea - Wan_2019_Front.Pharmacol_10_464
Author(s) : Wan D , Yang J , McReynolds CB , Barnych B , Wagner KM , Morisseau C , Hwang SH , Sun J , Blocher R , Hammock BD
Ref : Front Pharmacol , 10 :464 , 2019
Abstract : 1-(1-Propionylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)urea (TPPU) is a potent soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor that is used extensively in research for modulating inflammation and protecting against hypertension, neuropathic pain, and neurodegeneration. Despite its wide use in various animal disease models, the metabolism of TPPU has not been well-studied. A broader understanding of its metabolism is critical for determining contributions of metabolites to the overall safety and effectiveness of TPPU. Herein, we describe the identification of TPPU metabolites using LC-MS/MS strategies. Four metabolites of TPPU (M1-M4) were identified from rat urine by a sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method with double precursor ion scans. Their structures were further supported by LC-MS/MS comparison with synthesized standards. Metabolites M1 and M2 were formed from hydroxylation on a propionyl group of TPPU; M3 was formed by amide hydrolysis of the 1-propionylpiperdinyl group on TPPU; and M4 was formed by further oxidation of the hydroxylated metabolite M2. Interestingly, the predicted alpha-keto amide metabolite and 4-(trifluoromethoxy)aniline (metabolite from urea cleavage) were not detected by the LC-MRM-MS method. This indicates that if formed, the two potential metabolites represent <0.01% of TPPU metabolism. Species differences in the formation of these four identified metabolites was assessed using liver S9 fractions from dog, monkey, rat, mouse, and human. M1, M2, and M3 were generated in liver S9 fractions from all species, and higher amounts of M3 were generated in monkey S9 fractions compared to other species. In addition, rat and human S9 metabolism showed the highest species similarity based on the quantities of each metabolite. The presence of all four metabolites were confirmed in vivo in rats over 72-h post single oral dose of TPPU. Urine and feces were major routes for TPPU excretion. M1, M4 and parent drug were detected as major substances, and M2 and M3 were minor substances. In blood, M1 accounted for ~9.6% of the total TPPU-related exposure, while metabolites M2, M3, and M4 accounted for <0.4%. All four metabolites were potent inhibitors of human sEH but were less potent than the parent TPPU. In conclusion, TPPU is metabolized via oxidation and amide hydrolysis without apparent breakdown of the urea. The aniline metabolites were not observed either in vitro or in vivo. Our findings increase the confidence in the ability to translate preclinical PK of TPPU in rats to humans and facilitates the potential clinical development of TPPU and other sEH inhibitors.
ESTHER : Wan_2019_Front.Pharmacol_10_464
PubMedSearch : Wan_2019_Front.Pharmacol_10_464
PubMedID: 31143115

Title : Inhibition of Pancreatic Carcinoma Growth Through Enhancing omega-3 Epoxy Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Profile by Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase - Xia_2019_Anticancer.Res_39_3651
Author(s) : Xia R , Sun L , Liao J , Li H , You X , Xu D , Yang J , Hwang SH , Jones RD , Hammock B , Yang GY
Ref : Anticancer Research , 39 :3651 , 2019
Abstract : BACKGROUND/AIM: Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase is a major enzyme involved in the metabolism of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to produce biologically active omega-3 epoxy fatty acids (omega-3 epoxides). In general, all epoxy PUFAs including omega-3 epoxides are quickly metabolized/inactivated by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form diol products. The aims of this study were to determine the effect and mechanism of fat-1 transgene, and omega-3 PUFA combined with sEH gene knockout or inhibitor on inhibiting pancreatic cancer and the related mechanisms involved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PK03-mutant Kras(G12D) murine pancreatic carcinoma cells were inoculated into mouse models including fat-1, sEH(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed with AIN-76A diet with or without omega-3 PUFA supplementation or treated with sEH inhibitor. In addition to tumor growth (tumor size and weight), cell proliferation, mutant Kras-mediated signaling, inflammatory reaction and angiogenesis were analyzed immunohisto-chemically and by western blot assay. omega-3 PUFA metabolism, particularly focusing on omega-3 epoxy fatty acids (omega-3 epoxides), was measured using a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach. RESULTS: Significant decreases of weight and size of the PK03 pancreatic carcinoma were observed in the fat-1 transgenic mice treated with sEH inhibitor compared to those of C57BL/6J control mice fed with AIN-76A diet (weight: 0.28+/-0.04 g vs. 0.58+/-0.06 g; size: 187.0+/-17.5 mm(3) vs. 519.3+/-60.6 mm(3)). In a separate experiment, sEH(-/-) mice fed omega-3 PUFA supplement and C57BL/6J mice treated with sEH inhibitor and fed omega-3 PUFA supplement exhibited a significant reduction in the weight and size of the pancreatic carcinoma compared to C57BL/6J control mice (weight: 0.26+/-.26 g and 0.39+/-.39 g vs. 0.69+/-0.11 g, respectively; size: 274.2+/-36.2 mm(3) and 296.4+/-99.8 mm(3) vs. 612.6+/-117.8 mm(3), respectively). Moreover, compared to the pancreatic tumors in C57BL/6J control mice, the tumors in fat-1 transgenic mice treated with sEH inhibitor showed a significant less inflammatory cell infiltrate (62.6+/-9.2/HPF (high power field) vs. 8.0+/-1.2/HPF), tumor cell proliferation (48.5+/-1.7% vs. 16.5+/-1.6%), and angiogenesis (micro-vessel density (MVD): 35.0+/-1.0 vs. 11.1+/-0.5) immunohistochemically, as well as significantly increased caspase-3 labeled apoptosis (0.44+/-0.06% vs. 0.69+/-0.06%, respectively). Using western blot approach, significant inhibition of mutant Kras-activated signals including phosphorylated Serine/threonine kinases (cRAF), Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were identified in pancreatic carcinoma of fat-1 transgenic mice treated with sEH inhibitor. Eicosanoic acid metabolic profiling of the serum specimens detected a significant increase of the ratios of epoxides to dihydroxy fatty acid (DiHDPE) for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and epoxides/dihydroxy octadecenoic acid (DiHOME) for arachidonic acid (ARA) and linoleic acid (LA), as well as a significant increase of epoxy metabolites of DHA, EPA, ARA and LA in fat-1 transgenic mice treated with a sEH inhibitor. CONCLUSION: omega-3 epoxy products from omega-3 PUFA metabolism play a crucial role in inhibiting pancreatic cancer growth, and use of omega-3 PUFAs combined with sEH inhibition is a strategy with high potential for pancreatic cancer treatment and prevention.
ESTHER : Xia_2019_Anticancer.Res_39_3651
PubMedSearch : Xia_2019_Anticancer.Res_39_3651
PubMedID: 31262891

Title : Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates a high-fat diet-mediated renal injury by activating PAX2 and AMPK - Luo_2019_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_116_5154
Author(s) : Luo Y , Wu MY , Deng BQ , Huang J , Hwang SH , Li MY , Zhou CY , Zhang QY , Yu HB , Zhao DK , Zhang G , Qin L , Peng A , Hammock BD , Liu JY
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 116 :5154 , 2019
Abstract : A high-fat diet (HFD) causes obesity-associated morbidities involved in macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). AMPK, the mediator of macroautophage, has been reported to be inactivated in HFD-caused renal injury. However, PAX2, the mediator for CMA, has not been reported in HFD-caused renal injury. Here we report that HFD-caused renal injury involved the inactivation of Pax2 and Ampk, and the activation of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), in a murine model. Specifically, mice fed on an HFD for 2, 4, and 8 wk showed time-dependent renal injury, the significant decrease in renal Pax2 and Ampk at both mRNA and protein levels, and a significant increase in renal sEH at mRNA, protein, and molecular levels. Also, administration of an sEH inhibitor, 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl)urea, significantly attenuated the HFD-caused renal injury, decreased renal sEH consistently at mRNA and protein levels, modified the renal levels of sEH-mediated epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) as expected, and increased renal Pax2 and Ampk at mRNA and/or protein levels. Furthermore, palmitic acid (PA) treatment caused significant increase in Mcp-1, and decrease in both Pax2 and Ampk in murine renal mesangial cells (mRMCs) time- and dose-dependently. Also, 14(15)-EET (a major substrate of sEH), but not its sEH-mediated metabolite 14,15-DHET, significantly reversed PA-induced increase in Mcp-1, and PA-induced decrease in Pax2 and Ampk. In addition, plasmid construction revealed that Pax2 may positively regulate Ampk transcriptionally in mRMCs. This study provides insights into and therapeutic target for the HFD-mediated renal injury.
ESTHER : Luo_2019_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_116_5154
PubMedSearch : Luo_2019_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_116_5154
PubMedID: 30804206

Title : Key role of soluble epoxide hydrolase in the neurodevelopmental disorders of offspring after maternal immune activation - Ma_2019_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_116_7083
Author(s) : Ma M , Ren Q , Yang J , Zhang K , Xiong Z , Ishima T , Pu Y , Hwang SH , Toyoshima M , Iwayama Y , Hisano Y , Yoshikawa T , Hammock BD , Hashimoto K
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 116 :7083 , 2019
Abstract : Maternal infection during pregnancy increases risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring. In rodents, maternal immune activation (MIA) yields offspring with schizophrenia- and ASD-like behavioral abnormalities. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a key role in inflammation associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we found higher levels of sEH in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of juvenile offspring after MIA. Oxylipin analysis showed decreased levels of epoxy fatty acids in the PFC of juvenile offspring after MIA, supporting increased activity of sEH in the PFC of juvenile offspring. Furthermore, expression of sEH (or EPHX2) mRNA in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurospheres from schizophrenia patients with the 22q11.2 deletion was higher than that of healthy controls. Moreover, the expression of EPHX2 mRNA in postmortem brain samples (Brodmann area 9 and 40) from ASD patients was higher than that of controls. Treatment with 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl)urea (TPPU), a potent sEH inhibitor, in juvenile offspring from prenatal day (P) 28 to P56 could prevent cognitive deficits and loss of parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactivity in the medial PFC of adult offspring after MIA. In addition, dosing of TPPU to pregnant mothers from E5 to P21 could prevent cognitive deficits, and social interaction deficits and PV immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex of juvenile offspring after MIA. These findings suggest that increased activity of sEH in the PFC plays a key role in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring after MIA. Therefore, sEH represents a promising prophylactic or therapeutic target for neurodevelopmental disorders in offspring after MIA.
ESTHER : Ma_2019_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_116_7083
PubMedSearch : Ma_2019_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_116_7083
PubMedID: 30890645

Title : Pharmaceutical Effects of Inhibiting the Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in Canine Osteoarthritis - McReynolds_2019_Front.Pharmacol_10_533
Author(s) : McReynolds CB , Hwang SH , Yang J , Wan D , Wagner K , Morisseau C , Li D , Schmidt WK , Hammock BD
Ref : Front Pharmacol , 10 :533 , 2019
Abstract : Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that causes pain and bone deterioration driven by an increase in prostaglandins (PGs) and inflammatory cytokines. Current treatments focus on inhibiting prostaglandin production, a pro-inflammatory lipid metabolite, with NSAID drugs; however, other lipid signaling targets could provide safer and more effective treatment strategies. Epoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that are rapidly metabolized by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) into corresponding vicinal diols. Interestingly, diol levels are increased in the synovial fluid of humans with OA, warranting further research on the biological role of this lipid pathway in the progression of OA. sEH inhibitors (sEHI) stabilize these biologically active, anti-inflammatory lipid epoxides, resulting in analgesia in both neuropathic, and inflammatory pain conditions. Most experimental studies testing the analgesic effects of sEH inhibitors have used experimental rodent models, which do not completely represent the complex etiology of painful diseases. Here, we tested the efficacy of sEHI in aged dogs with natural arthritis to provide a better representation of the clinical manifestations of pain. Two sEHI were administered orally, once daily for 5 days to dogs with naturally occurring arthritis to assess efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Blinded technicians recorded the behavior of the arthritic dogs based on pre-determined criteria to assess pain and function. After 5 days, EC1728 significantly reduced pain at a dose of 5 mg/kg compared to vehicle controls. Pharmacokinetic evaluation showed concentrations exceeding the enzyme potency in both plasma and synovial fluid. In vitro data showed that epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EETs), epoxide metabolites of arachidonic acid, decreased inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, and reduced cytotoxicity in canine chondrocytes challenged with IL1beta to simulate an arthritic environment. These results provide the first example of altering lipid epoxides as a therapeutic target for OA potentially acting by protecting chondrocytes from inflammatory induced cytotoxicity. Considering the challenges and high variability of naturally occurring disease in aged dogs, these data provide initial proof of concept justification that inhibiting the sEH is a non-NSAID, non-opioid, disease altering strategy for treating OA, and warrants further investigation.
ESTHER : McReynolds_2019_Front.Pharmacol_10_533
PubMedSearch : McReynolds_2019_Front.Pharmacol_10_533
PubMedID: 31214021

