Park SH

References (38)

Title : Glycogen Storage Disease Phenotypes Accompanying the Perturbation of the Methionine Cycle in NDRG3-Deficient Mouse Livers - Sohn_2022_Cells_11_
Author(s) : Sohn HA , Lee DC , Park A , Kang M , Yoon BH , Lee CH , Kim YH , Oh KJ , Kim CY , Park SH , Koo H , Kim HC , Yoon WK , Lim DS , Kim D , Park KC , Yeom YI
Ref : Cells , 11 : , 2022
Abstract : N-Myc downstream regulated gene 3 (NDRG3) is a unique pro-tumorigenic member among NDRG family genes, mediating growth signals. Here, we investigated the pathophysiological roles of NDRG3 in relation to cell metabolism by disrupting its functions in liver. Mice with liver-specific KO of NDRG3 (Ndrg3 LKO) exhibited glycogen storage disease (GSD) phenotypes including excessive hepatic glycogen accumulation, hypoglycemia, elevated liver triglyceride content, and several signs of liver injury. They suffered from impaired hepatic glucose homeostasis, due to the suppression of fasting-associated glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Consistently, the expression of glycogen phosphorylase (PYGL) and glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT) was significantly down-regulated in an Ndrg3 LKO-dependent manner. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses revealed that NDRG3 depletion significantly perturbed the methionine cycle, redirecting its flux towards branch pathways to upregulate several metabolites known to have hepatoprotective functions. Mechanistically, Ndrg3 LKO-dependent downregulation of glycine N-methyltransferase in the methionine cycle and the resultant elevation of the S-adenosylmethionine level appears to play a critical role in the restructuring of the methionine metabolism, eventually leading to the manifestation of GSD phenotypes in Ndrg3 LKO mice. Our results indicate that NDRG3 is required for the homeostasis of liver cell metabolism upstream of the glucose-glycogen flux and methionine cycle and suggest therapeutic values for regulating NDRG3 in disorders with malfunctions in these pathways.
ESTHER : Sohn_2022_Cells_11_
PubMedSearch : Sohn_2022_Cells_11_
PubMedID: 35563842
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NDRG3 , mouse-ndr3

Title : Ethanol and its nonoxidative metabolites promote acute liver injury by inducing ER stress, adipocyte death and lipolysis - Park_2022_Cell.Mol.Gastroenterol.Hepatol__
Author(s) : Park SH , Seo W , Xu MJ , Mackowiak B , Lin Y , He Y , Fu Y , Hwang S , Kim SJ , Guan Y , Feng D , Yu L , Lehner R , Liangpunsakul S , Gao B
Ref : Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol , : , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND & AIMS: Binge drinking in patients with metabolic syndrome accelerates the development of alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated if oxidative and non-oxidative alcohol metabolism pathways, diet-induced obesity, and adipose tissues influence the development of acute liver injury in a single ethanol binge model. METHODS & RESULTS: A single ethanol binge was administered to chow-fed or high-fat diet (HFD)-fed wild-type and genetically modified mice. Oral administration of a single dose of ethanol induced acute liver injury and hepatic ER stress in chow- or HFD-fed mice. Disruption of the alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) gene elevated blood ethanol concentration and exacerbated acute ethanol-induced ER stress and liver injury in both chow-fed and HFD-fed mice, while disruption of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Aldh2) gene did not affect such hepatic injury despite high blood acetaldehyde levels. Mechanistic studies revealed that alcohol, not acetaldehyde, promoted hepatic ER stress, fatty acid synthesis, increased adipocyte death and lipolysis, contributing to acute liver injury. Elevated serum fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), which are formed by an enzyme-mediated esterification of ethanol with fatty acids, were detected in mice post ethanol gavage with higher levels in Adh1 knockout mice than that in wild-type mice. Deletion of the carboxylesterase 1d (Ces1d) gene in mice markedly reduced acute ethanol-induced elevation of blood FAEE levels with slight but significant reduction of serum aminotransferase levels. CONCLUSION: Ethanol and its non-oxidative metabolites, FAEEs, not acetaldehyde, promoted acute alcohol-induced liver injury by inducing ER stress, adipocyte death, and lipolysis.
ESTHER : Park_2022_Cell.Mol.Gastroenterol.Hepatol__
PubMedSearch : Park_2022_Cell.Mol.Gastroenterol.Hepatol__
PubMedID: 36243320

Title : Neostigmine for Treating Acute Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction in Neurocritically Ill Patients - Kim_2021_J.Clin.Neurol_17_563
Author(s) : Kim TJ , Torres L , Paz A , Lee JS , Park SH , Choi HA , Ko SB
Ref : J Clin Neurol , 17 :563 , 2021
Abstract : BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) is a common but understudied complication in neurocritically ill patients. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine can be used to treat ACPO in patients who do not respond to conventional treatment. This study investigated the effectiveness and adverse events when using neostigmine to manage ACPO in neurocritically ill patients. METHODS: This retrospective study investigated patients with ACPO who were treated using neostigmine in the neurological intensive-care units at two centers between March 2017 and August 2020. Neostigmine was administered intravenously or subcutaneously (at doses ranging from 0.25 mg to 2 mg) according to the protocols at the two centers. The outcomes were bowel movements and the changes in colon diameters on abdominal radiographs. Safety events such as bradycardia, vomiting, salivation, and sweating were evaluated. RESULTS: This study included 31 subjects with a mean age of 46.8 years (65.4% males). All patients had a bowel movement at a median of 120 minutes after administering neostigmine. The colon diameter decreased by a median of 17.5 mm (paired t-test: p<0.001) regardless of the dose and treatment protocols. Multilevel analysis confirmed that the mean colon diameter decreased from 66 mm pretreatment to 47.5 mm posttreatment (p<0.001), with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 13%. Three patients (9.7%) exhibited hypersalivation, sweating, bradycardia, and vomiting. Bradycardia (heart rate, 42 beats/minute) occurred in one patient (3.2%), and was successfully managed by injecting atropine. CONCLUSIONS: Neostigmine injection is a safe and effective treatment option for ACPO in neurocritically ill patients who fail to respond to conservative management.
ESTHER : Kim_2021_J.Clin.Neurol_17_563
PubMedSearch : Kim_2021_J.Clin.Neurol_17_563
PubMedID: 34595865

Title : Cardiovascular safety of evogliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a nationwide cohort study - Park_2021_Diabetes.Obes.Metab__
Author(s) : Park SH , Jeong HE , Oh IS , Hong SM , Yu SH , Lee CB , Shin JY
Ref : Diabetes Obes Metab , : , 2021
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular safety of evogliptin, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i), remains unclear with limited real-world evidence available on its use. We aimed to assess whether the use of evogliptin was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events when compared to glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study using South Korea's nationwide healthcare database from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2018. We identified a base cohort of patients with T2DM who newly initiated metformin monotherapy and from this cohort, identified a study cohort of patients who either added or switched to glimepiride or DPP-4is (including evogliptin). Patients were followed-up from initiation of DPP-4is or glimepiride until the earliest of outcome occurrence or 31 December 2018. Our primary outcome was hospitalization or emergency visit for cardiovascular events, a composite endpoint comprised of cerebrovascular events, heart failure, myocardial infarction, transient ischaemic attack, angina pectoris, and revascularization procedures; secondary outcomes were the individual components of the primary outcome. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of study outcomes associated with evogliptin when compared to glimepiride. RESULTS: Our base and study cohorts had 317,307 and 128,788 patients, respectively, of which 100,038 were DPP-4i users (2,946 were evogliptin users) and 28,750 were glimepiride users within the study cohort. The median follow-up was 195 days for evogliptin and 113 days for glimepiride users. Compared with glimepiride, evogliptin was associated with a reduced risk of the primary outcome (aHR 0.67, 95% CI 0.48-0.95) and cerebrovascular events (aHR 0.41, 95% CI 0.22-0.78) but showed non-significant associations for myocardial infarction (aHR 0.63, 95% CI 0.27-1.46), heart failure (aHR 0.35, 95% CI 0.09-1.47), transient ischaemic attack (aHR 0.23, 95% CI 0.03-1.72), and angina pectoris (aHR 1.35, 95% CI 0.82-2.21). CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this population-based cohort study provide novel real-world evidence in that use of evogliptin, as compared with glimepiride, did not increase the risk of cardiovascular events, including cerebrovascular events, myocardial infarction, heart failure, transient ischemic attack, and angina pectoris. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
ESTHER : Park_2021_Diabetes.Obes.Metab__
PubMedSearch : Park_2021_Diabetes.Obes.Metab__
PubMedID: 33502058

