Potter PM


Full name : Potter Philip M

First name : Philip PM

Mail : St. Jude Children's Research Hospital\; Chemical Biology and Therapeutics\; 262 Danny Thomas Place\; Memphis\; 38112

Zip Code :

City :

Country : USA

Email : phil.potter@stjude.org

Phone : +19015952825

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References (95)

Title : Inhibition of Carboxylesterase-1 Alters Clopidogrel Metabolism and Disposition - Laizure_2020_Xenobiotica_50_245
Author(s) : Laizure SC , Hu ZY , Potter PM , Parker RB
Ref : Xenobiotica , 50 :245 , 2020
Abstract : 1. Clopidogrel is widely prescribed in patients with cardiovascular disease. Most research has focused on the role of hepatic CYP450 metabolism as the primary source of response variability despite 85-90% of clopidogrel being hydrolyzed by human carboxylesterase-1 (CES1). 2. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the known CES1 inhibitor alcohol on clopidogrel metabolism: (1) in vitro in human recombinant CES1 and human liver S9 fractions (HLS9), and (2) in a plasma carboxylesterase deficient mouse (Es1(e) ) strain administered 25 mg/kg oral clopidogrel alone and with 3 g/kg alcohol. 3. Alcohol significantly inhibited the hydrolysis of clopidogrel (IC50 161 mM) and 2-oxo-clopidogrel (IC50 6 mM). In HLS9, alcohol treatment formed ethylated metabolites via transesterification and an increased formation of the H4 active metabolite. These results were replicated in Es1(e) mice as alcohol increased clopidogrel (91%) and H4 (22%) AUC and reduced formation of the clopidogrel (48%) and 2-oxo-clopidogrel (42%) carboxylate metabolites. 4. Clopidogrel metabolism is highly sensitive to alterations in CES1 activity. The Es1(e) mouse may represent a suitable model of human CES1 drug metabolism that can be used to rapidly assess how alterations in CES1 function impact the disposition of the substrate drugs.
ESTHER : Laizure_2020_Xenobiotica_50_245
PubMedSearch : Laizure_2020_Xenobiotica_50_245
PubMedID: 31039046

Title : Facile synthesis of 1,2-dione-containing abietane analogues for the generation of human carboxylesterase inhibitors - Binder_2018_Eur.J.Med.Chem_149_79
Author(s) : Binder RJ , Hatfield MJ , Chi L , Potter PM
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 149 :79 , 2018
Abstract : Recently, a series of selective human carboxylesterase inhibitors have been identified based upon the tanshinones, with biologically active molecules containing a 1,2-dione group as part of a naphthoquinone core. Unfortunately, the synthesis of such compounds is complex. Here we describe a novel method for the generation of 1,2-dione containing diterpenoids using a unified approach, by which boronic acids are joined to vinyl bromo-cyclohexene derivatives via Suzuki coupling, followed by electrocyclization and oxidation to the o-phenanthroquinones. This has allowed the construction of a panel of miltirone analogues containing an array of substituents (methyl, isopropyl, fluorine, methoxy) which have been used to develop preliminary SAR with the two human carboxylesterase isoforms. As a consequence, we have synthesized highly potent inhibitors of these enzymes (Ki<15nM), that maintain the core tanshinone scaffold. Hence, we have developed a facile and reproducible method for the synthesis of abietane analogues that have resulted in a panel of miltirone derivatives that will be useful tool compounds to assess carboxylesterase biology.
ESTHER : Binder_2018_Eur.J.Med.Chem_149_79
PubMedSearch : Binder_2018_Eur.J.Med.Chem_149_79
PubMedID: 29499489

Title : Potent, Irreversible Inhibition of Human Carboxylesterases by Tanshinone Anhydrides Isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) - Hatfield_2018_J.Nat.Prod_81_2410
Author(s) : Hatfield MJ , Binder RJ , Gannon R , Fratt EM , Bowling J , Potter PM
Ref : Journal of Natural Products , 81 :2410 , 2018
Abstract : The roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza ("Danshen") have been used in Chinese herbal medicine for centuries for a host of different conditions. While the exact nature of the active components of this material are unknown, large amounts of tanshinones are present in extracts derived from these samples. Recently, the tanshinones have been demonstrated to be potent human carboxylesterase (CE) inhibitors, with the ability to modulate the biological activity of esterified drugs. During the course of these studies, we also identified more active, irreversible inhibitors of these enzymes. We have purified, identified, and synthesized these molecules and confirmed them to be the anhydride derivatives of the tanshinones. These compounds are exceptionally potent inhibitors ( Ki < 1 nM) and can inactivate human CEs both in vitro and in cell culture systems and can modulate the metabolism of the esterified drug oseltamivir. Therefore, the coadministration of Danshen extracts with drugs that contain the ester chemotype should be minimized since, not only is transient inhibition of CEs observed with the tanshinones, but also prolonged irreversible inhibition arises via interaction with the anhydrides.
ESTHER : Hatfield_2018_J.Nat.Prod_81_2410
PubMedSearch : Hatfield_2018_J.Nat.Prod_81_2410
PubMedID: 30351923
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1 , human-CES2