Title : Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase ameliorates hyperhomocysteinemia-induced hepatic steatosis by enhancing beta-oxidation of fatty acid in mice - Yao_2019_Am.J.Physiol.Gastrointest.Liver.Physiol_316_G527
Author(s) : Yao L , Cao B , Cheng Q , Cai W , Ye C , Liang J , Liu W , Tan L , Yan M , Li B , He J , Hwang SH , Zhang X , Wang C , Ai D , Hammock BD , Zhu Y
Ref : American Journal of Physiology Gastrointest Liver Physiol , 316 :G527 , 2019
Abstract : Hepatic steatosis is the beginning phase of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a significant risk factor. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyzes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and other epoxy fatty acids, attenuating their cardiovascular protective effects. However, the involvement of sEH in HHcy-induced hepatic steatosis is unknown. The current study aimed to explore the role of sEH in HHcy-induced lipid disorder. We fed 6-wk-old male mice a chow diet or 2% (wt/wt) high-metnionine diet for 8 wk to establish the HHcy model. A high level of homocysteine induced lipid accumulation in vivo and in vitro, which was concomitant with the increased activity and expression of sEH. Treatment with a highly selective specific sEH inhibitor (0.8 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) for the animal model and 1 muM for cells) prevented HHcy-induced lipid accumulation in vivo and in vitro. Inhibition of sEH activated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha), as evidenced by elevated beta-oxidation of fatty acids and the expression of PPAR-alpha target genes in HHcy-induced hepatic steatosis. In primary cultured hepatocytes, the effect of sEH inhibition on PPAR-alpha activation was further confirmed by a marked increase in PPAR-response element luciferase activity, which was reversed by knock down of PPAR-alpha. Of note, 11,12-EET ligand dependently activated PPAR-alpha. Thus increased sEH activity is a key determinant in the pathogenesis of HHcy-induced hepatic steatosis, and sEH inhibition could be an effective treatment for HHcy-induced hepatic steatosis. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In the current study, we demonstrated that upregulation of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is involved in the hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-caused hepatic steatosis in an HHcy mouse model and in murine primary hepatocytes. Improving hepatic steatosis in HHcy mice by pharmacological inhibition of sEH to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha was ligand dependent, and sEH could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
ESTHER : Yao_2019_Am.J.Physiol.Gastrointest.Liver.Physiol_316_G527
PubMedSearch : Yao_2019_Am.J.Physiol.Gastrointest.Liver.Physiol_316_G527
PubMedID: 30789748

Title : 1-Trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) Urea, a Selective and Potent Dual Inhibitor of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase and p38 Kinase Intervenes in Alzheimer's Signaling in Human Nerve Cells - Liang_2019_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_10_4018
Author(s) : Liang Z , Zhang B , Xu M , Morisseau C , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Li QX
Ref : ACS Chem Neurosci , 10 :4018 , 2019
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Neuroinflammation is a prevalent pathogenic stress leading to neuronal death in AD. Targeting neuroinflammation to keep neurons alive is an attractive strategy for AD therapy. 1-Trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) is a potent inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and can enter into the brain. It has good efficacy on a wide range of chronic inflammatory diseases in preclinical animal models. However, the anti-neuroinflammatory effects and molecular mechanisms of TPPU for potential AD interventions remain elusive. With an aim to develop multitarget therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases, we screened TPPU against sEH from different mammalian species and a broad panel of human kinases in vitro for potential new targets relevant to neuroinflammation in AD. TPPU inhibits both human sEH and p38beta kinase, two key regulators of inflammation, with nanomolar potencies and distinct selectivity. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms, differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were used as an AD cell model, and we investigated the neuroprotection of TPPU against amyloid oligomers. We found that TPPU effectively prevents neuronal death by mitigating amyloid neurotoxicity, tau hyperphosphorylation, and mitochondrial dysfunction, promoting neurite outgrowth and suppressing activation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB for inflammatory responses in human nerve cells. The results indicate that TPPU is a potent and selective dual inhibitor of sEH and p38beta kinase, showing a synergistic action in multiple AD signaling pathways. Our study sheds light upon TPPU and other sEH/p38beta dual inhibitors for potential pharmacological interventions in AD.
ESTHER : Liang_2019_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_10_4018
PubMedSearch : Liang_2019_ACS.Chem.Neurosci_10_4018
PubMedID: 31378059

Title : Suppression of chemotherapy-induced cytokine\/lipid mediator surge and ovarian cancer by a dual COX-2\/sEH inhibitor - Gartung_2019_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_116_1698
Author(s) : Gartung A , Yang J , Sukhatme VP , Bielenberg DR , Fernandes D , Chang J , Schmidt BA , Hwang SH , Zurakowski D , Huang S , Kieran MW , Hammock BD , Panigrahy D
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 116 :1698 , 2019
Abstract : Although chemotherapy is a conventional cancer treatment, it may induce a protumorigenic microenvironment by triggering the release of proinflammatory mediators. In this study, we demonstrate that ovarian tumor cell debris generated by first-line platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy accelerates tumor progression by stimulating a macrophage-derived "surge" of proinflammatory cytokines and bioactive lipids. Thus, targeting a single inflammatory mediator or pathway is unlikely to prevent therapy-induced tumor progression. Here, we show that combined pharmacological abrogation of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathways prevented the debris-induced surge of both cytokines and lipid mediators by macrophages. In animal models, the dual COX-2/sEH inhibitor PTUPB delayed the onset of debris-stimulated ovarian tumor growth and ascites leading to sustained survival over 120 days postinjection. Therefore, dual inhibition of COX-2/sEH may be an approach to suppress debris-stimulated ovarian tumor growth by preventing the therapy-induced surge of cytokines and lipid mediators.
ESTHER : Gartung_2019_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_116_1698
PubMedSearch : Gartung_2019_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_116_1698
PubMedID: 30647111

Title : Effect Of Dual sEH\/COX-2 Inhibition on Allergen-Induced Airway Inflammation - Dileepan_2019_Front.Pharmacol_10_1118
Author(s) : Dileepan M , Rastle-Simpson S , Greenberg Y , Wijesinghe DS , Kumar NG , Yang J , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Sriramarao P , Rao SP
Ref : Front Pharmacol , 10 :1118 , 2019
Abstract : Arachidonic acid metabolites resulting from the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 oxidase enzymatic pathways play pro- and anti-inflammatory roles in allergic airway inflammation (AAI) and asthma. Expression of COX-2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) are elevated in allergic airways and their enzymatic products (e.g., prostaglandins and diols of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, respectively) have been shown to participate in the pathogenesis of AAI. Here, we evaluated the outcome of inhibiting the COX-2 and sEH enzymatic pathways with a novel dual inhibitor, PTUPB, in A. alternata-induced AAI. Allergen-challenged mice were administered with 10 or 30 mg/kg of PTUPB, celecoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor), t-TUCB (selective sEH inhibitor) or vehicle daily by gavage and evaluated for various features of AAI. PTUPB and t-TUCB at 30 mg/kg, but not celecoxib, inhibited eosinophilic infiltration and significantly increased levels of anti-inflammatory EETs in the lung tissue of allergen-challenged mice. t-TUCB significantly inhibited allergen-induced IL-4 and IL-13, while a less pronounced reduction was noted with PTUPB and celecoxib. Additionally, t-TUCB markedly inhibited eotaxin-2, an eosinophil-specific chemokine, which was only marginally reduced by PTUPB and remained elevated in celecoxib-treated mice. PTUPB or t-TUCB administration reversed allergen-induced reduction in levels of various lipid mediators in the lungs, with only a minimal effect noted with celecoxib. Despite the anti-inflammatory effects, PTUPB or t-TUCB did not reduce allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). However, development of structural changes in the allergic airways, such as mucus hypersecretion and smooth muscle hypertrophy, was significantly inhibited by both inhibitors. Celecoxib, on the other hand, inhibited only airway smooth muscle hypertrophy, but not mucus hypersecretion. In conclusion, dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH offers no additional advantage relative to sEH inhibition alone in attenuating various features associated with A. alternata-induced AAI, while COX-2 inhibition exerts only moderate or no effect on several of these features. Dual sEH/COX-2 inhibition may be useful in treating conditions where eosinophilic inflammation co-exists with pain-associated inflammation.
ESTHER : Dileepan_2019_Front.Pharmacol_10_1118
PubMedSearch : Dileepan_2019_Front.Pharmacol_10_1118
PubMedID: 31611798

Title : Design and Potency of Dual Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase\/Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitors - Kodani_2018_ACS.Omega_3_14076
Author(s) : Kodani SD , Wan D , Wagner KM , Hwang SH , Morisseau C , Hammock BD
Ref : ACS Omega , 3 :14076 , 2018
Abstract : Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is responsible for regulating concentrations of the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide. Multiple FAAH inhibitors have been developed for clinical trials and have failed to demonstrate efficacy at treating pain, despite promising preclinical data. One approach toward increasing the efficacy of FAAH inhibitors is to concurrently inhibit other targets responsible for regulating pain. Here, we designed dual inhibitors targeting the enzymes FAAH and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which are targets previously shown to synergize at reducing inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Exploration of the sEH/FAAH inhibitor structure-activity relationship started with PF-750, a FAAH inhibitor (IC50 = 19 nM) that weakly inhibited sEH (IC50 = 640 nM). Potency was optimized resulting in an inhibitor with improved potency on both targets (11, sEH IC50 = 5 nM, FAAH IC50 = 8 nM). This inhibitor demonstrated good target selectivity, pharmacokinetic properties (AUC = 1200 h nM, t 1/2 = 4.9 h in mice), and in vivo target engagement.
ESTHER : Kodani_2018_ACS.Omega_3_14076
PubMedSearch : Kodani_2018_ACS.Omega_3_14076
PubMedID: 30411058

Title : Identification and optimization of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors with dual potency towards fatty acid amide hydrolase - Kodani_2018_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_28_762
Author(s) : Kodani SD , Bhakta S , Hwang SH , Pakhomova S , Newcomer ME , Morisseau C , Hammock BD
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 28 :762 , 2018
Abstract : Multi-target inhibitors have become increasing popular as a means to leverage the advantages of poly-pharmacology while simplifying drug delivery. Here, we describe dual inhibitors for soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), two targets known to synergize when treating inflammatory and neuropathic pain. The structure activity relationship (SAR) study described herein initially started with t-TUCB (trans-4-[4-(3-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-l-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid), a potent sEH inhibitor that was previously shown to weakly inhibit FAAH. Inhibitors with a 6-fold increase of FAAH potency while maintaining high sEH potency were developed by optimization. Interestingly, compared to most FAAH inhibitors that inhibit through time-dependent covalent modification, t-TUCB and related compounds appear to inhibit FAAH through a time-independent, competitive mechanism. These inhibitors are selective for FAAH over other serine hydrolases. In addition, FAAH inhibition by t-TUCB appears to be higher in human FAAH over other species; however, the new dual sEH/FAAH inhibitors have improved cross-species potency. These dual inhibitors may be useful for future studies in understanding the therapeutic application of dual sEH/FAAH inhibition.
ESTHER : Kodani_2018_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_28_762
PubMedSearch : Kodani_2018_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_28_762
PubMedID: 29366648
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-EPHX2