Title : Actinidia arguta Sprout as a Natural Antioxidant: Ameliorating Effect on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cognitive Impairment - Kang_2021_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_31_51
Author(s) : Kang JE , Park SK , Kang JY , Kim JM , Kwon BS , Park SH , Lee CJ , Yoo SK , Heo HJ
Ref : J Microbiol Biotechnol , 31 :51 , 2021
Abstract : Here, we investigated the prebiotic and antioxidant effects of Actinidia arguta sprout water extract (AASWE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive deficit mice. AASWE increased viable cell count, titratable acidity, and acetic acid production in Lactobacillus reuteri strain and showed a cytoprotective effect on LPS-induced inflammation in HT-29 cells. We assessed the behavior of LPSinduced cognitive deficit mice using Y-maze, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests and found that administration of AASWE significantly improved learning and memory function. The AASWE group showed antioxidant activity through downregulation of malondialdehyde levels and upregulation of superoxide dismutase levels in brain tissue. In addition, the AASWE group exhibited activation of the cholinergic system with decreased acetylcholinesterase activity in brain tissue. Furthermore, AASWE effectively downregulated inflammatory mediators such as phosphorylated- JNK, phosphorylated-NF-kappaB, TNF-alpha and interleukin-6. The major bioactive compounds of AASWE were identified as quercetin-3-O-arabinopyranosyl(12)-rhamnopyranosyl(16)-glucopyranose, quercetin-3-O-apiosyl(12)-galactoside, rutin, and 3-caffeoylquinic acid. Based on these results, we suggest that AASWE not only increases the growth of beneficial bacteria in the intestines, but also shows an ameliorating effect on LPS-induced cognitive impairment.
ESTHER : Kang_2021_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_31_51
PubMedSearch : Kang_2021_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_31_51
PubMedID: 33046678

Title : Promoter Engineering-mediated Tuning of Esterase and Transaminase Expression for the Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Sitagliptin Phosphate at the kilogram-scale - Khobragade_2021_Biotechnol.Bioeng__
Author(s) : Khobragade TP , Yu S , Jung H , Patil MD , Sarak S , Pagar AD , Jeon H , Lee S , Giri P , Kim GH , Cho SS , Park SH , Park HJ , Kang HM , Lee SR , Lee MS , Kim JH , Choi IS , Yun H
Ref : Biotechnol Bioeng , : , 2021
Abstract : Here, we report a bienzymatic cascade to produce beta-amino acids as an intermediate for the synthesis of the leading oral antidiabetic drug, sitagliptin. A whole-cell biotransformation using recombinant E. coli co-expressing a esterase and transaminase were developed, wherein the desired expression level of each enzyme was achieved by promotor engineering. The small-scale reactions (30 mL) performed under optimized conditions at varying amounts of substrate (100-300 mM) resulted in excellent conversions of 82-95% for the desired product. Finally, a kilogram-scale enzymatic reaction (250 mM substrate, 220 L) was carried out to produce beta-amino acid (229 mM). Sitagliptin phosphate was chemically synthesized from beta-amino acids with 82% yield and > 99% purity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
ESTHER : Khobragade_2021_Biotechnol.Bioeng__
PubMedSearch : Khobragade_2021_Biotechnol.Bioeng__
PubMedID: 33990942

Title : ARS2\/MAGL signaling in glioblastoma stem cells promotes self-renewal and M2-like polarization of tumor-associated macrophages - Yin_2020_Nat.Commun_11_2978
Author(s) : Yin J , Kim SS , Choi E , Oh YT , Lin W , Kim TH , Sa JK , Hong JH , Park SH , Kwon HJ , Jin X , You Y , Kim JH , Kim H , Son J , Lee J , Nam DH , Choi KS , Shi B , Gwak HS , Yoo H , Iavarone A , Park JB
Ref : Nat Commun , 11 :2978 , 2020
Abstract : The interplay between glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promotes progression of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the relationship between these two cell types remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that ARS2 (arsenite-resistance protein 2), a zinc finger protein that is essential for early mammalian development, plays critical roles in GSC maintenance and M2-like TAM polarization. ARS2 directly activates its novel transcriptional target MGLL, encoding monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), to regulate the self-renewal and tumorigenicity of GSCs through production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which stimulates beta-catenin activation of GSC and M2-like TAM polarization. We identify M2-like signature downregulated by which MAGL-specific inhibitor, JZL184, increased survival rate significantly in the mouse xenograft model by blocking PGE2 production. Taken together, our results suggest that blocking the interplay between GSCs and TAMs by targeting ARS2/MAGL signaling offers a potentially novel therapeutic option for GBM patients.
ESTHER : Yin_2020_Nat.Commun_11_2978
PubMedSearch : Yin_2020_Nat.Commun_11_2978
PubMedID: 32532977

Title : Structural and functional characterization of a novel cold-active S-formylglutathione hydrolase (SfSFGH) homolog from Shewanella frigidimarina, a psychrophilic bacterium - Lee_2019_Microb.Cell.Fact_18_140
Author(s) : Lee CW , Yoo W , Park SH , Le L , Jeong CS , Ryu BH , Shin SC , Kim HW , Park H , Kim KK , Kim TD , Lee JH
Ref : Microb Cell Fact , 18 :140 , 2019
Abstract : BACKGROUND: S-Formylglutathione is hydrolyzed to glutathione and formate by an S-formylglutathione hydrolase (SFGH) (3.1.2.12). This thiol esterase belongs to the esterase family and is also known as esterase D. SFGHs contain highly conserved active residues of Ser-Asp-His as a catalytic triad at the active site. Characterization and investigation of SFGH from Antarctic organisms at the molecular level is needed for industrial use through protein engineering. RESULTS: A novel cold-active S-formylglutathione hydrolase (SfSFGH) from Shewanella frigidimarina, composed of 279 amino acids with a molecular mass of ~ 31.0 kDa, was characterized. Sequence analysis of SfSFGH revealed a conserved pentapeptide of G-X-S-X-G found in various lipolytic enzymes along with a putative catalytic triad of Ser148-Asp224-His257. Activity analysis showed that SfSFGH was active towards short-chain esters, such as p-nitrophenyl acetate, butyrate, hexanoate, and octanoate. The optimum pH for enzymatic activity was slightly alkaline (pH 8.0). To investigate the active site configuration of SfSFGH, we determined the crystal structure of SfSFGH at 2.32 A resolution. Structural analysis shows that a Trp182 residue is located at the active site entrance, allowing it to act as a gatekeeper residue to control substrate binding to SfSFGH. Moreover, SfSFGH displayed more than 50% of its initial activity in the presence of various chemicals, including 30% EtOH, 1% Triton X-100, 1% SDS, and 5 M urea. CONCLUSIONS: Mutation of Trp182 to Ala allowed SfSFGH to accommodate a longer chain of substrates. It is thought that the W182A mutation increases the substrate-binding pocket and decreases the steric effect for larger substrates in SfSFGH. Consequently, the W182A mutant has a broader substrate specificity compared to wild-type SfSFGH. Taken together, this study provides useful structure-function data of a SFGH family member and may inform protein engineering strategies for industrial applications of SfSFGH.
ESTHER : Lee_2019_Microb.Cell.Fact_18_140
PubMedSearch : Lee_2019_Microb.Cell.Fact_18_140
PubMedID: 31426813
Gene_locus related to this paper: shefn-SfSFGH

Title : Chronic Alcohol Exposure Induced Neuroapoptosis: Diminishing Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Aralia elata - Kwon_2019_Oxid.Med.Cell.Longev_2019_7849876
Author(s) : Kwon BS , Kim JM , Park SK , Kang JY , Kang JE , Lee CJ , Park SH , Park SB , Yoo SK , Lee U , Kim DO , Heo HJ
Ref : Oxid Med Cell Longev , 2019 :7849876 , 2019
Abstract : An ethyl acetate fraction from Aralia elata (AEEF) was investigated to confirm its neuronal cell protective effect on ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in MC-IXC cells and its ameliorating effect on neurodegeneration in chronic alcohol-induced mice. The neuroprotective effect was examined by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) assays. As a result, AEEF reduced alcohol-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. To evaluate the improvement of learning, memory ability, and spatial cognition, Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests were conducted. The AEEF groups showed an alleviation of the decrease in cognitive function in alcohol-treated mice. Then, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured to evaluate the antioxidant effect of AEEF in the brain tissue. Treatment with AEEF showed a considerable ameliorating effect on biomarkers such as SOD and MDA content in alcohol-induced mice. To assess the cerebral cholinergic system involved in neuronal signaling, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and acetylcholine (ACh) content were measured. The AEEF groups showed increased ACh levels and decreased AChE activities. In addition, AEEF prevented alcohol-induced neuronal apoptosis via improvement of mitochondrial activity, including reactive oxygen species levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, and adenosine triphosphate content. AEEF inhibited apoptotic signals by regulating phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK), phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau). Finally, the bioactive compounds of AEEF were identified as caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-diCQA), and chikusetsusaponin IVa using the UPLC-Q-TOF-MS system.
ESTHER : Kwon_2019_Oxid.Med.Cell.Longev_2019_7849876
PubMedSearch : Kwon_2019_Oxid.Med.Cell.Longev_2019_7849876
PubMedID: 31210848