Title : Optimization of a Neural Stem-Cell-Mediated Carboxylesterase\/Irinotecan Gene Therapy for Metastatic Neuroblastoma - Gutova_2017_Mol.Ther.Oncolytics_4_67
Author(s) : Gutova M , Goldstein L , Metz M , Hovsepyan A , Tsurkan LG , Tirughana R , Tsaturyan L , Annala AJ , Synold TW , Wan Z , Seeger R , Anderson C , Moats RA , Potter PM , Aboody KS
Ref : Mol Ther Oncolytics , 4 :67 , 2017
Abstract : Despite improved survival for children with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma (NB), recurrent disease is a significant problem, with treatment options limited by anti-tumor efficacy, patient drug tolerance, and cumulative toxicity. We previously demonstrated that neural stem cells (NSCs) expressing a modified rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE) can distribute to metastatic NB tumor foci in multiple organs in mice and convert the prodrug irinotecan (CPT-11) to the 1,000-fold more toxic topoisomerase-1 inhibitor SN-38, resulting in significant therapeutic efficacy. We sought to extend these studies by using a clinically relevant NSC line expressing a modified human CE (hCE1m6-NSCs) to establish proof of concept and identify an intravenous dose and treatment schedule that gave maximal efficacy. Human-derived NB cell lines were significantly more sensitive to treatment with hCE1m6-NSCs and irinotecan as compared with drug alone. This was supported by pharmacokinetic studies in subcutaneous NB mouse models demonstrating tumor-specific conversion of irinotecan to SN-38. Furthermore, NB-bearing mice that received repeat treatment with intravenous hCE1m6-NSCs and irinotecan showed significantly lower tumor burden (1.4-fold, p = 0.0093) and increased long-term survival compared with mice treated with drug alone. These studies support the continued development of NSC-mediated gene therapy for improved clinical outcome in NB patients.
ESTHER : Gutova_2017_Mol.Ther.Oncolytics_4_67
PubMedSearch : Gutova_2017_Mol.Ther.Oncolytics_4_67
PubMedID: 28345025

Title : Selective Inhibitors of Human Liver Carboxylesterase Based on a beta-Lapachone Scaffold: Novel Reagents for Reaction Profiling - Hatfield_2017_J.Med.Chem_60_1568
Author(s) : Hatfield MJ , Chen J , Fratt EM , Chi L , Bollinger JC , Binder RJ , Bowling J , Hyatt JL , Scarborough J , Jeffries C , Potter PM
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 60 :1568 , 2017
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CEs) are ubiquitous enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of xenobiotics, including drugs such as irinotecan and oseltamivir. Inhibition of CEs significantly modulates the efficacy of such agents. We report here that beta-lapachone is a potent, reversible CE inhibitor with Ki values in the nanomolar range. A series of amino and phenoxy analogues have been synthesized, and although the former are very poor inhibitors, the latter compounds are highly effective in modulating CE activity. Our data demonstrate that tautomerism of the amino derivatives to the imino forms likely accounts for their loss in biological activity. A series of N-methylated amino derivatives, which are unable to undergo such tautomerism, were equal in potency to the phenoxy analogues and demonstrated selectivity for the liver enzyme hCE1. These specific inhibitors, which are active in cell culture models, will be exceptionally useful reagents for reaction profiling of esterified drugs in complex biological samples.
ESTHER : Hatfield_2017_J.Med.Chem_60_1568
PubMedSearch : Hatfield_2017_J.Med.Chem_60_1568
PubMedID: 28112927