Title : Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme blockade, alone or combined with blockade of soluble epoxide hydrolase, on the course of congestive heart failure and occurrence of renal dysfunction in Ren-2 transgenic hypertensive rats with aorto-caval fistula - Kala_2018_Physiol.Res_67_401
Author(s) : Kala P , Sedlakova L , Skaroupkova P , Kopkan L , Vanourkova Z , Taborsky M , Nishiyama A , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Sadowski J , Melenovsky V , Imig JD , Cervenka L
Ref : Physiol Res , 67 :401 , 2018
Abstract : We showed recently that increasing kidney epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by blocking soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), an enzyme responsible for EETs degradation, retarded the development of renal dysfunction and progression of aorto-caval fistula(ACF)-induced congestive heart failure (CHF) in Ren-2 transgenic hypertensive rats (TGR). In that study the final survival rate of untreated ACF TGR was only 14 % but increased to 41 % after sEH blockade. Here we examined if sEH inhibition added to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade would further enhance protection against ACF-induced CHF in TGR. The treatment regimens were started one week after ACF creation and the follow-up period was 50 weeks. RAS was blocked using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi, trandolapril, 6 mg/l) and sEH with an sEH inhibitor (sEHi, c-AUCB, 3 mg/l). Renal hemodynamics and excretory function were determined two weeks post-ACF, just before the onset of decompensated phase of CHF. 29 weeks post-ACF no untreated animal survived. ACEi treatment greatly improved the survival rate, to 84 % at the end of study. Surprisingly, combined treatment with ACEi and sEHi worsened the rate (53 %). Untreated ACF TGR exhibited marked impairment of renal function and the treatment with ACEi alone or combined with sEH inhibition did not prevent it. In conclusion, addition of sEHi to ACEi treatment does not provide better protection against CHF progression and does not increase the survival rate in ACF TGR: indeed, the rate decreases significantly. Thus, combined treatment with sEHi and ACEi is not a promising approach to further attenuate renal dysfunction and retard progression of CHF.
ESTHER : Kala_2018_Physiol.Res_67_401
PubMedSearch : Kala_2018_Physiol.Res_67_401
PubMedID: 29527914

Title : Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, APAU, protects dopaminergic neurons against rotenone induced neurotoxicity: Implications for Parkinson's disease - Lakkappa_2018_Neurotoxicol_70_135
Author(s) : Lakkappa N , Krishnamurthy PT , M DP , Hammock BD , Hwang SH
Ref : Neurotoxicology , 70 :135 , 2018
Abstract : Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), metabolites of arachidonic acid, play a crucial role in cytoprotection by attenuating oxidative stress, in fl ammation and apoptosis. EETs are rapidly metabolised in vivo by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Increasing the half life of EETs by inhibiting the sEH enzyme is a novel strategy for neuroprotection. In the present study, sEH inhibitors APAU was screened in silico and further evaluated for their antiparkinson activity against rotenone (ROT) induced neurodegeneration in N27 dopaminergic cell line and Drosophila melanogaster model of Parkinson disease (PD). In the in vitro study cell viability (MTT and LDH release assay), oxidative stress parameters (total intracellular ROS, hydroperoxides, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidise, glutathione reductase, glutathione, total antioxidant status, mitochondrial complex-1activity and mitochondrial membrane potential), inflammatory markers (IL-6, COX-1 and COX-2), and apoptotic markers (JNK, phospho-JNK, c-jun, phospho-c-jun, pro and active caspase-3) were assessed to study the neuroprotective effects. In vivo activity of APAU was assessed in Drosophila melanogaster by measuring survival rate, negative geotaxis, oxidative stress parameters (total intracellular ROS, hydroperoxides, glutathione levels) were measured. Dopamine and its metabolites were estimated by LC-MS/MS analysis. In the in silico study the molecule, APAU showed good binding interaction at the active site of sEH (PDB: 1VJ5). In the in vitro study, APAU significantly attenuated ROT induced changes in oxidative, pro-inflammatory and apoptotic parameters. In the in vivo study, APAU significantly attenuates ROT induced changes in survival rate, negative geotaxis, oxidative stress, dopamine and its metabolites levels (p < 0.05). Our study, therefore, concludes that the molecule APAU, has significant neuroprotection benefits against rotenone induced Parkinsonism.
ESTHER : Lakkappa_2018_Neurotoxicol_70_135
PubMedSearch : Lakkappa_2018_Neurotoxicol_70_135
PubMedID: 30472438

Title : Combined Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase and Renin-Angiotensin System Exhibits Superior Renoprotection to Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade in 5\/6 Nephrectomized Ren-2 Transgenic Hypertensive Rats with Established Chronic Kidney Disease - Certikova_2018_Kidney.Blood.Press.Res_43_329
Author(s) : Certikova Chabova V , Kujal P , Skaroupkova P , Varnourkova Z , Vackova S , Huskova Z , Kikerlova S , Sadowski J , Kompanowska-Jezierska E , Baranowska I , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Imig JD , Tesar V , Cervenka L
Ref : Kidney Blood Press Res , 43 :329 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND/AIMS: We found recently that increasing renal epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) levels by blocking soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), an enzyme responsible for EETs degradation, shows renoprotective actions and retards the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Ren-2 transgenic hypertensive rats (TGR) after 5/6 renal ablation (5/6 NX). This prompted us to examine if additional protection is provided when sEH inhibitor is added to the standard renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade, specifically in rats with established CKD. METHODS: For RAS blockade, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor along with an angiotensin II type receptor blocker was used. RAS blockade was compared to sEH inhibition added to the RAS blockade. Treatments were initiated 6 weeks after 5/6 NX in TGR and the follow-up period was 60 weeks. RESULTS: Combined RAS and sEH blockade exhibited additional positive impact on the rat survival rate, further reduced albuminuria, further reduced glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury, and attenuated the decline in creatinine clearance when compared to 5/6 NX TGR subjected to RAS blockade alone. These additional beneficial actions were associated with normalization of the intrarenal EETs deficient and a further reduction of urinary angiotensinogen excretion. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that addition of pharmacological inhibition of sEH to RAS blockade in 5/6 NX TGR enhances renoprotection and retards progression of CKD, notably, when applied at an advanced stage.
ESTHER : Certikova_2018_Kidney.Blood.Press.Res_43_329
PubMedSearch : Certikova_2018_Kidney.Blood.Press.Res_43_329
PubMedID: 29529602

Title : Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates eosinophil recruitment and food allergen-induced gastrointestinal inflammation - Bastan_2018_J.Leukoc.Biol_104_109
Author(s) : Bastan I , Ge XN , Dileepan M , Greenberg YG , Guedes AG , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Washabau RJ , Rao SP , Sriramarao P
Ref : J Leukoc Biol , 104 :109 , 2018
Abstract : Prevalence of food allergies in the United States is on the rise. Eosinophils are recruited to the intestinal mucosa in substantial numbers in food allergen-driven gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is known to play a pro-inflammatory role during inflammation by metabolizing anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to pro-inflammatory diols. We investigated the role of sEH in a murine model of food allergy and evaluated the potential therapeutic effect of a highly selective sEH inhibitor (trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-benzoic acid [t-TUCB]). Oral exposure of mice on a soy-free diet to soy protein isolate (SPI) induced expression of intestinal sEH, increased circulating total and antigen-specific IgE levels, and caused significant weight loss. Administration of t-TUCB to SPI-challenged mice inhibited IgE levels and prevented SPI-induced weight loss. Additionally, SPI-induced GI inflammation characterized by increased recruitment of eosinophils and mast cells, elevated eotaxin 1 levels, mucus hypersecretion, and decreased epithelial junction protein expression. In t-TUCB-treated mice, eosinophilia, mast cell recruitment, and mucus secretion were significantly lower than in untreated mice and SPI-induced loss of junction protein expression was prevented to variable levels. sEH expression in eosinophils was induced by inflammatory mediators TNF-alpha and eotaxin-1. Treatment of eosinophils with t-TUCB significantly inhibited eosinophil migration, an effect that was mirrored by treatment with 11,12-EET, by inhibiting intracellular signaling events such as ERK (1/2) activation and eotaxin-1-induced calcium flux. These studies suggest that sEH induced by soy proteins promotes allergic responses and GI inflammation including eosinophilia and that inhibition of sEH can attenuate these responses.
ESTHER : Bastan_2018_J.Leukoc.Biol_104_109
PubMedSearch : Bastan_2018_J.Leukoc.Biol_104_109
PubMedID: 29345370

Title : Orally Available Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase\/Phosphodiesterase 4 Dual Inhibitor Treats Inflammatory Pain - Blocher_2018_J.Med.Chem_61_3541
Author(s) : Blocher R , Wagner KM , Gopireddy RR , Harris TR , Wu H , Barnych B , Hwang SH , Xiang YK , Proschak E , Morisseau C , Hammock BD
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 61 :3541 , 2018
Abstract : Inspired by previously discovered enhanced analgesic efficacy between soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors, we designed, synthesized and characterized 21 novel sEH/PDE4 dual inhibitors. The best of these displayed good efficacy in in vitro assays. Further pharmacokinetic studies of a subset of four selected compounds led to the identification of a bioavailable dual inhibitor N-(4-methoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)-1-propionylpiperidine-4-carboxamide (MPPA). In a lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory pain rat model, MPPA rapidly increased in the blood ( Tmax = 30 min; Cmax = 460 nM) after oral administration of 3 mg/kg and reduced inflammatory pain with rapid onset of action correlating with blood levels over a time course of 4 h. Additionally, MPPA does not alter self-motivated exploration of rats with inflammatory pain or the withdrawal latency in control rats.
ESTHER : Blocher_2018_J.Med.Chem_61_3541
PubMedSearch : Blocher_2018_J.Med.Chem_61_3541
PubMedID: 29614224

Title : Pharmacokinetics and antinociceptive effects of the soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor t-TUCB in horses with experimentally induced radiocarpal synovitis - Guedes_2018_J.Vet.Pharmacol.Ther_41_230
Author(s) : Guedes AGP , Aristizabal F , Sole A , Adedeji A , Brosnan R , Knych H , Yang J , Hwang SH , Morisseau C , Hammock BD
Ref : J Vet Pharmacol Ther , 41 :230 , 2018
Abstract : This study determined the pharmacokinetics, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory effects of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor t-TUCB (trans-4-{4-[3-(4-Trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-benzoic acid) in horses with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced radiocarpal synovitis. A total of seven adult healthy mares (n = 4-6/treatment) were administered 3 mug LPS into one radiocarpal joint and t-TUCB intravenously (i.v.) at 0 (control), 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg in a blinded, randomized, crossover design with at least 3 weeks washout between. Two investigators independently assigned pain scores (at rest, walk and trot) and lameness scores before and up to 48 hr after t-TUCB/LPS. Responses to touching the joint skin to assess tactile allodynia, plasma, and synovial fluid (SF) t-TUCB concentrations were determined before and up to 48 hr after t-TUCB/LPS. Blood and SF were collected for clinical laboratory evaluations before and up to 48 hr after t-TUCB/LPS. Areas under the curves of pain and lameness scores were calculated and compared between control and treatments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with Dunnett or Bonferroni post-test. p < .05 was considered significant. Data are mean +/- SEM. Compared to control, pain, lameness, and tactile allodynia were significantly lower with 1 mg/kg t-TUCB, but not the other doses. For 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg t-TUCB treatments, plasma terminal half-lives were 13 +/- 3, 13 +/- 0.5, and 24 +/- 5 hr, and clearances were 68 +/- 15, 48 +/- 5, and 14 +/- 1 ml hr(-1) kg(-1) . The 1 mg/kg t-TUCB reached the SF at high concentrations. There were no important anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, sEH inhibition with t-TUCB may provide analgesia in horses with inflammatory joint pain.
ESTHER : Guedes_2018_J.Vet.Pharmacol.Ther_41_230
PubMedSearch : Guedes_2018_J.Vet.Pharmacol.Ther_41_230
PubMedID: 29067696

Title : Evaluation of antiparkinson activity of PTUPB by measuring dopamine and its metabolites in Drosophila melanogaster: LC-MS\/MS method development - Lakkappa_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_149_457
Author(s) : Lakkappa N , Krishnamurthy PT , Yamjala K , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Babu B
Ref : J Pharm Biomed Anal , 149 :457 , 2018
Abstract : Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibition is reported to elevate endogenous epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EET's), which are known to play an important role in neuroprotection by inhibiting oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. In the present study, PTUPB, a dual inhibitor of sEH and COX-2, has been tested for its antiparkinson activity against rotenone (ROT) induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease (PD). To determine the efficacy and brain bioavailability of PTUPB a simple, rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the estimation of PTUPB (Method-I), dopamine (DA) and its metabolites (Method-II) in fly head. Mass spectrometric acquisitions of analytes signals were performed in positive and negative electron spray ionization MRM mode by monitoring the daughter ions. The isocratic elution using formic acid (0.1% v/v) and acetonitrile (20:80v/v) (for method I), and acetic acid (0.1% v/v) and methanol (for method II) on Jones C18 was carried out to achieve the separation. The results of brain PTUPB, DA and its metabolites estimation shows a dose dependent increase in PTUPB concentration and a dose dependent prevention of ROT induced changes in DA and its metabolites levels (p<0.05), indicating a significant neuroprotection activity of PTUPB. In the present study, we have successfully developed and validated LC-MS/MS methods to identify and quantify PTUPB, DA and its metabolites using a UFLC-ESI-QqQ mass spectrometer for the screening of neuroprotective agents in Drosophila Melanogaster.
ESTHER : Lakkappa_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_149_457
PubMedSearch : Lakkappa_2018_J.Pharm.Biomed.Anal_149_457
PubMedID: 29169114