Title : Protective Effect of Fucoidan Extract from Ecklonia cava on Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Neurotoxicity - Park_2018_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_28_40
Author(s) : Park SK , Kang JY , Kim JM , Park SH , Kwon BS , Kim GH , Heo HJ
Ref : J Microbiol Biotechnol , 28 :40 , 2018
Abstract : We evaluated the antioxidant activity and neuronal cell-protective effect of fucoidan extract from Ecklonia cava (FEC) on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced cytotoxicity in PC-12 and MC-IXC cells to assess its protective effect against oxidative stress. Antioxidant activities were examined using the ABTS radical scavenging activity and malondialdehyde-inhibitory effect, and the results showed that FEC had significant antioxidant activity. Intracellular ROS contents and neuronal cell viability were investigated using the DCF-DA assay and MTT reduction assay. FEC also showed remarkable neuronal cell-protective effect compared with vitamin C as a positive control for both H(2)O(2)-treated PC-12 and MC-IXC cells. Based on the neuronal cell-protective effects, mitochondrial function was analyzed in PC-12 cells, and FEC significantly restored mitochondrial damage by increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim) and ATP levels and regulating mitochondrial-mediated proteins (p-AMPK and BAX). Finally, the inhibitory effects against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is a critical hydrolyzing enzyme of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the cholinergic system, were investigated (IC(5)(0) value = 1.3 mg/ml) and showed a mixed (competitive and noncompetitive) pattern of inhibition. Our findings suggest that FEC may be used as a potential material for alleviating oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage by regulating mitochondrial function and AChE inhibition.
ESTHER : Park_2018_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_28_40
PubMedSearch : Park_2018_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_28_40
PubMedID: 29121706

Title : Crystal structure and functional characterization of a cold-active acetyl xylan esterase (PbAcE) from psychrophilic soil microbe Paenibacillus sp - Park_2018_PLoS.One_13_e0206260
Author(s) : Park SH , Yoo W , Lee CW , Jeong CS , Shin SC , Kim HW , Park H , Kim KK , Kim TD , Lee JH
Ref : PLoS ONE , 13 :e0206260 , 2018
Abstract : Cold-active acetyl xylan esterases allow for reduced bioreactor heating costs in bioenergy production. Here, we isolated and characterized a cold-active acetyl xylan esterase (PbAcE) from the psychrophilic soil microbe Paenibacillus sp. R4. The enzyme hydrolyzes glucose penta-acetate and xylan acetate, reversibly producing acetyl xylan from xylan, and it shows higher activity at 4 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. We solved the crystal structure of PbAcE at 2.1-A resolution to investigate its active site and the reason for its low-temperature activity. Structural analysis showed that PbAcE forms a hexamer with a central substrate binding tunnel, and the inter-subunit interactions are relatively weak compared with those of its mesophilic and thermophilic homologs. PbAcE also has a shorter loop and different residue composition in the beta4-alpha3 and beta5-alpha4 regions near the substrate binding site. Flexible subunit movements and different active site loop conformations may enable the strong low-temperature activity and broad substrate specificity of PbAcE. In addition, PbAcE was found to have strong activity against antibiotic compound substrates, such as cefotaxime and 7-amino cephalosporanic acid (7-ACA). In conclusion, the PbAcE structure and our biochemical results provide the first example of a cold-active acetyl xylan esterase and a starting template for structure-based protein engineering.
ESTHER : Park_2018_PLoS.One_13_e0206260
PubMedSearch : Park_2018_PLoS.One_13_e0206260
PubMedID: 30379876
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9mico-6AGQ

Title : Crystal Structure and Functional Characterization of an Esterase (EaEST) from Exiguobacterium antarcticum - Lee_2017_PLoS.One_12_e0169540
Author(s) : Lee CW , Kwon S , Park SH , Kim BY , Yoo W , Ryu BH , Kim HW , Shin SC , Kim S , Park H , Kim TD , Lee JH
Ref : PLoS ONE , 12 :e0169540 , 2017
Abstract : A novel microbial esterase, EaEST, from a psychrophilic bacterium Exiguobacterium antarcticum B7, was identified and characterized. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing structural analysis and biochemical characterization of an esterase isolated from the genus Exiguobacterium. Crystal structure of EaEST, determined at a resolution of 1.9 A, showed that the enzyme has a canonical alpha/beta hydrolase fold with an alpha-helical cap domain and a catalytic triad consisting of Ser96, Asp220, and His248. Interestingly, the active site of the structure of EaEST is occupied by a peracetate molecule, which is the product of perhydrolysis of acetate. This result suggests that EaEST may have perhydrolase activity. The activity assay showed that EaEST has significant perhydrolase and esterase activity with respect to short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (<=C8), naphthyl derivatives, phenyl acetate, and glyceryl tributyrate. However, the S96A single mutant had low esterase and perhydrolase activity. Moreover, the L27A mutant showed low levels of protein expression and solubility as well as preference for different substrates. On conducting an enantioselectivity analysis using R- and S-methyl-3-hydroxy-2-methylpropionate, a preference for R-enantiomers was observed. Surprisingly, immobilized EaEST was found to not only retain 200% of its initial activity after incubation for 1 h at 80 degrees C, but also retained more than 60% of its initial activity after 20 cycles of reutilization. This research will serve as basis for future engineering of this esterase for biotechnological and industrial applications.
ESTHER : Lee_2017_PLoS.One_12_e0169540
PubMedSearch : Lee_2017_PLoS.One_12_e0169540
PubMedID: 28125606
Gene_locus related to this paper: exiab-k0acl0

Title : Deer bone extract prevents against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice - Du_2015_J.Med.Food_18_157
Author(s) : Du CN , Min AY , Kim HJ , Shin SK , Yu HN , Sohn EJ , Ahn CW , Jung SU , Park SH , Kim MR
Ref : J Med Food , 18 :157 , 2015
Abstract : Deer bone has been used as a health-enhancing food as well as an antiaging agent in traditional Oriental medicine. Recently, the water extract of deer bone (DBE) showed a neuroprotective action against glutamate or Abeta1-42-induced cell death of mouse hippocampal cells by exerting antioxidant activity through the suppression of MAP kinases. The present study is to examine whether DBE improves memory impairment induced by scopolamine. DBE (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) was administered orally to mice for 14 days, and then scopolamine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered together with DBE for another 7 days. Memory performance was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test and passive avoidance test. Also, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, biomarkers of oxidative stress and the loss of neuronal cells in the hippocampus, was evaluated by histological examinations. Administration of DBE significantly restored memory impairments induced by scopolamine in the MWM test (escape latency and number of crossing platform area), and in the passive avoidance test. Treatment with DBE inhibited the AChE activity and increased the ChAT activity in the brain of memory-impaired mice induced by scopolamine. Additionally, the administration of DBE significantly prevented the increase of lipid peroxidation and the decrease of glutathione level in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine. Also, the DBE treatment restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase to control the level. Furthermore, scopolamine-induced oxidative damage of neurons in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions were prevented by DBE treatment. It is suggested that DBE may be useful for memory improvement through the regulation of cholinergic marker enzyme activities and the suppression of oxidative damage of neurons in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine.
ESTHER : Du_2015_J.Med.Food_18_157
PubMedSearch : Du_2015_J.Med.Food_18_157
PubMedID: 25546299

Title : Genome Sequence of the Acrystalliferous Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar Israelensis Strain 4Q7, Widely Used as a Recombination Host - Jeong_2014_Genome.Announc_2_e00231
Author(s) : Jeong H , Park SH , Choi SK
Ref : Genome Announc , 2 : , 2014
Abstract : Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis is well known for its mosquitocidal activity and has long been used as a biopesticide. Herein, we present the genome sequence of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis strain 4Q7, a plasmid-cured derivative with higher transformation efficiency than wild types.
ESTHER : Jeong_2014_Genome.Announc_2_e00231
PubMedSearch : Jeong_2014_Genome.Announc_2_e00231
PubMedID: 24699954