Title : Carboxylesterases: General detoxifying enzymes - Hatfield_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_327
Author(s) : Hatfield MJ , Umans RA , Hyatt JL , Edwards CC , Wierdl M , Tsurkan L , Taylor MR , Potter PM
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 259 :327 , 2016
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CE) are members of the esterase family of enzymes, and as their name suggests, they are responsible for the hydrolysis of carboxylesters into the corresponding alcohol and carboxylic acid. To date, no endogenous CE substrates have been identified and as such, these proteins are thought to act as a mechanism to detoxify ester-containing xenobiotics. As a consequence, they are expressed in tissues that might be exposed to such agents (lung and gut epithelia, liver, kidney, etc.). CEs demonstrate very broad substrate specificities and can hydrolyze compounds as diverse as cocaine, oseltamivir (Tamiflu), permethrin and irinotecan. In addition, these enzymes are irreversibly inhibited by organophosphates such as Sarin and Tabun. In this overview, we will compare and contrast the two human enzymes that have been characterized, and evaluate the biology of the interaction of these proteins with organophosphates (principally nerve agents).
ESTHER : Hatfield_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_327
PubMedSearch : Hatfield_2016_Chem.Biol.Interact_259_327
PubMedID: 26892220

Title : Challenges and Opportunities with Non-CYP Enzymes Aldehyde Oxidase, Carboxylesterase, and UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase: Focus on Reaction Phenotyping and Prediction of Human Clearance - Argikar_2016_AAPS.J_18_1391
Author(s) : Argikar UA , Potter PM , Hutzler JM , Marathe PH
Ref : AAPS J , 18 :1391 , 2016
Abstract : Over the years, significant progress has been made in reducing metabolic instability due to cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation. High-throughput metabolic stability screening has enabled the advancement of compounds with little to no oxidative metabolism. Furthermore, high lipophilicity and low aqueous solubility of presently pursued chemotypes reduces the probability of renal excretion. As such, these low microsomal turnover compounds are often substrates for non-CYP-mediated metabolism. UGTs, esterases, and aldehyde oxidase are major enzymes involved in catalyzing such metabolism. Hepatocytes provide an excellent tool to identify such pathways including elucidation of major metabolites. To predict human PK parameters for P450-mediated metabolism, in vitro-in vivo extrapolation using hepatic microsomes, hepatocytes, and intestinal microsomes has been actively investigated. However, such methods have not been sufficiently evaluated for non-P450 enzymes. In addition to the involvement of the liver, extrahepatic enzymes (intestine, kidney, lung) are also likely to contribute to these pathways. While there has been considerable progress in predicting metabolic pathways and clearance primarily mediated by the liver, progress in characterizing extrahepatic metabolism and prediction of clearance has been slow. Well-characterized in vitro systems or in vivo animal models to assess drug-drug interaction potential and intersubject variability due to polymorphism are not available. Here we focus on the utility of appropriate in vitro studies to characterize non-CYP-mediated metabolism and to understand the enzymes involved followed by pharmacokinetic studies in the appropriately characterized surrogate species. The review will highlight progress made in establishing in vitro-in vivo correlation, predicting human clearance and avoiding costly clinical failures when non-CYP-mediated metabolic pathways are predominant.
ESTHER : Argikar_2016_AAPS.J_18_1391
PubMedSearch : Argikar_2016_AAPS.J_18_1391
PubMedID: 27495117

Title : Tumour-selective targeting of drug metabolizing enzymes to treat metastatic cancer - Wierdl_2016_Br.J.Pharmacol_173_2811
Author(s) : Wierdl M , Tsurkan L , Hatfield MJ , Potter PM
Ref : British Journal of Pharmacology , 173 :2811 , 2016
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CEs) are ubiquitous enzymes responsible for the detoxification of ester-containing xenobiotics. This hydrolysis reaction results in the formation of the corresponding carboxylic acid and alcohol. Due to their highly plastic active site, CEs can hydrolyze structurally very distinct and complex molecules. Because ester groups significantly increase the water solubility of compounds, they are frequently used in the pharmaceutical industry to make relatively insoluble compounds more bioavailable. By default, this results in CEs playing a major role in the distribution and metabolism of these esterified drugs. However, this can be exploited to selectively improve compound hydrolysis, and using specific in vivo targeting techniques can be employed to generate enhanced drug activity. Here, we seek to detail the human CEs involved in esterified molecule hydrolysis, compare and contrast these with CEs present in small mammals and describe novel methods to improve drug therapy by specific delivery of CEs to cells in vivo. Finally, we will discuss the development of such approaches for their potential application towards malignant disease.
ESTHER : Wierdl_2016_Br.J.Pharmacol_173_2811
PubMedSearch : Wierdl_2016_Br.J.Pharmacol_173_2811
PubMedID: 27423046