Title : COX-2\/sEH Dual Inhibitor PTUPB Potentiates the Antitumor Efficacy of Cisplatin - Wang_2018_Mol.Cancer.Ther_17_474
Author(s) : Wang F , Zhang H , Ma AH , Yu W , Zimmermann M , Yang J , Hwang SH , Zhu D , Lin TY , Malfatti M , Turteltaub KW , Henderson PT , Airhart S , Hammock BD , Yuan J , de Vere White RW , Pan CX
Ref : Mol Cancer Ther , 17 :474 , 2018
Abstract : Cisplatin-based therapy is highly toxic, but moderately effective in most cancers. Concurrent inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) results in antitumor activity and has organ-protective effects. The goal of this study was to determine the antitumor activity of PTUPB, an orally bioavailable COX-2/sEH dual inhibitor, in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine (GC) therapy. NSG mice bearing bladder cancer patient-derived xenografts were treated with vehicle, PTUPB, cisplatin, GC, or combinations thereof. Mouse experiments were performed with two different PDX models. PTUPB potentiated cisplatin and GC therapy, resulting in significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival. PTUPB plus cisplatin was no more toxic than cisplatin single-agent treatment as assessed by body weight, histochemical staining of major organs, blood counts, and chemistry. The combination of PTUPB and cisplatin increased apoptosis and decreased phosphorylation in the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways compared with controls. PTUPB treatment did not alter platinum-DNA adduct levels, which is the most critical step in platinum-induced cell death. The in vitro study using the combination index method showed modest synergy between PTUPB and platinum agents only in 5637 cell line among several cell lines examined. However, PTUPB is very active in vivo by inhibiting angiogenesis. In conclusion, PTUPB potentiated the antitumor activity of cisplatin-based treatment without increasing toxicity in vivo and has potential for further development as a combination chemotherapy partner. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(2); 474-83. (c)2017 AACR.
ESTHER : Wang_2018_Mol.Cancer.Ther_17_474
PubMedSearch : Wang_2018_Mol.Cancer.Ther_17_474
PubMedID: 29284644

Title : Soluble epoxide hydrolase activity and pharmacologic inhibition in horses with chronic severe laminitis - Guedes_2017_Equine.Vet.J_49_345
Author(s) : Guedes A , Galuppo L , Hood D , Hwang SH , Morisseau C , Hammock BD
Ref : Equine Vet J , 49 :345 , 2017
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The roles of soluble epoxide hydrolase and lipid mediators in inflammatory and neuropathic pain could be relevant in laminitis pain management. OBJECTIVES: To determine soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) activity in the digital laminae, sEH inhibitor potency in vitro, and efficacy of a sEH inhibitor as an adjunct analgesic therapy in chronic laminitic horses. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro experiments and clinical case series.
METHODS: sEH activity was measured in digital laminae from euthanised healthy and laminitic horses (n = 5-6/group). Potency of 7 synthetic sEH inhibitors was determined in vitro using equine liver cytosol. One of them (t-TUCB; 0.1 mg/kg bwt i.v. every 24 h) was selected based on potency and stability, and used as adjunct therapy in 10 horses with severe chronic laminitis (Obel grades 2, one horse; 3-4, nine horses). Daily assessments of forelimb lifts, pain scores, physiologic and laboratory examinations were performed before (baseline) and during t-TUCB treatment. Data are presented as mean +/- s.d. and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
RESULTS: sEH activity in the digital laminae from laminitic horses (0.9+/-0.6 nmol/min/mg; 95% CI 0.16-1.55 nmol/min/mg) was significantly greater (P = 0.01) than in healthy horses (0.17+/-0.09 nmol/min/mg; CI 0.07-0.26 nmol/min/mg). t-TUCB as an adjunct analgesic up to 10 days (4.3+/-3 days) in laminitic horses was associated with significant reduction in forelimb lifts (36+/-22%; 95% CI 9-64%) and in pain scores (18+/-23%; 95% CI 2-35%) compared with baseline (P = 0.04). One horse developed gas colic and another corneal vascularisation in a blind eye during treatment. No other significant changes were observed. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Absence of control group and evaluator blinding in case series.
CONCLUSIONS: sEH activity is significantly higher in the digital laminae of actively laminitic compared with healthy horses, and use of a potent inhibitor of equine sEH as adjunct analgesic therapy appears to decrease signs of pathologic pain in laminitic horses.
ESTHER : Guedes_2017_Equine.Vet.J_49_345
PubMedSearch : Guedes_2017_Equine.Vet.J_49_345
PubMedID: 27338788

Title : Inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase minimize ischemia-reperfusion-induced cardiac damage in normal, hypertensive, and diabetic rats - Islam_2017_Cardiovasc.Ther_35_
Author(s) : Islam O , Patil P , Goswami SK , Razdan R , Inamdar MN , Rizwan M , Mathew J , Inceoglu B , Stephen Lee KS , Hwang SH , Hammock BD
Ref : Cardiovasc Ther , 35 : , 2017
Abstract : AIM: We designed a study to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of two soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors, 1-(1-propanoylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)urea (TPPU) and trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ureido]cyclohexyloxy}benzoic acid (t-TUCB), in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) model.
METHODS: Cardioprotective effects of the sEH inhibitors were evaluated against IR-induced myocardial damage in hearts from normal, hypertensive, and diabetic rats using Langendorff's apparatus. In addition, the effect of sEH inhibitors on endothelial function was evaluated in vitro and ex vivo using isolated rat thoracic aorta.
RESULTS: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) increased the myocardial damage in hearts from normal rats. IR-induced myocardial damage was augmented in hearts isolated from hypertensive and diabetic rats. Myocardial damage as evident from increase in the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) in heart perfusate was associated with significant decrease in the heart rate and developed tension, and increase in the resting tension in isolated heart. Both sEH inhibitors protected the heart in normal, hypertensive, and diabetic rats subjected to IR injury. The sEH inhibitor t-TUCB relaxed phenylephrine precontracted aorta from normal rats. Relaxant effect of acetylcholine (ACh) was reduced in aortas from diabetic and hypertensive rats compared to normal rats. Pretreatment of sEH inhibitors to diabetic and hypertensive rats increased relaxant effect of ACh on aortas isolated from these rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic treatment with sEH inhibitors decreased myocardial damage due to IR, hypertension and diabetes, and decreased endothelial dysfunction created by diabetes and hypertension. Therefore, inhibitors of sEH are useful probes to study cardiovascular pathology, and inhibition of the sEH is a potential approach in the management of IR-induced cardiac damage and endothelial dysfunction-related cardiovascular disorders.
ESTHER : Islam_2017_Cardiovasc.Ther_35_
PubMedSearch : Islam_2017_Cardiovasc.Ther_35_
PubMedID: 28296232

Title : Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase does not improve the course of congestive heart failure and the development of renal dysfunction in rats with volume overload induced by aorto-caval fistula - Cervenka_2015_Physiol.Res_64_857
Author(s) : Cervenka L , Melenovsky V , Huskova Z , Sporkova A , Burgelova M , Skaroupkova P , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Imig JD , Sadowski J
Ref : Physiol Res , 64 :857 , 2015
Abstract : The detailed mechanisms determining the course of congestive heart failure (CHF) and associated renal dysfunction remain unclear. In a volume overload model of CHF induced by creation of aorto-caval fistula (ACF) in Hannover Sprague-Dawley (HanSD) rats we explored the putative pathogenetic contribution of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), active products of CYP-450 dependent epoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism, and compared it with the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Chronic treatment with cis-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid (c-AUCB, 3 mg/l in drinking water), an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) which normally degrades EETs, increased intrarenal and myocardial EETs to levels observed in sham-operated HanSD rats, but did not improve the survival or renal function impairment. In contrast, chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEi, trandolapril, 6 mg/l in drinking water) increased renal blood flow, fractional sodium excretion and markedly improved survival, without affecting left ventricular structure and performance. Hence, renal dysfunction rather than cardiac remodeling determines long-term mortality in advanced stage of CHF due to volume overload. Strong protective actions of ACEi were associated with suppression of the vasoconstrictor/sodium retaining axis and activation of vasodilatory/natriuretic axis of the renin-angiotensin system in the circulating blood and kidney tissue.
ESTHER : Cervenka_2015_Physiol.Res_64_857
PubMedSearch : Cervenka_2015_Physiol.Res_64_857
PubMedID: 26047375

Title : In vitro and in vivo metabolism of N-adamantyl substituted urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors - Liu_2015_Biochem.Pharmacol_98_718
Author(s) : Liu JY , Tsai HJ , Morisseau C , Lango J , Hwang SH , Watanabe T , Kim IH , Hammock BD
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 98 :718 , 2015
Abstract : N,N'-disubstituted urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors are promising therapeutics for hypertension, inflammation, and pain in multiple animal models. The drug absorption and pharmacological efficacy of these inhibitors have been reported extensively. However, the drug metabolism of these inhibitors is not well described. Here we reported the metabolic profile and associated biochemical studies of an N-adamantyl urea-based sEH inhibitor 1-adamantan-1-yl-3-(5-(2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethoxy)pentyl)urea (AEPU) in vitro and in vivo. The metabolites of AEPU were identified by interpretation of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and/or NMR. In vitro, AEPU had three major positions for phase I metabolism including oxidations on the adamantyl moiety, urea nitrogen atoms, and cleavage of the polyethylene glycol chain. In a rodent model, the metabolites from the hydroxylation on the adamantyl group and nitrogen atom were existed in blood while the metabolites from cleavage of polyethylene glycol chain were not found in urine. The major metabolite found in rodent urine was 3-(3-adamantyl-ureido)-propanoic acid, a presumably from cleavage and oxidation of the polyethylene glycol moiety. All the metabolites found were active but less potent than AEPU at inhibiting human sEH. Furthermore, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 was found to be a major enzyme mediating AEPU metabolism. In conclusion, the metabolism of AEPU resulted from oxidation by CYP could be shared with other N-adamantyl-urea-based compounds. These findings suggest possible therapeutic roles for AEPU and new strategies for drug design in this series of possible drugs.
ESTHER : Liu_2015_Biochem.Pharmacol_98_718
PubMedSearch : Liu_2015_Biochem.Pharmacol_98_718
PubMedID: 26494425

Title : Oral treatment of rodents with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor 1-(1-propanoylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]urea (TPPU): Resulting drug levels and modulation of oxylipin pattern - Ostermann_2015_Prostaglandins.Other.Lipid.Mediat_121_131
Author(s) : Ostermann AI , Herbers J , Willenberg I , Chen R , Hwang SH , Greite R , Morisseau C , Gueler F , Hammock BD , Schebb NH
Ref : Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat , 121 :131 , 2015
Abstract : Epoxides from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are potent lipid mediators. In vivo stabilization of these epoxides by blockade of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) leads to anti-inflammatory, analgesic and normotensive effects. Therefore, sEH inhibitors (sEHi) are a promising new class of drugs. Herein, we characterized pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic properties of a commercially available potent sEHi 1-(1-propanoylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]urea (TPPU). Cell culture studies suggest its high absorption and metabolic stability. Following administration in drinking water to rats (0.2, 1, and 5mg TPPU/L with 0.2% PEG400), TPPU's blood concentration increased dose dependently within the treatment period to reach an almost steady state after 8 days. TPPU was found in all the tissues tested. The linoleic epoxide/diol ratios in most tissues were dose dependently increased, indicating significant sEH inhibition. Overall, administration of TPPU with the drinking water led to systemic distribution as well as high drug levels and thus makes chronic sEH inhibition studies possible.
ESTHER : Ostermann_2015_Prostaglandins.Other.Lipid.Mediat_121_131
PubMedSearch : Ostermann_2015_Prostaglandins.Other.Lipid.Mediat_121_131
PubMedID: 26117215