Title : Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for L-arginine production - Park_2014_Nat.Commun_5_4618
Author(s) : Park SH , Kim HU , Kim TY , Park JS , Kim SS , Lee SY
Ref : Nat Commun , 5 :4618 , 2014
Abstract : L-arginine is an important amino acid for diverse industrial and health product applications. Here we report the development of metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21831 for the production of L-arginine. Random mutagenesis is first performed to increase the tolerance of C. glutamicum to L-arginine analogues, followed by systems metabolic engineering for further strain improvement, involving removal of regulatory repressors of arginine operon, optimization of NADPH level, disruption of L-glutamate exporter to increase L-arginine precursor and flux optimization of rate-limiting L-arginine biosynthetic reactions. Fed-batch fermentation of the final strain in 5 l and large-scale 1,500 l bioreactors allows production of 92.5 and 81.2 g l(-1) of L-arginine with the yields of 0.40 and 0.35 g L-arginine per gram carbon source (glucose plus sucrose), respectively. The systems metabolic engineering strategy described here will be useful for engineering Corynebacteria strains for the industrial production of L-arginine and related products.
ESTHER : Park_2014_Nat.Commun_5_4618
PubMedSearch : Park_2014_Nat.Commun_5_4618
PubMedID: 25091334
Gene_locus related to this paper: corgl-Cgl1133 , corgl-Cgl2249 , corgl-CGL2393

Title : Spirosoma radiotolerans sp. nov., a gamma-radiation-resistant bacterium isolated from gamma ray-irradiated soil - Lee_2014_Curr.Microbiol_69_286
Author(s) : Lee JJ , Srinivasan S , Lim S , Joe M , Im S , Bae SI , Park KR , Han JH , Park SH , Joo BM , Park SJ , Kim MK
Ref : Curr Microbiol , 69 :286 , 2014
Abstract : A Gram-negative, short-rod-shaped bacterial strain with gliding motility, designated as DG5A(T), was isolated from a rice field soil in South Korea. Phylogenic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequence of the new isolate showed that strain DG5A(T) belong to the genus Spirosoma in the family Spirosomaceae, and the highest sequence similarities were 95.5 % with Spirosoma linguale DSM 74(T), 93.4 % with Spirosoma rigui WPCB118(T), 92.8 % with Spirosoma luteum SPM-10(T), 92.7 % with Spirosoma spitsbergense SPM-9(T), and 91.9 % with Spirosoma panaciterrae Gsoil 1519(T). Strain DG5A(T) revealed resistance to gamma and UV radiation. Chemotaxonomic data showed that the most abundant fatty acids were summed feature C(16:1) omega7c/C(16:1) omega6c (36.90 %), C(16:1) omega5c (29.55 %), and iso-C(15:0) (14.78 %), and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The DNA G+C content of strain DG5A(T) was 49.1 mol%. Together, the phenotypic, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic data supported that strain DG5A(T) presents a novel species of the genus Spirosoma, for which the name Spirosoma radiotolerans sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is DG5A(T) (=KCTC 32455(T) = JCM19447(T)).
ESTHER : Lee_2014_Curr.Microbiol_69_286
PubMedSearch : Lee_2014_Curr.Microbiol_69_286
PubMedID: 24748440
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9bact-a0a0e3v606 , 9bact-a0a0e3zrk0 , 9bact-a0a0e3zva1 , 9bact-a0a0e3zvi6 , 9bact-a0a0e3zsw1 , 9bact-a0a0e3vah2 , 9bact-a0a0e4a055

Title : Molecular mechanism of strigolactone perception by DWARF14 - Nakamura_2013_Nat.Commun_4_2613
Author(s) : Nakamura H , Xue YL , Miyakawa T , Hou F , Qin HM , Fukui K , Shi X , Ito E , Ito S , Park SH , Miyauchi Y , Asano A , Totsuka N , Ueda T , Tanokura M , Asami T
Ref : Nat Commun , 4 :2613 , 2013
Abstract : Strigolactones (SLs) are phytohormones that inhibit shoot branching and function in the rhizospheric communication with symbiotic fungi and parasitic weeds. An alpha/beta-hydrolase protein, DWARF14 (D14), has been recognized to be an essential component of plant SL signalling, although its precise function remains unknown. Here we present the SL-dependent interaction of D14 with a gibberellin signalling repressor SLR1 and a possible mechanism of phytohormone perception in D14-mediated SL signalling. D14 functions as a cleavage enzyme of SLs, and the cleavage reaction induces the interaction with SLR1. The crystal structure of D14 shows that 5-hydroxy-3-methylbutenolide (D-OH), which is a reaction product of SLs, is trapped in the catalytic cavity of D14 to form an altered surface. The D14 residues recognizing D-OH are critical for the SL-dependent D14-SLR1 interaction. These results provide new insight into crosstalk between gibberellin and SL signalling pathways.
ESTHER : Nakamura_2013_Nat.Commun_4_2613
PubMedSearch : Nakamura_2013_Nat.Commun_4_2613
PubMedID: 24131983
Gene_locus related to this paper: orysj-Q10QA5

Title : Chemical screening of an inhibitor for gibberellin receptors based on a yeast two-hybrid system - Yoon_2013_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_23_1096
Author(s) : Yoon JM , Nakajima M , Mashiguchi K , Park SH , Otani M , Asami T
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 23 :1096 , 2013
Abstract : We applied a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system to the high-throughput monitoring of two proteins' interaction, a receptor for phytohormone gibberellin (GA) and its direct signal transducer DELLA. With this system, we screened inhibitors to the interaction. As a result, we discovered a chemical, 3-(2-thienylsulfonyl)pyrazine-2-carbonitrile (TSPC), and we confirmed that TSPC is an inhibitor for GA perception by in vitro and in planta evaluations.
ESTHER : Yoon_2013_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_23_1096
PubMedSearch : Yoon_2013_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_23_1096
PubMedID: 23298808

Title : Relaxing effect of acetylcholine on phenylephrine-induced contraction of isolated rabbit prostate strips is mediated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase - Nguyen_2013_Korean.J.Urol_54_333
Author(s) : Nguyen HB , Lee SY , Park SH , Lee MY , Chang IH , Myung SC
Ref : Korean J Urol , 54 :333 , 2013
Abstract : PURPOSE: The location of acetylcholinesterase-containing nerve fibers suggests a role for acetylcholine in both contractility and secretion in the prostate gland. The colocalization of nitrergic nerves with cholinergic nerves, and the cotransmission of nitric oxide with acetylcholine in cholinergic nerves, has been demonstrated in the prostate glands of various species. Thus, we investigated the effects of acetylcholine on phenylephrine-induced contraction and the correlation between cholinergic transmission and nitric oxide synthase by using isolated prostate strips of rabbits. MATERIALS AND
METHODS: Isolated prostate strips were contracted with phenylephrine and then treated with cumulative concentrations of acetylcholine. Changes in acetylcholine-induced relaxation after preincubation with NG-nitroarginine methyl ester, 7-nitroindazole, and aminoguanidine were measured. The effects of selective muscarinic receptor antagonists were also evaluated.
RESULTS: In the longitudinal phenylephrine-contracted strip, the cumulative application of acetylcholine (10(-9) to 10(-4) M) elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation effect. Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was inhibited not only by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (10 microM L-NAME or 10 microM 7-nitroindazole) but also by 10 microM atropine and some selective muscarinic receptor antagonists (10(-6) M 11-([2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperdinyl]acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3-b][ 1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one and 10(-6) M 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine). In contrast, relaxation was significantly increased by pretreatment of the strips with 10 mM L-arginine.
CONCLUSIONS: Acetylcholine relaxed phenylephrine-induced contractions of isolated rabbit prostate strips. This relaxation may be mediated via both cholinergic and constitutive nitric oxide synthase with both the M2 and M3 receptors possibly playing key roles.
ESTHER : Nguyen_2013_Korean.J.Urol_54_333
PubMedSearch : Nguyen_2013_Korean.J.Urol_54_333
PubMedID: 23700500

Title : Complete genome sequence of the endophytic bacterium Burkholderia sp. strain KJ006 - Kwak_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_4432
Author(s) : Kwak MJ , Song JY , Kim SY , Jeong H , Kang SG , Kim BK , Kwon SK , Lee CH , Yu DS , Park SH , Kim JF
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 194 :4432 , 2012
Abstract : Endophytes live inside plant tissues without causing any harm and may even benefit plants. Here, we provide the high-quality genome sequence of Burkholderia sp. strain KJ006, an endophytic bacterium of rice with antifungal activity. The 6.6-Mb genome, consisting of three chromosomes and a single plasmid, contains genes related to plant growth promotion or degradation of aromatic compounds.
ESTHER : Kwak_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_4432
PubMedSearch : Kwak_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_4432
PubMedID: 22843575
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9burk-i2dyd7 , burvg-a4jmy2

Title : Biochemical and Structural Analysis of Hormone-sensitive Lipase Homolog EstE7: Insight into the Stabilized Dimerization of HSL-Homolog Proteins - Nam_2010_Bull.Korean.Chem.Soc_31_2627
Author(s) : Nam KH , Park SH , Lee WH , Hwang KY
Ref : Bull Korean Chem Soc , 31 :2627 , 2010
Abstract : Hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) plays a major role in energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. Several crystal structures of HSL-homolog proteins have been identified, which has led to a better understanding of its molecular function. HSL-homolog proteins exit as both monomer and dimer, but the biochemical and structural basis for such oligomeric states has not been successfully elucidated. Therefore, we determined the crystal structure of HSL-homolog protein EstE7 from a metagenome library at 2.2 resolution and characterized the oligomeric states of EstE7 both structurally and biochemically. EstE7 protein prefers the dimeric state in solution, which is supported by its higher enzymatic activity in the dimeric state. In the crystal form, EstE7 protein shows two-types of dimeric interface. Specifically, dimerization via the external beta8-strand occurred through tight association between two pseudosymmetric folds via salt bridges, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. This dimer formation was similar to that of other HSL-homolog protein structures such as AFEST, BEFA, and EstE1. We anticipate that our results will provide insight into the oligomeric state of HSL-homolog proteins
ESTHER : Nam_2010_Bull.Korean.Chem.Soc_31_2627
PubMedSearch : Nam_2010_Bull.Korean.Chem.Soc_31_2627
PubMedID:
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9bact-Q0GMU1

Title : Complete genome sequence of the wild-type commensal Escherichia coli strain SE15, belonging to phylogenetic group B2 - Toh_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_1165
Author(s) : Toh H , Oshima K , Toyoda A , Ogura Y , Ooka T , Sasamoto H , Park SH , Iyoda S , Kurokawa K , Morita H , Itoh K , Taylor TD , Hayashi T , Hattori M
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 192 :1165 , 2010
Abstract : Escherichia coli SE15 (O150:H5) is a human commensal bacterium recently isolated from feces of a healthy adult and classified into E. coli phylogenetic group B2, which includes the majority of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Here, we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of this organism.
ESTHER : Toh_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_1165
PubMedSearch : Toh_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_1165
PubMedID: 20008064
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-Aes , ecoli-rutD , ecoli-bioh , ecoli-C0410 , ecoli-C2429 , ecoli-C4836 , ecoli-dlhh , ecoli-entf , ecoli-fes , ecoli-mhpc , ecoli-pldb , ecoli-ptrb , ecoli-yafa , ecoli-yaim , ecoli-ybff , ecoli-ycfp , ecoli-ycjy , ecoli-yeiG , ecoli-YFBB , ecoli-yghX , ecoli-yhet , ecoli-yiel , ecoli-yjfp , ecoli-ypfh , ecoli-ypt1 , ecoli-yqia , ecoli-YfhR , ecos5-d2nhh3 , yerpe-YBTT , ecolx-f4suw9

Title : Genome sequence of the polymyxin-producing plant-probiotic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 - Kim_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_6103
Author(s) : Kim JF , Jeong H , Park SY , Kim SB , Park YK , Choi SK , Ryu CM , Hur CG , Ghim SY , Oh TK , Kim JJ , Park CS , Park SH
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 192 :6103 , 2010
Abstract : Paenibacillus polymyxa E681, a spore-forming, low-G+C, Gram-positive bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of winter barley grown in South Korea, has great potential for agricultural applications due to its ability to promote plant growth and suppress plant diseases. Here we present the complete genome sequence of P. polymyxa E681. Its 5.4-Mb genome encodes functions specialized to the plant-associated lifestyle and characteristics that are beneficial to plants, such as the production of a plant growth hormone, antibiotics, and hydrolytic enzymes.
ESTHER : Kim_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_6103
PubMedSearch : Kim_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_6103
PubMedID: 20851896
Gene_locus related to this paper: paep6-e0ra24 , paep6-e0rkv6 , paep6-e0rmc7 , paep6-e0rmu8 , paeps-e3ebx3

Title : Population pharmacokinetics of CPT-11 (irinotecan) in gastric cancer patients with peritoneal seeding after its intraperitoneal administration - Ahn_2010_Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol_66_1235
Author(s) : Ahn BJ , Choi MK , Park YS , Lee J , Park SH , Park JO , Lim HY , Kang WK , Ko JW , Yim DS
Ref : European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , 66 :1235 , 2010
Abstract : PURPOSE: It is well known that CPT-11 (irinotecan) is biotransformed to its active metabolite, SN-38, by carboxylesterase in the liver and other tissues. However, little is known about its pharmacokinetics (PK) when administered intraperitoneally. The aim of our study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for CPT-11 and SN-38 following the intraperitoneal (IP) administration of CPT-11. METHODS: Pharmacokinetic data obtained from 16 gastric adenocarcinoma patients with peritoneal seeding were used. Administered doses ranged from 50 to 250 mg/m(2). To measure CPT-11 and SN-38 levels, we collected samples of peritoneal fluid, plasma and urine 0, 0.5, 1.5, 2, 3.5, 8, 12, 25.5, 49 and 56 h after IP infusion. Several multicompartmental pharmacokinetic models were tested for CPT-11 and SN-38 in the sampled peritoneal fluid, plasma and urine. NONMEM ver. 6 was used throughout the model-building process. RESULTS: Peak concentrations were achieved earlier for peritoneal SN-38 than for plasma SN-38. The apparent metabolic clearance of peritoneal and plasma CPT-11 to peritoneal and plasma SN-38 accounted for 0.2 and 7.3% of the total clearance of peritoneal and plasma CPT-11, respectively. The typical values of steady-state volume of distribution (Vss) (46.6 L/m(2)), inter-compartment clearance (6.70 L/h/m(2)) and clearance (16.0 L/h/m(2)) for plasma CPT-11 were estimated in a two-compartment PK model. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that a small fraction of intraperitoneally administered CPT-11 was metabolized in situ to active SN-38 and that the Vss of plasma CPT-11 following IP administration in our patient cohort was lower than that estimated in previous reports following the intravenous administration of CPT-11.
ESTHER : Ahn_2010_Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol_66_1235
PubMedSearch : Ahn_2010_Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol_66_1235
PubMedID: 20827550

Title : Sorafenib has soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitory activity, which contributes to its effect profile in vivo - Liu_2009_Mol.Cancer.Ther_8_2193
Author(s) : Liu JY , Park SH , Morisseau C , Hwang SH , Hammock BD , Weiss RH
Ref : Mol Cancer Ther , 8 :2193 , 2009
Abstract : The advent of multikinase inhibitors targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor has revolutionized the treatment of highly angiogenic malignancies such as renal cell carcinoma. Interestingly, several such inhibitors are commercially available, and they each possess diverse specific beneficial and adverse effect profiles. In examining the structure of sorafenib, it was hypothesized that this compound would possess inhibitory effects on the soluble epoxide hydrolase, an enzyme with pleiotropic effects on inflammation and vascular disease. We now show that sorafenib but not another VEGF receptor targeted inhibitor sunitinib is a potent inhibitor of the human soluble epoxide hydrolase in vitro (K(I) = 17 +/- 4 nmol/L). Furthermore, sorafenib causes the expected in vivo shift in oxylipid profile resulting from soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition, evidence of a reduction in the acute inflammatory response. Lipopolysaccharide-induced hypotension was reversed with sorafenib but not sunitinib treatment, suggesting that soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition accounts for at least part of the anti-inflammatory effect of sorafenib. The pharmacokinetic studies presented here in light of the known potency of sorafenib as a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor indicate that the soluble epoxide hydrolase will be largely inhibited at therapeutic doses of sorafenib. Thus, it is likely that soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition contributes to the beneficial effects from the inhibition of the VEGF receptor and other kinases during treatment with sorafenib.
ESTHER : Liu_2009_Mol.Cancer.Ther_8_2193
PubMedSearch : Liu_2009_Mol.Cancer.Ther_8_2193
PubMedID: 19671760

Title : Long-term suppression of tyrosinase by terrein via tyrosinase degradation and its decreased expression - Park_2009_Exp.Dermatol_18_562
Author(s) : Park SH , Kim DS , Lee HK , Kwon SB , Lee S , Ryoo IJ , Kim WG , Yoo ID , Park KC
Ref : Exp Dermatol , 18 :562 , 2009
Abstract : Previously, we reported that a fungal metabolite, terrein, decreases melanin synthesis via downregulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). In the present study, we further investigated the long-term hypopigmenting action of terrein in a spontaneously immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, Mel-Ab. Treatment with terrein at a concentration of 50 mum strongly decreased melanogenesis in a time-dependent manner. Interestingly, the decreased tyrosinase protein levels lasted for at least 7 days, even though the MITF protein levels were restored after 3 days of treatment. In accordance with the results of Western blot analyses, the tyrosinase mRNA levels were found to be continuously decreased for at least 7 days, even though recovery of the MITF mRNA levels began after 3 days of terrein treatment. Therefore, we evaluated tyrosinase downregulation to determine if it is caused by proteasomal degradation. We found that the reduction in tyrosinase levels that was induced by terrein was clearly recovered by MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. Moreover, ubiquitination of tyrosinase increased following treatment with terrein in the presence of MG-132. Taken together, these results suggest that terrein decreases melanogenesis through ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation as well as via decreased expression of its mRNA.
ESTHER : Park_2009_Exp.Dermatol_18_562
PubMedSearch : Park_2009_Exp.Dermatol_18_562
PubMedID: 19493001
Gene_locus related to this paper: aspte-AT1