Title : Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase modulates inflammation and autophagy in obese adipose tissue and liver: role for omega-3 epoxides - Lopez-Vicario_2015_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_112_536
Author(s) : Lopez-Vicario C , Alcaraz-Quiles J , Garcia-Alonso V , Rius B , Hwang SH , Titos E , Lopategi A , Hammock BD , Arroyo V , Claria J
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 112 :536 , 2015
Abstract : Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an emerging therapeutic target in a number of diseases that have inflammation as a common underlying cause. sEH limits tissue levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxides derived from omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by converting these antiinflammatory mediators into their less active diols. Here, we explored the metabolic effects of a sEH inhibitor (t-TUCB) in fat-1 mice with transgenic expression of an omega-3 desaturase capable of enriching tissues with endogenous omega-3 PUFA. These mice exhibited increased CYP1A1, CYP2E1, and CYP2U1 expression and abundant levels of the omega-3-derived epoxides 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (17,18-EEQ) and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic (19,20-EDP) in insulin-sensitive tissues, especially liver, as determined by LC-ESI-MS/MS. In obese fat-1 mice, t-TUCB raised hepatic 17,18-EEQ and 19,20-EDP levels and reinforced the omega-3-dependent reduction observed in tissue inflammation and lipid peroxidation. t-TUCB also produced a more intense antisteatotic action in obese fat-1 mice, as revealed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Notably, t-TUCB skewed macrophage polarization toward an antiinflammatory M2 phenotype and expanded the interscapular brown adipose tissue volume. Moreover, t-TUCB restored hepatic levels of Atg12-Atg5 and LC3-II conjugates and reduced p62 expression, indicating up-regulation of hepatic autophagy. t-TUCB consistently reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress demonstrated by the attenuation of IRE-1alpha and eIF2alpha phosphorylation. These actions were recapitulated in vitro in palmitate-primed hepatocytes and adipocytes incubated with 19,20-EDP or 17,18-EEQ. Relatively similar but less pronounced actions were observed with the omega-6 epoxide, 14,15-EET, and nonoxidized DHA. Together, these findings identify omega-3 epoxides as important regulators of inflammation and autophagy in insulin-sensitive tissues and postulate sEH as a druggable target in metabolic diseases.
ESTHER : Lopez-Vicario_2015_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_112_536
PubMedSearch : Lopez-Vicario_2015_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_112_536
PubMedID: 25550510

Title : Dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase synergistically suppresses primary tumor growth and metastasis - Zhang_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_11127
Author(s) : Zhang G , Panigrahy D , Hwang SH , Yang J , Mahakian LM , Wettersten HI , Liu JY , Wang Y , Ingham ES , Tam S , Kieran MW , Weiss RH , Ferrara KW , Hammock BD
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 111 :11127 , 2014
Abstract : Prostaglandins derived from the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) from the cytochrome P450/soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway are important eicosanoids that regulate angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. COX-2 inhibitors, which block the formation of prostaglandins, suppress tumor growth, whereas sEH inhibitors, which increase endogenous EETs, stimulate primary tumor growth and metastasis. However, the functional interactions of these two pathways in cancer are unknown. Using pharmacological inhibitors as probes, we show here that dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH synergistically inhibits primary tumor growth and metastasis by suppressing tumor angiogenesis. COX-2/sEH dual pharmacological inhibitors also potently suppress primary tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis via selective inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. These results demonstrate a critical interaction of these two lipid metabolism pathways on tumorigenesis and suggest dual inhibition of COX-2 and sEH as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer therapy.
ESTHER : Zhang_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_11127
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2014_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_111_11127
PubMedID: 25024195

Title : Optimized inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase improve in vitro target residence time and in vivo efficacy - Lee_2014_J.Med.Chem_57_7016
Author(s) : Lee KS , Liu JY , Wagner KM , Pakhomova S , Dong H , Morisseau C , Fu SH , Yang J , Wang P , Ulu A , Mate CA , Nguyen LV , Hwang SH , Edin ML , Mara AA , Wulff H , Newcomer ME , Zeldin DC , Hammock BD
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 57 :7016 , 2014
Abstract : Diabetes is affecting the life of millions of people. A large proportion of diabetic patients suffer from severe complications such as neuropathic pain, and current treatments for these complications have deleterious side effects. Thus, alternate therapeutic strategies are needed. Recently, the elevation of epoxy-fatty acids through inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) was shown to reduce diabetic neuropathic pain in rodents. In this report, we describe a series of newly synthesized sEH inhibitors with at least 5-fold higher potency and doubled residence time inside both the human and rodent sEH enzyme than previously reported inhibitors. These inhibitors also have better physical properties and optimized pharmacokinetic profiles. The optimized inhibitor selected from this new series displayed improved efficacy of almost 10-fold in relieving pain perception in diabetic neuropathic rats as compared to the approved drug, gabapentin, and previously published sEH inhibitors. Therefore, these new sEH inhibitors could be an attractive alternative to treat diabetic neuropathy in humans.
ESTHER : Lee_2014_J.Med.Chem_57_7016
PubMedSearch : Lee_2014_J.Med.Chem_57_7016
PubMedID: 25079952
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-EPHX2

Title : Novel sorafenib-based structural analogues: in-vitro anticancer evaluation of t-MTUCB and t-AUCMB - Wecksler_2014_Anticancer.Drugs_25_433
Author(s) : Wecksler AT , Hwang SH , Wettersten HI , Gilda JE , Patton A , Leon LJ , Carraway KL, 3rd , Gomes AV , Baar K , Weiss RH , Hammock BD
Ref : Anticancer Drugs , 25 :433 , 2014
Abstract : In the current work, we carried out a mechanistic study on the cytotoxicity of two compounds, trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-N-methyl-benzamide (t-AUCMB) and trans-N-methyl-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-benzamide (t-MTUCB), that are structurally similar to sorafenib. These compounds show strong cytotoxic responses in various cancer cell lines, despite significant differences in the induction of apoptotic events such as caspase activation and lactate dehydrogenase release in hepatoma cells. Both compounds induce autophagosome formation and LC3I cleavage, but there was little observable effect on mTORC1 or the downstream targets, S6K1 and 4E-binding protein. In addition, there was an increase in the activity of upstream signaling through the IRS1/PI3K/Akt-signaling pathway, suggesting that, unlike sorafenib, both compounds induce mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent autophagy. The autophagy observed correlates with mitochondrial membrane depolarization, apoptosis-inducing factor release, and oxidative stress-induced glutathione depletion. However, there were no observable changes in the endoplasmic reticulum-stress markers such as binding immunoglobulin protein, inositol-requiring enzyme-alpha, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2, and the lipid peroxidation marker, 4-hydroxynonenal, suggesting endoplasmic reticulum-independent oxidative stress. Finally, these compounds do not have the multikinase inhibitory activity of sorafenib, which may be reflected in their difference in the ability to halt cell cycle progression compared with sorafenib. Our findings indicate that both compounds have anticancer effects comparable with sorafenib in multiple cell lines, but they induce significant differences in apoptotic responses and appear to induce mTOR-independent autophagy. t-AUCMB and t-MTUCB represent novel chemical probes that are capable of inducing mTOR-independent autophagy and apoptosis to differing degrees, and may thus be potential tools for further understanding the link between these two cellular stress responses.
ESTHER : Wecksler_2014_Anticancer.Drugs_25_433
PubMedSearch : Wecksler_2014_Anticancer.Drugs_25_433
PubMedID: 24525589

Title : Pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase prevents renal interstitial fibrogenesis in obstructive nephropathy - Kim_2014_Am.J.Physiol.Renal.Physiol__ajprenal 00531 2014
Author(s) : Kim J , Yoon SP , Toews ML , Imig JD , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Padanilam BJ
Ref : American Journal of Physiology Renal Physiol , :ajprenal 00531 2014 , 2014
Abstract : Treating chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been challenging because of its pathogenic complexity. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450-dependent derivatives of arachidonic acid with anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and profibrinolytic functions. We recently reported that genetic ablation of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), an enzyme that converts EETs to less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, prevents renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation in experimental mouse models of CKD. Here, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of sEH post-unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) would attenuate tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation in mouse kidneys and may provide a novel approach to manage the progression of CKD. Inhibition of sEH enhanced levels of EET regioisomers and abolished tubulointerstitial fibrosis as demonstrated by reduced collagen deposition and myofibroblast formation after UUO. The inflammatory response was also attenuated as demonstrated by decreased influx of neutrophils and macrophages and decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines KC, MIP-2, MCP-1, TNF-alpha and ICAM-1 in kidneys after UUO . UUO upregulated TGF-beta1/Smad3 signaling and induced NF-kappaB activation, oxidative stress, tubular injury, apoptosis; in contrast it downregulated antifibrotic factors including peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms, especially PPARgamma. sEH inhibition mitigated the aforementioned malevolent effects in UUO kidneys. These data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of sEH promotes anti-inflammatory and fibroprotective effects in UUO kidneys by preventing tubular injury, downregulation of NF-kappaB, TGF-beta1/Smad3 and inflammatory signaling pathways and activation of PPAR isoforms. Our data suggest the potential use of sEH inhibitors in treating fibrogenesis in CKD.
ESTHER : Kim_2014_Am.J.Physiol.Renal.Physiol__ajprenal 00531 2014
PubMedSearch : Kim_2014_Am.J.Physiol.Renal.Physiol__ajprenal 00531 2014
PubMedID: 25377915

Title : Frster resonance energy transfer competitive displacement assay for human soluble epoxide hydrolase - Lee_2013_Anal.Biochem_434_259
Author(s) : Lee KS , Morisseau C , Yang J , Wang P , Hwang SH , Hammock BD
Ref : Analytical Biochemistry , 434 :259 , 2013
Abstract : The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), responsible for the hydrolysis of various fatty acid epoxides to their corresponding 1,2-diols, is becoming an attractive pharmaceutical target. These fatty acid epoxides, particularly epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), play an important role in human homeostatic and inflammation processes. Therefore, inhibition of human sEH, which stabilizes EETs in vivo, brings several beneficial effects to human health. Although there are several catalytic assays available to determine the potency of sEH inhibitors, measuring the in vitro inhibition constant (K(i)) for these inhibitors using catalytic assay is laborious. In addition, k(off), which has been recently suggested to correlate better with the in vivo potency of inhibitors, has never been measured for sEH inhibitors. To better measure the potency of sEH inhibitors, a reporting ligand, 1-(adamantan-1-yl)-3-(1-(2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)acetyl) piperidin-4-yl)urea (ACPU), was designed and synthesized. With ACPU, we have developed a Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based competitive displacement assay using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence from sEH. In addition, the resulting assay allows us to measure the K(i) values of very potent compounds to the picomolar level and to obtain relative k(off) values of the inhibitors. This assay provides additional data to evaluate the potency of sEH inhibitors.
ESTHER : Lee_2013_Anal.Biochem_434_259
PubMedSearch : Lee_2013_Anal.Biochem_434_259
PubMedID: 23219719

Title : Synthesis and biological evaluation of sorafenib- and regorafenib-like sEH inhibitors - Hwang_2013_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_23_3732
Author(s) : Hwang SH , Wecksler AT , Zhang G , Morisseau C , Nguyen LV , Fu SH , Hammock BD
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 23 :3732 , 2013
Abstract : To reduce the pro-angiogenic effects of sEH inhibition, a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was performed by incorporating structural features of the anti-angiogenic multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib into soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors. The structural modifications of this series of molecules enabled the altering of selectivity towards the pro-angiogenic kinases C-RAF and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), while retaining their sEH inhibition. As a result, sEH inhibitors with greater potency against C-RAF and VEGFR-2 were obtained. Compound 4 (t-CUPM) possesses inhibition potency higher than sorafenib towards sEH but similar against C-RAF and VEGFR-2. Compound 7 (t-CUCB) selectively inhibits sEH, while inhibiting HUVEC cell proliferation, a potential anti-angiogenic property, without liver cancer cell cytotoxicity. The data presented suggest a potential rational approach to control the angiogenic responses stemming from sEH inhibition.
ESTHER : Hwang_2013_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_23_3732
PubMedSearch : Hwang_2013_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_23_3732
PubMedID: 23726028

Title : Antihypertensive action of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition in Ren-2 transgenic rats is mediated by suppression of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system - Varcabova_2013_Clin.Exp.Pharmacol.Physiol_40_273
Author(s) : Varcabova S , Huskova Z , Kramer HJ , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Imig JD , Kitada K , Cervenka L
Ref : Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology , 40 :273 , 2013
Abstract : The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hypothesis that the antihypertensive effects of inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) are mediated by increased intrarenal availability of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), with consequent improvement in renal haemodynamic autoregulatory efficiency and the pressure-natriuresis relationship. Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGR), a model of angiotensin (Ang) II-dependent hypertension, and normotensive transgene-negative Hannover Sprague-Dawley (HanSD) rats were treated with the sEH inhibitor cis-4-(4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)cyclohexyloxy)benzoic acid (c-AUCB; 26 mg/L) for 48 h. Then, the effects on blood pressure (BP), autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and on the pressure-natriuresis relationship in response to stepwise reductions in renal arterial pressure (RAP) were determined. Treatment with c-AUCB did not significantly change BP, renal autoregulation or pressure-natriuresis in normotensive HanSD rats. In contrast, c-AUCB treatment significantly reduced BP, increased intrarenal bioavailability of EETs and significantly suppressed AngII levels in TGR. However, treatment with c-AUCB did not significantly improve the autoregulatory efficiency of RBF and GFR in response to reductions of RAP and to restore the blunted pressure-natriuresis relationship in TGR. Together, the data indicate that the antihypertensive actions of sEH inhibition in TGR are predominantly mediated via significant suppression of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activity.
ESTHER : Varcabova_2013_Clin.Exp.Pharmacol.Physiol_40_273
PubMedSearch : Varcabova_2013_Clin.Exp.Pharmacol.Physiol_40_273
PubMedID: 23039246

Title : Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase by fulvestrant and sulfoxides - Morisseau_2013_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_23_3818
Author(s) : Morisseau C , Pakhomova S , Hwang SH , Newcomer ME , Hammock BD
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 23 :3818 , 2013
Abstract : The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of epoxy-fatty acids, signaling molecules involved in numerous biologies. Toward finding novel inhibitors of sEH, a library of known drugs was tested for inhibition of sEH. We found that fulvestrant, an anticancer agent, is a potent (KI=26 nM) competitive inhibitor of sEH. From this observation, we found that alkyl-sulfoxides represent a new kind of pharmacophore for the inhibition of sEH.
ESTHER : Morisseau_2013_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_23_3818
PubMedSearch : Morisseau_2013_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_23_3818
PubMedID: 23684894
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-EPHX2

Title : Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid is neuroprotective in rat model of ischemic stroke - Shaik_2013_Am.J.Physiol.Heart.Circ.Physiol_305_H1605
Author(s) : Shaik JS , Ahmad M , Li W , Rose ME , Foley LM , Hitchens TK , Graham SH , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Poloyac SM
Ref : American Journal of Physiology Heart Circ Physiol , 305 :H1605 , 2013
Abstract : Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) diminishes vasodilatory and neuroprotective effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by hydrolyzing them to inactive dihydroxy metabolites. The primary goals of this study were to investigate the effects of acute sEH inhibition by trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB) on infarct volume, functional outcome, and changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in rats for 90 min followed by reperfusion. At the end of 24 h after reperfusion rats were euthanized for infarct volume assessment by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Brain cortical sEH activity was assessed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Functional outcome at 24 and 48 h after reperfusion was evaluated by arm flexion and sticky-tape tests. Changes in CBF were assessed by arterial spin-labeled-MRI at baseline, during ischemia, and at 180 min after reperfusion. Neuroprotective effects of t-AUCB were evaluated in primary rat neuronal cultures by Cytotox-Flour kit and propidium iodide staining. t-AUCB significantly reduced cortical infarct volume by 35% (14.5 +/- 2.7% vs. 41.5 +/- 4.5%), elevated cumulative epoxyeicosatrienoic acids-to-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids ratio in brain cortex by twofold (4.40 +/- 1.89 vs. 1.97 +/- 0.85), and improved functional outcome in arm-flexion test (day 1: 3.28 +/- 0.5 s vs. 7.50 +/- 0.9 s; day 2: 1.71 +/- 0.4 s vs. 5.28 +/- 0.5 s) when compared with that of the vehicle-treated group. t-AUCB significantly reduced neuronal cell death in a dose-dependent manner (vehicle: 70.9 +/- 7.1% vs. t-AUCB0.1muM: 58 +/- 5.11% vs. t-AUCB0.5muM: 39.9 +/- 5.8%). These findings suggest that t-AUCB may exert its neuroprotective effects by affecting multiple components of neurovascular unit including neurons, astrocytes, and microvascular flow.
ESTHER : Shaik_2013_Am.J.Physiol.Heart.Circ.Physiol_305_H1605
PubMedSearch : Shaik_2013_Am.J.Physiol.Heart.Circ.Physiol_305_H1605
PubMedID: 24043255

Title : Therapeutic activity of inhibition of the soluble epoxide hydrolase in a mouse model of scrapie - Poli_2013_Life.Sci_92_1145
Author(s) : Poli G , Corda E , Martino PA , Dall'ara P , Bareggi SR , Bondiolotti G , Iulini B , Mazza M , Casalone C , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Inceoglu B
Ref : Life Sciences , 92 :1145 , 2013
Abstract : AIMS: The misfolding and the aggregation of specific proteins are key features of neurodegenerative diseases, specifically Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs). In TSEs, neuronal loss and inflammation are associated with the accumulation of the misfolded isoform (PrP(sc)) of the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)). Therefore we tested the hypothesis that augmenting a natural anti-inflammatory pathway mediated by epoxygenated fatty acids (EpFAs) will delay lethality. EpFAs are highly potent but enzymatically labile molecules produced by the actions of a number of cytochrome P450 enzymes. Stabilization of these bioactive lipids by inhibiting their degradation mediated by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) results in potent anti-inflammatory effects in multiple disease models. MAIN
METHODS: Mice were infected with the mouse-adapted RML strain of scrapie by intracerebral or intraperitoneal routes. Animals received the sEH inhibitor, by oral route, administrated in drinking water or vehicle (PEG400). Infected mice were euthanized at a standard clinical end point. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses of brain tissue confirmed the presence of pathology related to prion infection. KEY FINDINGS: Oral administration of the sEHI did not affect the very short survival time of the intracerebral prion infection group. However, mice infected by intraperitoneal route and treated with t-AUCB survived significantly longer than the control group mice (p<0.001). SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the idea that inhibition of sEH or augmentation of the natural EpFA signaling in the brain offers a potential and different route to understand prion diseases and may become a therapeutic strategy for diseases involving neuroinflammation.
ESTHER : Poli_2013_Life.Sci_92_1145
PubMedSearch : Poli_2013_Life.Sci_92_1145
PubMedID: 23651659

Title : Substituted phenyl groups improve the pharmacokinetic profile and anti-inflammatory effect of urea-based soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors in murine models - Liu_2013_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_48_619
Author(s) : Liu JY , Lin YP , Qiu H , Morisseau C , Rose TE , Hwang SH , Chiamvimonvat N , Hammock BD
Ref : Eur J Pharm Sci , 48 :619 , 2013
Abstract : Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs) are anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-hypertensive, cardio- and renal-protective in multiple animal models. However, the earlier adamantyl-containing urea-based inhibitors are rapidly metabolized. Therefore, new potent inhibitors with the adamantyl group replaced by a substituted phenyl group were synthesized to presumptively offer better pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. Here we describe the improved PK profile of these inhibitors and the anti-inflammatory effect of the most promising one in a murine model. The PK profiles of inhibitors were determined following p.o. administration and serial bleeding in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl)urea (TPPU), the most promising inhibitor among the five sEHIs tested, was investigated in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged murine model. The earlier broadly-used adamantyl-containing sEHI, trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB), was used for comparison. Compared with the earlier adamantyl-containing urea-based inhibitors, substituted phenyl-containing urea-based inhibitors afford more favorable PK properties, such as higher Cmaxs, larger AUCs and longer t1/2s, which, as expected, show more stable metabolic stability. Moreover, oral administration of TPPU dramatically reversed the shifts caused by LPS-challenge in plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines, epoxides and corresponding diols, which is more potent than t-AUCB. The substituted phenyl-containing sEHIs are more metabolically stable than those with adamantyl group, resulting in more potent efficacy in vivo. This indicates a new strategy for development of sEHIs for further study toward clinical trials.
ESTHER : Liu_2013_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_48_619
PubMedSearch : Liu_2013_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_48_619
PubMedID: 23291046

Title : Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibition Exhibits Antihypertensive Actions Independently of Nitric Oxide in Mice with Renovascular Hypertension - Kopkan_2012_Kidney.Blood.Press.Res_35_595
Author(s) : Kopkan L , Huskova Z , Sporkova A , Varcabova S , Honetschlagerova Z , Hwang SH , Tsai HJ , Hammock BD , Imig JD , Kramer HJ , Burgelova M , Vojtiskova A , Kujal P , Vernerova Z , Cervenka L
Ref : Kidney Blood Press Res , 35 :595 , 2012
Abstract : Objective The present study was performed to examine whether the blood pressure BP)-lowering effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase sEH inhibition in two-kidney one-clip 2K1C Goldblatt hypertension are nitric oxide NO dependent Methods Mice lacking the endothelial NO synthase eNOS gene eNOS and their wild-type controls eNOS underwent clipping of one renal artery BP was monitored by radiotelemetry and the treatment with the sEH inhibitor cis-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)cyclohex-yloxy]-benzoic acid c-AUCB was initiated on day 25 after clipping and lasted for 14 days Renal concentrations of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids EETs and their inactive metabolite dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids DHETs were measured in the nonclipped kidney Renal NO synthase NOS activity was determined by measuring the rate of formation of L-[(14)C]citruline from L-[(14)C]arginine Results Treatment with the sEH inhibitor elicited similar BP decreases that were associated with increases in daily sodium excretion in 2K1C eNOS as well as 2K1C eNOS mice In addition treatment with the sEH inhibitor increased the ratio of EETs/DHETs in the nonclipped kidney of 2K1C eNOS as well as 2K1C eNOS mice Treatment with the sEH inhibitor did not alter renal NOS activity in any of the experimental groups Conclusions Collectively our present data suggest that the BP-lowering effects of chronic sEH inhibition in 2K1C mice are mainly associated with normalization of the reduced availability of biologically active EETs in the nonclipped kidney and their direct natriuretic actions.
ESTHER : Kopkan_2012_Kidney.Blood.Press.Res_35_595
PubMedSearch : Kopkan_2012_Kidney.Blood.Press.Res_35_595
PubMedID: 22948718

Title : Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase by cis-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyl-oxy]benzoic acid exhibits antihypertensive and cardioprotective actions in transgenic rats with angiotensin II-dependent hypertension - Neckar_2012_Clin.Sci.(Lond)_122_513
Author(s) : Neckar J , Kopkan L , Huskova Z , Kolar F , Papousek F , Kramer HJ , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Imig JD , Maly J , Netuka I , Ostadal B , Cervenka L
Ref : Clinical Science (Lond) , 122 :513 , 2012
Abstract : The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of chronic treatment with c-AUCB {cis-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyl-oxy]benzoic acid}, a novel inhibitor of sEH (soluble epoxide hydrolase), which is responsible for the conversion of biologically active EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids) into biologically inactive DHETEs (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids), on BP (blood pressure) and myocardial infarct size in male heterozygous TGR (Ren-2 renin transgenic rats) with established hypertension. Normotensive HanSD (Hannover Sprague-Dawley) rats served as controls. Myocardial ischaemia was induced by coronary artery occlusion. Systolic BP was measured in conscious animals by tail plethysmography. c-AUCB was administrated in drinking water. Renal and myocardial concentrations of EETs and DHETEs served as markers of internal production of epoxygenase metabolites. Chronic treatment with c-AUCB, which resulted in significant increases in the availability of biologically active epoxygenase metabolites in TGR (assessed as the ratio of EETs to DHETEs), was accompanied by a significant reduction in BP and a significantly reduced infarct size in TGR as compared with untreated TGR. The cardioprotective action of c-AUCB treatment was completely prevented by acute administration of a selective EETs antagonist [14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid], supporting the notion that the improved cardiac ischaemic tolerance conferred by sEH inhibition is mediated by EETs actions at the cellular level. These findings indicate that chronic inhibition of sEH exhibits antihypertensive and cardioprotective actions in this transgenic model of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension.
ESTHER : Neckar_2012_Clin.Sci.(Lond)_122_513
PubMedSearch : Neckar_2012_Clin.Sci.(Lond)_122_513
PubMedID: 22324471

Title : Pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase ameliorates diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats - Iyer_2012_Exp.Diabetes.Res_2012_758614
Author(s) : Iyer A , Kauter K , Alam MA , Hwang SH , Morisseau C , Hammock BD , Brown L
Ref : Exp Diabetes Res , 2012 :758614 , 2012
Abstract : The signs of metabolic syndrome following chronic excessive macronutrient intake include body weight gain, excess visceral adipose deposition, hyperglycaemia, glucose and insulin intolerances, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, endothelial damage, cardiovascular hypertrophy, inflammation, ventricular contractile dysfunction, fibrosis, and fatty liver disease. Recent studies show increased activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) during obesity and metabolic dysfunction. We have tested whether sEH inhibition has therapeutic potential in a rat model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. In these high-carbohydrate, high-fat-fed rats, chronic oral treatment with trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB), a potent sEH inhibitor, alleviated the signs of metabolic syndrome in vivo including glucose, insulin, and lipid abnormalities, changes in pancreatic structure, increased systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular structural and functional abnormalities, and structural and functional changes in the liver. The present study describes the pharmacological responses to this selective sEH inhibitor in rats with the signs of diet-induced metabolic syndrome.
ESTHER : Iyer_2012_Exp.Diabetes.Res_2012_758614
PubMedSearch : Iyer_2012_Exp.Diabetes.Res_2012_758614
PubMedID: 22007192