Title : Differential expression and affinities of Arabidopsis gibberellin receptors can explain variation in phenotypes of multiple knock-out mutants - Suzuki_2009_Plant.J_60_48
Author(s) : Suzuki H , Park SH , Okubo K , Kitamura J , Ueguchi-Tanaka M , Iuchi S , Katoh E , Kobayashi M , Yamaguchi I , Matsuoka M , Asami T , Nakajima M
Ref : Plant J , 60 :48 , 2009
Abstract : In Arabidopsis, three receptors exist for the phytohormone gibberellin. Of the three, only a double loss-of-function mutant (atgid1a atgid1c) shows a dwarf phenotype, while other double and all single mutants show no abnormality in height. In this study we show that the expression of AtGID1b-GUS mRNA, driven by the AtGID1b promoter, is low in inflorescence stems, but may be 10% of AtGID1a-GUS mRNA, driven by the AtGID1a promoter. However, AtGID1b-GUS enzymatic activity does not exist in them. This factor strongly suggests that atgid1a atgid1c lacks sufficient AtGID1b protein for normal stem growth. In the stamens of pAtGID1c::AtGID1c-GUS transformants, we detected clear AtGID1c-GUS activity, while another atgid1a atgid1b, which has short stamens in its flowers, causes the adhesion of little pollen to stigmas thus leading to its low fertility. We then evaluated the affinity of the AtGID1-DELLA interaction by a competitive yeast three-hybrid system and also by QCM apparatus. AtGID1c showed a quite lower affinity to RGL2, the major DELLA protein in floral buds, than AtGID1a or AtGID1b. The low affinity of the AtGID1c-RGL2 interaction is likely to be responsible for the failure of AtGID1c to hold RGL2, which is required for normal stamen development. Taken together with expressional information of DELLA genes, we propose that in a double loss-of-function mutant of gibberellin receptors, the emergence of any phenotype(s) depends on the abundance of the remaining receptor and its preference to DELLA proteins existing at a target site.
ESTHER : Suzuki_2009_Plant.J_60_48
PubMedSearch : Suzuki_2009_Plant.J_60_48
PubMedID: 19500306
Gene_locus related to this paper: arath-AT5G27320 , arath-GID1B

Title : Complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of the wild-type commensal Escherichia coli strain SE11 isolated from a healthy adult - Oshima_2008_DNA.Res_15_375
Author(s) : Oshima K , Toh H , Ogura Y , Sasamoto H , Morita H , Park SH , Ooka T , Iyoda S , Taylor TD , Hayashi T , Itoh K , Hattori M
Ref : DNA Research , 15 :375 , 2008
Abstract : We sequenced and analyzed the genome of a commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain SE11 (O152:H28) recently isolated from feces of a healthy adult and classified into E. coli phylogenetic group B1. SE11 harbored a 4.8 Mb chromosome encoding 4679 protein-coding genes and six plasmids encoding 323 protein-coding genes. None of the SE11 genes had sequence similarity to known genes encoding phage- and plasmid-borne virulence factors found in pathogenic E. coli strains. The comparative genome analysis with the laboratory strain K-12 MG1655 identified 62 poorly conserved genes between these two non-pathogenic strains and 1186 genes absent in MG1655. These genes in SE11 were mostly encoded in large insertion regions on the chromosome or in the plasmids, and were notably abundant in genes of fimbriae and autotransporters, which are cell surface appendages that largely contribute to the adherence ability of bacteria to host cells and bacterial conjugation. These data suggest that SE11 may have evolved to acquire and accumulate the functions advantageous for stable colonization of intestinal cells, and that the adhesion-associated functions are important for the commensality of E. coli in human gut habitat.
ESTHER : Oshima_2008_DNA.Res_15_375
PubMedSearch : Oshima_2008_DNA.Res_15_375
PubMedID: 18931093
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-Aes , ecoli-rutD , ecoli-bioh , ecoli-C4836 , ecoli-dlhh , ecoli-entf , ecoli-fes , ecoli-mhpc , ecoli-pldb , ecoli-ptrb , ecoli-yafa , ecoli-yaim , ecoli-ybff , ecoli-ycfp , ecoli-ycjy , ecoli-yeiG , ecoli-YFBB , ecoli-yghX , ecoli-yhet , ecoli-yiel , ecoli-yjfp , ecoli-YNBC , ecoli-ypfh , ecoli-yqia , ecoli-Z1930 , ecoli-Z2445 , ecoli-YfhR

Title : Anticholinesterase activity of plastoquinones from Sargassum sagamianum: lead compounds for Alzheimer's disease therapy - Choi_2007_Phytother.Res_21_423
Author(s) : Choi BW , Ryu G , Park SH , Kim ES , Shin J , Roh SS , Shin HC , Lee BH
Ref : Phytother Res , 21 :423 , 2007
Abstract : During the search for anticholinesterase compounds from marine organisms, two known plastoquinones, sargaquinoic acid (1) and sargachromenol (2), were isolated from Sargassum sagamianum. Both compounds showed moderate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity in a micromole range (IC(50) 23.2 and 32.7 microm, respectively). However, for butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), a new target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), compound 1 showed particularly potent inhibitory activity (IC(50) 26 nm), which is 1000-fold greater than for AChE. Hence, sargaquinoic acid represents an effective and selective inhibitor of BuChE with a potency similar to or greater than the anticholinesterases in current clinical use, making it an interesting potential drug candidate for AD.
ESTHER : Choi_2007_Phytother.Res_21_423
PubMedSearch : Choi_2007_Phytother.Res_21_423
PubMedID: 17236179

Title : Proteome analysis of Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 affected by barley - Seul_2007_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_17_934
Author(s) : Seul KJ , Park SH , Ryu CM , Lee YH , Ghim SY
Ref : J Microbiol Biotechnol , 17 :934 , 2007
Abstract : Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 is known to be able to suppress plant diseases by producing antimicrobial compounds and to promote plant growth by producing phytohormones, and secreting diverse degrading enzymes. In spite of these capabilities, little is known regarding the flow of information from the bacterial strain to the barley roots. In an attempt to determine the flow of information from the bacterial strain to barley roots, the train was grown in the presence and absence of barley, and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used. 2D-PAGE detected approximately 1000 spots in the cell and 1100 spots in the supernatant at a pH 4-10 gradient. Interestingly, about 80 spots from each sample showed quantitative variations. Fifty-three spots from these were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 28 proteins were identified. Most of the cytosolic proteins expressed at higher levels were found in P. polymyxa E681 cells grown in the presence of barley rather than in the absence of barley. Proteins detected at a lower level in the surpernatant of P. polymyxa E681 cells grown in the presence of barley were lipoprotein, glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase, heat-shock protein HtpG spermidine synthase, OrfZ, ribonuclease PH, and coenzyme PQQ synthesis protein, and flagellar hook-associated protein 2 whereas proteins detected at a higher level in the surpernatant of P. polymyxa E681 cells grown in the presence of barley included D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase A, isopentenyldiphosphate delta-isomerase, ABC transporter ATP-binding protein Uup, lipase. Many of the proteins belonging to plant-induced stimulons are associated with biosynthetic metabolism and metabolites of proteins and transport. Some of these proteins would be expected to be induced by environmental changes resulting from the accumulation of plant-secreted substances.
ESTHER : Seul_2007_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_17_934
PubMedSearch : Seul_2007_J.Microbiol.Biotechnol_17_934
PubMedID: 18050911

Title : Identification and characterization of Arabidopsis gibberellin receptors - Nakajima_2006_Plant.J_46_880
Author(s) : Nakajima M , Shimada A , Takashi Y , Kim YC , Park SH , Ueguchi-Tanaka M , Suzuki H , Katoh E , Iuchi S , Kobayashi M , Maeda T , Matsuoka M , Yamaguchi I
Ref : Plant J , 46 :880 , 2006
Abstract : Three gibberellin (GA) receptor genes (AtGID1a, AtGID1b and AtGID1c), each an ortholog of the rice GA receptor gene (OsGID1), were cloned from Arabidopsis, and the characteristics of their recombinant proteins were examined. The GA-binding activities of the three recombinant proteins were confirmed by an in vitro assay. Biochemical analyses revealed similar ligand selectivity among the recombinants, and all recombinants showed higher affinity to GA(4) than to other GAs. AtGID1b was unique in its binding affinity to GA(4) and in its pH dependence when compared with the other two, by only showing binding in a narrow pH range (pH 6.4-7.5) with 10-fold higher affinity (apparent K(d) for GA(4) = 3 x 10(-8) m) than AtGID1a and AtGID1c. A two-hybrid yeast system only showed in vivo interaction in the presence of GA(4) between each AtGID1 and the Arabidopsis DELLA proteins (AtDELLAs), negative regulators of GA signaling. For this interaction with AtDELLAs, AtGID1b required only one-tenth of the amount of GA(4) that was necessary for interaction between the other AtGID1s and AtDELLAs, reflecting its lower K(d) value. AtDELLA boosted the GA-binding activity of AtGID1 in vitro, which suggests the formation of a complex between AtDELLA and AtGID1-GA that binds AtGID1 to GA more tightly. The expression of each AtGID1 clone in the rice gid1-1 mutant rescued the GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype. These results demonstrate that all three AtGID1s functioned as GA receptors in Arabidopsis.
ESTHER : Nakajima_2006_Plant.J_46_880
PubMedSearch : Nakajima_2006_Plant.J_46_880
PubMedID: 16709201
Gene_locus related to this paper: arath-AT5G27320 , arath-AT5G62180 , arath-GID1B

Title : MELDB: a database for microbial esterases and lipases - Kang_2006_FEBS.Lett_580_2736
Author(s) : Kang HY , Kim JF , Kim MH , Park SH , Oh TK , Hur CG
Ref : FEBS Letters , 580 :2736 , 2006
Abstract : MELDB is a comprehensive protein database of microbial esterases and lipases which are hydrolytic enzymes important in the modern industry. Proteins in MELDB are clustered into groups according to their sequence similarities based on a local pairwise alignment algorithm and a graph clustering algorithm (TribeMCL). This differs from traditional approaches that use global pairwise alignment and joining methods. Our procedure was able to reduce the noise caused by dubious alignment in the distantly related or unrelated regions in the sequences. In the database, 883 esterase and lipase sequences derived from microbial sources are deposited and conserved parts of each protein are identified. HMM profiles of each cluster were generated to classify unknown sequences. Contents of the database can be keyword-searched and query sequences can be aligned to sequence profiles and sequences themselves.
ESTHER : Kang_2006_FEBS.Lett_580_2736
PubMedSearch : Kang_2006_FEBS.Lett_580_2736
PubMedID: 16647704

Title : Protection by a transdermal patch containing physostigmine and procyclidine of soman poisoning in dogs - Kim_2005_Eur.J.Pharmacol_525_135
Author(s) : Kim WS , Cho Y , Kim JC , Huang ZZ , Park SH , Choi EK , Shin S , Nam SY , Kang JK , Hwang SY , Kim YB
Ref : European Journal of Pharmacology , 525 :135 , 2005
Abstract : The prophylactic efficacy of a combinational patch system containing physostigmine and procyclidine against soman intoxication was evaluated using dogs. Female beagle dogs (body weights 9-10 kg) were shaved on the abdominal side, attached with a matrix-type patch (7x7 cm) containing 1.5% of physostigmine plus 6% procyclidine for 2 days, and challenged with subcutaneous injection of serial doses (2-10 LD50) of soman. Separately, in combination with the patch attachment, atropine (2 mg/dog) plus 2-pralidoxime (600 mg/dog) or atropine plus 1-[([4-(aminocarbonyl)pyridinio]methoxy)methyl]-2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridiniu m (HI-6, 500 mg/dog) were injected intramuscularly 1 min after soman poisoning. The LD50 value of soman was determined to be 9.1 microg/kg, and high doses (> or = 1.4 LD50) of soman induced salivation, emesis, defecation and diarrhea, tremors and seizures, and recumbency of dogs, leading to 100% mortality in 24 h. The prophylactic patch, which led to mean 18.5-18.8% inhibition of blood cholinesterase activity by physostigmine and mean 7.9-8.3 ng/ml of blood concentration of procyclidine, exerted a high protection ratio (4.7 LD50), in comparison with relatively-low effects of traditional antidotes, atropine plus 2-pralidoxime (2.5 LD50) and atropine plus HI-6 (2.7 LD50). Noteworthy, a synergistic increase in the protection ratio was achieved by the combination of the patch with atropine plus HI-6 (9 LD50), but not with atropine plus 2-pralidoxime (5 LD50). In addition, the patch system markedly attenuated the cholinergic signs and seizures induced by soman, especially when combined with atropine plus HI-6, leading to elimination of brain injuries and physical incapacitation up to 6 LD50 of soman poisoning. Taken together, it is suggested that the patch system containing physostigmine and procyclidine, especially in combination with atropine and HI-6, could be a choice for the quality survival from nerve-agent poisoning.
ESTHER : Kim_2005_Eur.J.Pharmacol_525_135
PubMedSearch : Kim_2005_Eur.J.Pharmacol_525_135
PubMedID: 16256978

Title : Genomic blueprint of Hahella chejuensis, a marine microbe producing an algicidal agent - Jeong_2005_Nucleic.Acids.Res_33_7066
Author(s) : Jeong H , Yim JH , Lee C , Choi SH , Park YK , Yoon SH , Hur CG , Kang HY , Kim D , Lee HH , Park KH , Park SH , Park HS , Lee HK , Oh TK , Kim JF
Ref : Nucleic Acids Research , 33 :7066 , 2005
Abstract : Harmful algal blooms, caused by rapid growth and accumulation of certain microalgae in the ocean, pose considerable impacts on marine environments, aquatic industries and even public health. Here, we present the 7.2-megabase genome of the marine bacterium Hahella chejuensis including genes responsible for the biosynthesis of a pigment which has the lytic activity against a red-tide dinoflagellate. H.chejuensis is the first sequenced species in the Oceanospiralles clade, and sequence analysis revealed its distant relationship to the Pseudomonas group. The genome was well equipped with genes for basic metabolic capabilities and contained a large number of genes involved in regulation or transport as well as with characteristics as a marine heterotroph. Sequence analysis also revealed a multitude of genes of functional equivalence or of possible foreign origin. Functions encoded in the genomic islands include biosynthesis of exopolysacchrides, toxins, polyketides or non-ribosomal peptides, iron utilization, motility, type III protein secretion and pigmentation. Molecular structure of the algicidal pigment, which was determined through LC-ESI-MS/MS and NMR analyses, indicated that it is prodigiosin. In conclusion, our work provides new insights into mitigating algal blooms in addition to genetic make-up, physiology, biotic interactions and biological roles in the community of a marine bacterium.
ESTHER : Jeong_2005_Nucleic.Acids.Res_33_7066
PubMedSearch : Jeong_2005_Nucleic.Acids.Res_33_7066
PubMedID: 16352867
Gene_locus related to this paper: hahch-q2s6v8 , hahch-q2s7u4 , hahch-q2s8m0 , hahch-q2s9b5 , hahch-q2s9n3 , hahch-q2s796 , hahch-q2s803 , hahch-q2s809 , hahch-q2s829 , hahch-q2sae5 , hahch-q2sav4 , hahch-q2sbd6 , hahch-q2sc65 , hahch-q2scc5 , hahch-q2sci6 , hahch-q2sct6 , hahch-q2scw7 , hahch-q2sdy2 , hahch-q2seh8 , hahch-q2seq6 , hahch-q2sfm2 , hahch-q2sfm4 , hahch-q2sfm9 , hahch-q2sfx3 , hahch-q2sgj4 , hahch-q2sgn6 , hahch-q2sgt0 , hahch-q2sgz8 , hahch-q2shj8 , hahch-q2shp0 , hahch-q2shq5 , hahch-q2shv0 , hahch-q2shv4 , hahch-q2shz6 , hahch-q2sic0 , hahch-q2sil6 , hahch-q2sj56 , hahch-q2sje1 , hahch-q2sje8 , hahch-q2skf9 , hahch-q2skg3 , hahch-q2skl5 , hahch-q2skv5 , hahch-q2sl80 , hahch-q2sll2 , hahch-q2slq4 , hahch-q2sls7 , hahch-q2sm17 , hahch-q2sn09 , hahch-q2sn54 , hahch-q2snn5 , hahch-q2snq6 , hahch-q2snw9 , hahch-q2spi5 , hahch-q2spk1 , hahch-q2spm8 , hahch-q2sq02 , hahch-q2sqg8 , hahch-q2sqn4 , hahch-q2sqx6 , hahch-q2sjs2