Title : Sorafenib attenuates p21 in kidney cancer cells and augments cell death in combination with DNA-damaging chemotherapy - Inoue_2011_Cancer.Biol.Ther_12_827
Author(s) : Inoue H , Hwang SH , Wecksler AT , Hammock BD , Weiss RH
Ref : Cancer Biol Ther , 12 :827 , 2011
Abstract : There are few effective therapeutic options for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Conventional chemotherapeutic agents are ineffective since these tumors are unusually resistant to DNA damage, likely due to an exuberant DNA repair response. Sorafenib, as one of the few available effective therapeutic options for metastatic RCC, has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation by inhibition of tyrosine kinases. We have recently shown that sorafenib inhibits soluble epoxide hydrolase, which catalyzes metabolism of the anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Given previous work demonstrating the anti-apoptotic role of p21 in RCC as a potential mechanism for its drug resistance, we asked whether sorafenib signals through this pathway. We now show that sorafenib markedly decreases p21 levels in several RCC and hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Neither the MEK inhibitor PD98059 nor the sEH inhibitor t-AUCB, which represent known sorafenib-targeted signaling pathways, alter p21 levels, demonstrating that the p21 inhibitory effect of sorafenib is independent of these signaling cascades. In cells treated with doxorubicin to augment p21, sorafenib markedly decreases this protein, and the combinations of paclitaxel or doxorubicin with sorafenib show additive cytotoxicity as a function of the VHL status of the cells, suggesting that lower doses of each agent could be used in the clinical setting. In summary, we show a novel signaling pathway by which sorafenib exerts its salutary effects in RCC; future work will focus on the use of these drug combinations in the context of conventional therapeutics, and novel compounds and protocols targeting p21 in conjunction with sorafenib should be pursued.
ESTHER : Inoue_2011_Cancer.Biol.Ther_12_827
PubMedSearch : Inoue_2011_Cancer.Biol.Ther_12_827
PubMedID: 21878748

Title : Renal mechanisms contributing to the antihypertensive action of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition in Ren-2 transgenic rats with inducible hypertension - Honetschlagerova_2011_J.Physiol_589_207
Author(s) : Honetschlagerova Z , Z ZH , Vanourkova Z , Sporkova A , Kramer HJ , Hwang SH , Tsai HJ , Hammock BD , Imig JD , Cervenka L , Kopkan L
Ref : The Journal of Physiology , 589 :207 , 2011
Abstract : In the present study, we examined the effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibition on the development of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension and on renal function in transgenic rats with inducible expression of the mouse renin gene (strain name Cyp1a1-Ren-2). Hypertension was induced in these rats by indole-3-carbinol (I3C; 0.3% in the diet) for 12 days. The sEH inhibitor cis-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (c-AUCB) was given in two doses (13 or 26 mg l-1) in drinking water. Blood pressure (BP), body weight (BW) and renal excretory parameters were monitored in conscious animals during the experiment. Renal haemodynamics was assessed at the end of treatment in anaesthetized rats. I3C administration resulted in severe hypertension with a rise in systolic BP from 118 +/- 2 to 202 +/- 3 mmHg, a loss of BW from 266 +/- 5 to 228 +/- 4 g and a rise in proteinuria from 14 +/- 2 to 34 +/- 3 mg day-1. Both doses of c-AUCB significantly attenuated the development of hypertension (systolic BP of 181 +/- 4 and 176 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively), the loss in BW (256 +/- 4 and 259 +/- 3 g, respectively) and the degree of proteinuria (27 +/- 2 and 25 +/- 3 mg day-1, respectively) to a similar extent. Moreover, c-AUCB prevented the reduction in renal plasma flow (5.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 4.6 +/- 0.3 ml min-1 g-1) and significantly increased sodium excretion (0.84 +/- 0.16 vs. 0.38 +/- 0.08 mumol min-1 g-1) during I3C administration. These data suggest that the oral administration of c-AUCB displays antihypertensive effects in Ren-2 transgenic rats with inducible malignant hypertension via an improvement of renal function.
ESTHER : Honetschlagerova_2011_J.Physiol_589_207
PubMedSearch : Honetschlagerova_2011_J.Physiol_589_207
PubMedID: 21078594

Title : Development of an online SPE-LC-MS-based assay using endogenous substrate for investigation of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors - Schebb_2011_Anal.Bioanal.Chem_400_1359
Author(s) : Schebb NH , Huby M , Morisseau C , Hwang SH , Hammock BD
Ref : Anal Bioanal Chem , 400 :1359 , 2011
Abstract : Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension, pain, and inflammation-related diseases. In order to enable the development of sEH inhibitors (sEHIs), assays are needed for determination of their potency. Therefore, we developed a new method utilizing an epoxide of arachidonic acid (14(15)-EpETrE) as substrate. Incubation samples were directly injected without purification into an online solid phase extraction (SPE) liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) setup allowing a total run time of only 108 s for a full gradient separation. Analytes were extracted from the matrix within 30 s by turbulent flow chromatography. Subsequently, a full gradient separation was carried out on a 50X2.1 mm RP-18 column filled with 1.7 mum core-shell particles. The analytes were detected with high sensitivity by ESI-MS-MS in SRM mode. The substrate 14(15)-EpETrE eluted at a stable retention time of 96 +/- 1 s and its sEH hydrolysis product 14,15-DiHETrE at 63 +/- 1 s with narrow peak width (full width at half maximum height: 1.5 +/- 0.1 s). The analytical performance of the method was excellent, with a limit of detection of 2 fmol on column, a linear range of over three orders of magnitude, and a negligible carry-over of 0.1% for 14,15-DiHETrE. The enzyme assay was carried out in a 96-well plate format, and near perfect sigmoidal dose-response curves were obtained for 12 concentrations of each inhibitor in only 22 min, enabling precise determination of IC(50) values. In contrast with other approaches, this method enables quantitative evaluation of potent sEHIs with picomolar potencies because only 33 pmol L(-1) sEH were used in the reaction vessel. This was demonstrated by ranking ten compounds by their activity; in the fluorescence method all yielded IC(50) <= 1 nmol L(-1). Comparison of 13 inhibitors with IC(50) values >1 nmol L(-1) showed a good correlation with the fluorescence method (linear correlation coefficient 0.9, slope 0.95, Spearman's rho 0.9). For individual compounds, however, up to eightfold differences in potencies between this and the fluorescence method were obtained. Therefore, enzyme assays using natural substrate, as described here, are indispensable for reliable determination of structure-activity relationships for sEH inhibition.
ESTHER : Schebb_2011_Anal.Bioanal.Chem_400_1359
PubMedSearch : Schebb_2011_Anal.Bioanal.Chem_400_1359
PubMedID: 21479549

Title : Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of urea-containing pyrazoles as dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 and soluble epoxide hydrolase - Hwang_2011_J.Med.Chem_54_3037
Author(s) : Hwang SH , Wagner KM , Morisseau C , Liu JY , Dong H , Wecksler AT , Hammock BD
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 54 :3037 , 2011
Abstract : A series of dual inhibitors containing a 1,5-diarylpyrazole and a urea were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as novel COX-2/sEH dual inhibitors in vitro using recombinant enzyme assays and in vivo using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced model of pain in rats. The best inhibition potencies and selectivity for sEH and COX-2 over COX-1 were obtained with compounds (21b, 21i, and 21j) in which both the 1,5-diaryl-pyrazole group and the urea group are linked with a three-methylene group. Compound 21i showed the best pharmacokinetic profiles in both mice and rats (higher AUC and longer half-life). Following subcutaneous administration at 10 mg/kg, compound 21i exhibited antiallodynic activity that is more effective than the same dose of either a COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) or a sEH inhibitor (t-AUCB) alone, as well as coadministration of both inhibitors. Thus, these novel dual inhibitors exhibited enhanced in vivo antiallodynic activity in a nociceptive behavioral assay.
ESTHER : Hwang_2011_J.Med.Chem_54_3037
PubMedSearch : Hwang_2011_J.Med.Chem_54_3037
PubMedID: 21434686

Title : Inhibition of the soluble epoxide hydrolase promotes albuminuria in mice with progressive renal disease - Jung_2010_PLoS.One_5_e11979
Author(s) : Jung O , Jansen F , Mieth A , Barbosa-Sicard E , Pliquett RU , Babelova A , Morisseau C , Hwang SH , Tsai C , Hammock BD , Schaefer L , Geisslinger G , Amann K , Brandes RP
Ref : PLoS ONE , 5 :e11979 , 2010
Abstract : Epoxyeicotrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450-dependent anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory derivatives of arachidonic acid, which are highly abundant in the kidney and considered reno-protective. EETs are degraded by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and sEH inhibitors are considered treatment for chronic renal failure (CRF). We determined whether sEH inhibition attenuates the progression of CRF in the 5/6-nephrectomy model (5/6-Nx) in mice. 5/6-Nx mice were treated with a placebo, an ACE-inhibitor (Ramipril, 40 mg/kg), the sEH-inhibitor cAUCB or the CYP-inhibitor fenbendazole for 8 weeks. 5/6-Nx induced hypertension, albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial damage and these effects were attenuated by Ramipril. In contrast, cAUCB failed to lower the blood pressure and albuminuria was more severe as compared to placebo. Plasma EET-levels were doubled in 5/6 Nx-mice as compared to sham mice receiving placebo. Renal sEH expression was attenuated in 5/6-Nx mice but cAUCB in these animals still further increased the EET-level. cAUCB also increased 5-HETE and 15-HETE, which derive from peroxidation or lipoxygenases. Similar to cAUCB, CYP450 inhibition increased HETEs and promoted albuminuria. Thus, sEH-inhibition failed to elicit protective effects in the 5/6-Nx model and showed a tendency to aggravate the disease. These effects might be consequence of a shift of arachidonic acid metabolism into the lipoxygenase pathway.
ESTHER : Jung_2010_PLoS.One_5_e11979
PubMedSearch : Jung_2010_PLoS.One_5_e11979
PubMedID: 20694143

Title : Inhibition or deletion of soluble epoxide hydrolase prevents hyperglycemia, promotes insulin secretion, and reduces islet apoptosis - Luo_2010_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_334_430
Author(s) : Luo P , Chang HH , Zhou Y , Zhang S , Hwang SH , Morisseau C , Wang CY , Inscho EW , Hammock BD , Wang MH
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 334 :430 , 2010
Abstract : Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of endogenous inflammatory and antiapoptotic mediators. However, the roles of sEH in diabetes and the pancreas are unknown. Our aims were to determine whether sEH is involved in the regulation of hyperglycemia in diabetic mice and to investigate the reasons for the regulation of insulin secretion by sEH deletion or inhibition in islets. We used two separate approaches, targeted disruption of Ephx2 gene [sEH knockout (KO)] and a selective inhibitor of sEH [trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB)], to assess the role of sEH in glucose and insulin homeostasis in streptozotocin (STZ) mice. We also examined the effects of sEH KO or t-AUCB on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and intracellular calcium levels in islets. Hyperglycemia in STZ mice was prevented by both sEH KO and t-AUCB. In addition, STZ mice with sEH KO had improved glucose tolerance. More important, when insulin levels were assessed by hyperglycemic clamp study, sEH KO was found to promote insulin secretion. In addition, sEH KO and t-AUCB treatment augmented islet GSIS. Islets with sEH KO had a greater intracellular calcium influx when challenged with high glucose or KCl in the presence of diazoxide. Moreover, sEH KO reduced islet cell apoptosis in STZ mice. These results show not only that sEH KO and its inhibition prevent hyperglycemia in diabetes, but also that sEH KO enhances islet GSIS through the amplifying pathway and decreases islet cell apoptosis in diabetes.
ESTHER : Luo_2010_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_334_430
PubMedSearch : Luo_2010_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_334_430
PubMedID: 20439437