Title : The genomic sequence of the accidental pathogen Legionella pneumophila - Chien_2004_Science_305_1966
Author(s) : Chien M , Morozova I , Shi S , Sheng H , Chen J , Gomez SM , Asamani G , Hill K , Nuara J , Feder M , Rineer J , Greenberg JJ , Steshenko V , Park SH , Zhao B , Teplitskaya E , Edwards JR , Pampou S , Georghiou A , Chou IC , Iannuccilli W , Ulz ME , Kim DH , Geringer-Sameth A , Goldsberry C , Morozov P , Fischer SG , Segal G , Qu X , Rzhetsky A , Zhang P , Cayanis E , de Jong PJ , Ju J , Kalachikov S , Shuman HA , Russo JJ
Ref : Science , 305 :1966 , 2004
Abstract : We present the genomic sequence of Legionella pneumophila, the bacterial agent of Legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal pneumonia acquired from aerosolized contaminated fresh water. The genome includes a 45-kilobase pair element that can exist in chromosomal and episomal forms, selective expansions of important gene families, genes for unexpected metabolic pathways, and previously unknown candidate virulence determinants. We highlight the genes that may account for Legionella's ability to survive in protozoa, mammalian macrophages, and inhospitable environmental niches and that may define new therapeutic targets.
ESTHER : Chien_2004_Science_305_1966
PubMedSearch : Chien_2004_Science_305_1966
PubMedID: 15448271
Gene_locus related to this paper: legph-q5zsu4 , legpa-q5x2r4 , legpa-q5x3a5 , legpa-q5x3d6 , legpa-q5x4r4 , legpa-q5x4t1 , legpa-q5x5b2 , legpa-q5x5z2 , legpa-q5x7f5 , legpa-q5x8e6 , legpa-q5x8m4 , legpa-q5x322 , legpa-q5x405 , legpa-q5x424 , legpa-q5x473 , legpa-q5x590 , legpa-q5x611 , legpa-q5x819 , legpc-a5iar0 , legph-q5zrh1 , legph-q5zsb5 , legph-q5zv00 , legph-q5zwi8 , legph-q5zze3 , legpl-q5wtd3 , legpl-q5wua5 , legpl-q5wvw9 , legpn-Q8KU34 , legpn-Q8RNQ1 , legpn-SBPA , legpn-i7i328 , legpl-q5wsw9

Title : Terrein: a new melanogenesis inhibitor and its mechanism - Park_2004_Cell.Mol.Life.Sci_61_2878
Author(s) : Park SH , Kim DS , Kim WG , Ryoo IJ , Lee DH , Huh CH , Youn SW , Yoo ID , Park KC
Ref : Cell Mol Life Sciences , 61 :2878 , 2004
Abstract : Terrein is a bioactive fungal metabolite whose effects are almost unknown. In this study, we found for the first time that terrein has a strong hypopigmentary effect in a spontaneously immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, Mel-Ab. Treatment of Mel-Ab cells with terrein (10-100 microM) for 4 days significantly reduced melanin levels in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, terrein at the same concentration also reduced tyrosinase activity. We then investigated whether terrein influences the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway and the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), which is required for tyrosinase expression. Terrein was found to induce sustained ERK activation and MITF down-regulation, and luciferase assays showed that terrein inhibits MITF promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. To elucidate the correlation between ERK pathway activation and a decreased MITF transcriptional level, PD98059, a specific inhibitor of the ERK pathway, was applied before terrein treatment and found to abrogate the terrein-induced MITF attenuation. Terrein also reduced the tyrosinase protein level for at least 72 h. These results suggest that terrein reduces melanin synthesis by reducing tyrosinase production via ERK activation, and that this is followed by MITF down-regulation.
ESTHER : Park_2004_Cell.Mol.Life.Sci_61_2878
PubMedSearch : Park_2004_Cell.Mol.Life.Sci_61_2878
PubMedID: 15558216
Gene_locus related to this paper: aspte-AT1

Title : Cholinesterase inhibitory activity of two farnesylacetone derivatives from the brown alga Sargassum sagamianum - Ryu_2003_Arch.Pharm.Res_26_796
Author(s) : Ryu G , Park SH , Kim ES , Choi BW , Ryu SY , Lee BH
Ref : Arch Pharm Res , 26 :796 , 2003
Abstract : Two known farnesylacetone derivatives (1 and 2) were isolated from the Korean brown alga Sargassum sagamianum off Jeju Island, Korea. Compounds 1 and 2 were identified as (5E,10Z)-6,10,14-trimethylpentadeca-5,10-dien-2,12-dione and (5E,9E,13E)-6,10,4-trimethyl-pentadeca-5,9,13-trien-2,12-dione, respectively, by comparison with the literature data. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 65.0 approximately 48.0 and 34.0 approximately 23.0 microM, respectively.
ESTHER : Ryu_2003_Arch.Pharm.Res_26_796
PubMedSearch : Ryu_2003_Arch.Pharm.Res_26_796
PubMedID: 14609125

Title : The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis - Kunst_1997_Nature_390_249
Author(s) : Kunst F , Ogasawara N , Moszer I , Albertini AM , Alloni G , Azevedo V , Bertero MG , Bessieres P , Bolotin A , Borchert S , Borriss R , Boursier L , Brans A , Braun M , Brignell SC , Bron S , Brouillet S , Bruschi CV , Caldwell B , Capuano V , Carter NM , Choi SK , Cordani JJ , Connerton IF , Cummings NJ , Daniel RA , Denziot F , Devine KM , Dusterhoft A , Ehrlich SD , Emmerson PT , Entian KD , Errington J , Fabret C , Ferrari E , Foulger D , Fritz C , Fujita M , Fujita Y , Fuma S , Galizzi A , Galleron N , Ghim SY , Glaser P , Goffeau A , Golightly EJ , Grandi G , Guiseppi G , Guy BJ , Haga K , Haiech J , Harwood CR , Henaut A , Hilbert H , Holsappel S , Hosono S , Hullo MF , Itaya M , Jones L , Joris B , Karamata D , Kasahara Y , Klaerr-Blanchard M , Klein C , Kobayashi Y , Koetter P , Koningstein G , Krogh S , Kumano M , Kurita K , Lapidus A , Lardinois S , Lauber J , Lazarevic V , Lee SM , Levine A , Liu H , Masuda S , Mauel C , Medigue C , Medina N , Mellado RP , Mizuno M , Moestl D , Nakai S , Noback M , Noone D , O'Reilly M , Ogawa K , Ogiwara A , Oudega B , Park SH , Parro V , Pohl TM , Portelle D , Porwollik S , Prescott AM , Presecan E , Pujic P , Purnelle B , Rapoport G , Rey M , Reynolds S , Rieger M , Rivolta C , Rocha E , Roche B , Rose M , Sadaie Y , Sato T , Scanlan E , Schleich S , Schroeter R , Scoffone F , Sekiguchi J , Sekowska A , Seror SJ , Serror P , Shin BS , Soldo B , Sorokin A , Tacconi E , Takagi T , Takahashi H , Takemaru K , Takeuchi M , Tamakoshi A , Tanaka T , Terpstra P , Togoni A , Tosato V , Uchiyama S , Vandebol M , Vannier F , Vassarotti A , Viari A , Wambutt R , Wedler H , Weitzenegger T , Winters P , Wipat A , Yamamoto H , Yamane K , Yasumoto K , Yata K , Yoshida K , Yoshikawa HF , Zumstein E , Yoshikawa H , Danchin A
Ref : Nature , 390 :249 , 1997
Abstract : Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large proportion of the genetic capacity is devoted to the utilization of a variety of carbon sources, including many plant-derived molecules. The identification of five signal peptidase genes, as well as several genes for components of the secretion apparatus, is important given the capacity of Bacillus strains to secrete large amounts of industrially important enzymes. Many of the genes are involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, that are more typically associated with Streptomyces species. The genome contains at least ten prophages or remnants of prophages, indicating that bacteriophage infection has played an important evolutionary role in horizontal gene transfer, in particular in the propagation of bacterial pathogenesis.
ESTHER : Kunst_1997_Nature_390_249
PubMedSearch : Kunst_1997_Nature_390_249
PubMedID: 9384377
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacsu-CAH , bacsu-cbxnp , bacsu-lip , bacsu-LIPB , bacsu-PKSR , bacsu-pnbae , bacsu-PPSE , bacsu-srf4 , bacsu-srfac , bacsu-YBAC , bacsu-YBDG , bacsu-ybfk , bacsu-ycgS , bacsu-yczh , bacsu-YDEN , bacsu-ydjp , bacsu-yfhM , bacsu-yisY , bacsu-YITV , bacsu-yjau , bacsu-YJCH , bacsu-MHQD , bacsu-yqjl , bacsu-yqkd , bacsu-YRAK , bacsu-YTAP , bacsu-YTMA , bacsu-YTPA , bacsu-ytxm , bacsu-yugF , bacsu-YUII , bacsu-YUKL , bacsu-YVAK , bacsu-YvaM , bacsu-RsbQ