Title : Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase by trans-4- [4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid is protective against ischemia-reperfusion injury - Chaudhary_2010_J.Cardiovasc.Pharmacol_55_67
Author(s) : Chaudhary KR , Abukhashim M , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Seubert JM
Ref : J Cardiovasc Pharmacol , 55 :67 , 2010
Abstract : Arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, can be metabolized to cardioprotective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases, which are subsequently hydrolyzed to less bioactive dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). To study the effects of pharmacological inhibitor of sEH (sEHi), C57BL6 mice hearts were perfused in Langendorff mode for 40 minutes of baseline and subjected to 30 minutes of global no-flow ischemia followed by 40 minutes of reperfusion. Hearts were perfused with the sEHi, trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB; 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 microM). To study the mechanism(s), hearts were perfused with 0.1 microM t-AUCB in the presence or absence of putative EET receptor antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (10 microM) or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin (200 nM) or LY294002 (5 microM).Infarct size was determined at the end of 2-hour reperfusion by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Inhibition of sEH by t-AUCB significantly improved postischemic left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) recovery and reduced the infarct size after ischemia and reperfusion, as compared with control hearts. Perfusion with 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid, wortmannin or LY294002 before ischemia abolished the cardioprotective phenotype; however, co-perfusion of both t-AUCB and 11,12-EET did not result in an additive effect on improved LVDP recovery. Together, our data suggest that pharmacological inhibition of sEH by t-AUCB is cardioprotective.
ESTHER : Chaudhary_2010_J.Cardiovasc.Pharmacol_55_67
PubMedSearch : Chaudhary_2010_J.Cardiovasc.Pharmacol_55_67
PubMedID: 19834332

Title : Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase enhances the anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin and 5-lipoxygenase activation protein inhibitor in a murine model - Liu_2010_Biochem.Pharmacol_79_880
Author(s) : Liu JY , Yang J , Inceoglu B , Qiu H , Ulu A , Hwang SH , Chiamvimonvat N , Hammock BD
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 79 :880 , 2010
Abstract : Inflammation is a multi-staged process whose expansive phase is thought to be driven by acutely released arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), or soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is known to be anti-inflammatory. Inhibition of sEH stabilizes the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) products epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Here we used a non-selective COX inhibitor aspirin, a 5-lipoxygenase activation protein (FLAP) inhibitor MK886, and a sEH inhibitor t-AUCB to selectively modulate the branches of AA metabolism in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged murine model. We used metabolomic profiling to simultaneously monitor representative AA metabolites of each branch. In addition to the significant crosstalk among branches of the AA cascade during selective modulation of COX, LOX, or sEH, we demonstrated that co-administration of t-AUCB enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin or MK886, which was evidenced by the observations that co-administration resulted in favorable eicosanoid profiles and better control of LPS-mediated hypotension as well as hepatic protein expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX. Targeted disruption of the sEH gene displayed a parallel profile to that produced by t-AUCB. These observations demonstrate a significant level of crosstalk among the three major branches of the AA cascade and that they are not simply parallel pathways. These data illustrate that inhibition of sEH by both pharmacological intervention and gene knockout enhances the anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin and MK886, suggesting the possibility of modulating multiple branches to achieve better therapeutic effects.
ESTHER : Liu_2010_Biochem.Pharmacol_79_880
PubMedSearch : Liu_2010_Biochem.Pharmacol_79_880
PubMedID: 19896470

Title : Pharmacokinetic screening of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors in dogs - Tsai_2010_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_40_222
Author(s) : Tsai HJ , Hwang SH , Morisseau C , Yang J , Jones PD , Kasagami T , Kim IH , Hammock BD
Ref : Eur J Pharm Sci , 40 :222 , 2010
Abstract : Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids that have anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties are mainly metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, EC Therefore, sEH has emerged as a therapeutic target for treating various cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory pain. N,N'-Disubstituted ureas are potent sEH inhibitors in vitro. However, in vivo usage of early sEH inhibitors has been limited by their low bioavailability and poor physiochemical properties. Therefore, a group of highly potent compounds with more drug-like physiochemical properties were evaluated by monitoring their plasma profiles in dogs treated orally with sEH inhibitors. Urea compounds with an adamantyl or a 4-trifluoromethoxyphenyl group on one side and a piperidyl or a cyclohexyl ether group on the other side of the urea function showed pharmacokinetic profiles with high plasma concentrations and long half lives. In particular, the inhibitor trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB) not only is very potent with good physiochemical properties, but also shows high oral bioavailability for doses ranging from 0.01 to 1mg/kg. This compound is also very potent against the sEH of several mammals, suggesting that t-AUCB will be an excellent tool to evaluate the biology of sEH in multiple animal models. Such compounds may also be a valuable lead for the development of veterinary therapeutics.
ESTHER : Tsai_2010_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_40_222
PubMedSearch : Tsai_2010_Eur.J.Pharm.Sci_40_222
PubMedID: 20359531

Title : Sorafenib has soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity, which contributes to its effect profile in vivo - Liu_2009_Mol.Cancer.Ther_8_2193
Author(s) : Liu JY , Park SH , Morisseau C , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Weiss RH
Ref : Mol Cancer Ther , 8 :2193 , 2009
Abstract : The advent of multikinase inhibitors targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor has revolutionized the treatment of highly angiogenic malignancies such as renal cell carcinoma. Interestingly, several such inhibitors are commercially available, and they each possess diverse specific beneficial and adverse effect profiles. In examining the structure of sorafenib, it was hypothesized that this compound would possess inhibitory effects on the soluble epoxide hydrolase, an enzyme with pleiotropic effects on inflammation and vascular disease. We now show that sorafenib but not another VEGF receptor targeted inhibitor sunitinib is a potent inhibitor of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase in vitro (K(I) = 17 +/- 4 nmol/L). Furthermore, sorafenib causes the expected in vivo shift in oxylipid profile resulting from soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition, evidence of a reduction in the acute inflammatory response. Lipopolysaccharide-induced hypotension was reversed with sorafenib but not sunitinib treatment, suggesting that soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition accounts for at least part of the anti-inflammatory effect of sorafenib. The pharmacokinetic studies presented here in light of the known potency of sorafenib as a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor indicate that the soluble epoxide hydrolase will be largely inhibited at therapeutic doses of sorafenib. Thus, it is likely that soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition contributes to the beneficial effects from the inhibition of the VEGF receptor and other kinases during treatment with sorafenib.
ESTHER : Liu_2009_Mol.Cancer.Ther_8_2193
PubMedSearch : Liu_2009_Mol.Cancer.Ther_8_2193
PubMedID: 19671760

Title : Pharmacokinetic optimization of four soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors for use in a murine model of inflammation - Liu_2009_Br.J.Pharmacol_156_284
Author(s) : Liu JY , Tsai HJ , Hwang SH , Jones PD , Morisseau C , Hammock BD
Ref : British Journal of Pharmacology , 156 :284 , 2009
Abstract : BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs) such as 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) are effective anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory agents in various animal models. However, their poor metabolic stability and limited water solubility make them difficult to use pharmacologically. Here we present the evaluation of four sEHIs for improved pharmacokinetic properties and the anti-inflammatory effects of one sEHI. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The pharmacokinetic profiles of inhibitors were determined following p.o. (oral) administration and serial bleeding in mice. Subsequently the pharmacokinetics of trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid (t-AUCB), the most promising inhibitor, was further studied following s.c. (subcutaneous), i.v. (intravenous) injections and administration in drinking water. Finally, the anti-inflammatory effect of t-AUCB was evaluated by using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine model. KEY
RESULTS: Better pharmacokinetic parameters (higher C(max), longer t(1/2) and greater AUC) were obtained from the tested inhibitors, compared with AUDA. Oral bioavailability of t-AUCB (0.1 mg.kg(-1)) was 68 +/- 22% (n = 4), and giving t-AUCB in drinking water is recommended as a feasible, effective and easy route of administration for chronic studies. Finally, t-AUCB (p.o.) reversed the decrease in plasma ratio of lipid epoxides to corresponding diols (a biomarker of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition) in lipopolysaccharide-treated mice. The in vivo potency of 1 mg.kg(-1) of t-AUCB (p.o.) was better in this inflammatory model than that of 10 mg.kg(-1) of AUDA-butyl ester (p.o) at 6 h after treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: t-AUCB is a potent sEHI with improved pharmacokinetic properties. This compound will be a useful tool for pharmacological research and a promising starting point for drug development.
ESTHER : Liu_2009_Br.J.Pharmacol_156_284
PubMedSearch : Liu_2009_Br.J.Pharmacol_156_284
PubMedID: 19154430

Title : Beneficial effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors in myocardial infarction model: Insight gained using metabolomic approaches - Li_2009_J.Mol.Cell.Cardiol_47_835
Author(s) : Li N , Liu JY , Timofeyev V , Qiu H , Hwang SH , Tuteja D , Lu L , Yang J , Mochida H , Low R , Hammock BD , Chiamvimonvat N
Ref : Journal of Molecular & Cellular Cardiology , 47 :835 , 2009
Abstract : Myocardial infarction (MI) leading to myocardial cell loss represents one of the common causes leading to cardiac failure. We have previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of several potent soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors in cardiac hypertrophy. sEH catalizes the conversion of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to form the corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). EETs are products of cytochrome P450 epoxygenases that have vasodilatory properties. Additionally, EETs inhibit the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB-mediated gene transcription. Motivated by the potential to uncover a new class of therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases which can be effectively used in clinical setting, we directly tested the biological effects of sEH inhibitors (sEHIs) on the progression of cardiac remodeling using a clinically relevant murine model of MI. We demonstrated that sEHIs were highly effective in the prevention of progressive cardiac remodeling post MI. Using metabolomic profiling of the inflammatory lipid mediators, we documented a significant decrease in EETs/DHETs ratio in MI model predicting a heightened inflammatory state. Treatment with sEHIs resulted in a change in the pattern of lipid mediators from one of inflammation towards resolution. Moreover, the oxylipin profiling showed a striking parallel to the changes in inflammatory cytokines in this model. Our study provides evidence for a possible new therapeutic strategy to improve cardiac function post MI.
ESTHER : Li_2009_J.Mol.Cell.Cardiol_47_835
PubMedSearch : Li_2009_J.Mol.Cell.Cardiol_47_835
PubMedID: 19716829

Title : Orally bioavailable potent soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors - Hwang_2007_J.Med.Chem_50_3825
Author(s) : Hwang SH , Tsai HJ , Liu JY , Morisseau C , Hammock BD
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 50 :3825 , 2007
Abstract : A series of N,N'-disubstituted ureas having a conformationally restricted cis- or trans-1,4-cyclohexane alpha to the urea were prepared and tested as soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors. This series of compounds showed low nanomolar to picomolar activities against recombinant human sEH. Both isomers showed similar potencies, but the trans isomers were more metabolically stable in human hepatic microsomes. Furthermore, these new potent inhibitors show a greater metabolic stability in vivo than previously described sEH inhibitors. We demonstrated that trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyloxy]benzoic acid 13g (t-AUCB, IC50 = 1.3 +/- 0.05 nM) had excellent oral bioavailability (98%, n = 2) and blood area under the curve in dogs and was effective in vivo to treat hypotension in lipopolysaccharide challenged murine models.
ESTHER : Hwang_2007_J.Med.Chem_50_3825
PubMedSearch : Hwang_2007_J.Med.Chem_50_3825
PubMedID: 17616115

Title : Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1-(4-[18F]fluorobenzyl)-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy-1-oxoindan-2-yl)methyl]piperidine for in vivo studies of acetylcholinesterase - Lee_2000_Nucl.Med.Biol_27_741
Author(s) : Lee SY , Choe YS , Sugimoto H , Kim SE , Hwang SH , Lee K , Choi Y , Lee J , Kim B
Ref : Nucl Med Biol , 27 :741 , 2000
Abstract : We synthesized and evaluated 1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy-1-oxoindan-2-yl)methyl]piperidine (4-FDP), which is an analog of donepezil. The 4-[(18)F]FDP was prepared by reductive alkylation of debenzylated donepezil with 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzaldehyde in high radiochemical yield (decay-corrected, 40-52%) and with high effective specific activity (30-38 GBq/micromol). Tissue distribution studies in mice demonstrated nonspecific distribution of the 4-[(18)F]FDP in brain regions, suggesting that this radioligand may not be a suitable agent for in vivo studies of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), despite its potent in vitro biological activity.
ESTHER : Lee_2000_Nucl.Med.Biol_27_741
PubMedSearch : Lee_2000_Nucl.Med.Biol_27_741
PubMedID: 11150705