Title : Modulation of esterified drug metabolism by tanshinones from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) - Hatfield_2013_J.Nat.Prod_76_36
Author(s) : Hatfield MJ , Tsurkan LG , Hyatt JL , Edwards CC , Lemoff A , Jeffries C , Yan B , Potter PM
Ref : Journal of Natural Products , 76 :36 , 2013
Abstract : The roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza ("Danshen") are used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of numerous ailments including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and ischemic stroke. Extracts of S. miltiorrhiza roots in the formulation "Compound Danshen Dripping Pill" are undergoing clinical trials in the United States. To date, the active components of this material have not been conclusively identified. We have determined that S. miltiorrhiza roots contain potent human carboxylesterase (CE) inhibitors, due to the presence of tanshinones. K(i) values in the nM range were determined for inhibition of both the liver and intestinal CEs. As CEs hydrolyze clinically used drugs, the ability of tanshinones and S. miltiorrhiza root extracts to modulate the metabolism of the anticancer prodrug irinotecan (CPT-11) was assessed. Our results indicate that marked inhibition of human CEs occurs following incubation with both pure compounds and crude material and that drug hydrolysis is significantly reduced. Consequently, a reduction in the cytotoxicity of irinotecan is observed following dosing with either purified tanshinones or S. miltiorrhiza root extracts. It is concluded that remedies containing tanshinones should be avoided when individuals are taking esterified agents and that patients should be warned of the potential drug-drug interaction that may occur with this material.
ESTHER : Hatfield_2013_J.Nat.Prod_76_36
PubMedSearch : Hatfield_2013_J.Nat.Prod_76_36
PubMedID: 23286284

Title : Neural stem cell-mediated delivery of irinotecan-activating carboxylesterases to glioma: implications for clinical use - Metz_2013_Stem.Cells.Transl.Med_2_983
Author(s) : Metz MZ , Gutova M , Lacey SF , Abramyants Y , Vo T , Gilchrist M , Tirughana R , Ghoda LY , Barish ME , Brown CE , Najbauer J , Potter PM , Portnow J , Synold TW , Aboody KS
Ref : Stem Cells Transl Med , 2 :983 , 2013
Abstract : CPT-11 (irinotecan) has been investigated as a treatment for malignant brain tumors. However, limitations of CPT-11 therapy include low levels of the drug entering brain tumor sites and systemic toxicities associated with higher doses. Neural stem cells (NSCs) offer a novel way to overcome these obstacles because of their inherent tumor tropism and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, which enables them to selectively target brain tumor sites. Carboxylesterases (CEs) are enzymes that can convert the prodrug CPT-11 (irinotecan) to its active metabolite SN-38, a potent topoisomerase I inhibitor. We have adenovirally transduced an established clonal human NSC line (HB1.F3.CD) to express a rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE) or a modified human CE (hCE1m6), which are more effective at converting CPT-11 to SN-38 than endogenous human CE. We hypothesized that NSC-mediated CE/CPT-11 therapy would allow tumor-localized production of SN-38 and significantly increase the therapeutic efficacy of irinotecan. Here, we report that transduced NSCs transiently expressed high levels of active CE enzymes, retained their tumor-tropic properties, and mediated an increase in the cytotoxicity of CPT-11 toward glioma cells. CE-expressing NSCs (NSC.CEs), whether administered intracranially or intravenously, delivered CE to orthotopic human glioma xenografts in mice. NSC-delivered CE catalyzed conversion of CPT-11 to SN-38 locally at tumor sites. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of NSC-mediated delivery of CE to glioma and lay the foundation for translational studies of this therapeutic paradigm to improve clinical outcome and quality of life in patients with malignant brain tumors.
ESTHER : Metz_2013_Stem.Cells.Transl.Med_2_983
PubMedSearch : Metz_2013_Stem.Cells.Transl.Med_2_983
PubMedID: 24167321

Title : Inhibition of human carboxylesterases hCE1 and hiCE by cholinesterase inhibitors - Tsurkan_2013_Chem.Biol.Interact_203_226
Author(s) : Tsurkan LG , Hatfield MJ , Edwards CC , Hyatt JL , Potter PM
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 203 :226 , 2013
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CEs) are ubiquitously expressed proteins that are responsible for the detoxification of xenobiotics. They tend to be expressed in tissues likely to be exposed to such agents (e.g., lung and gut epithelia, liver) and can hydrolyze numerous agents, including many clinically used drugs. Due to the considerable structural similarity between cholinesterases (ChE) and CEs, we have assessed the ability of a series of ChE inhibitors to modulate the activity of the human liver (hCE1) and the human intestinal CE (hiCE) isoforms. We observed inhibition of hCE1 and hiCE by carbamate-containing small molecules, including those used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. For example, rivastigmine resulted in greater than 95% inhibition of hiCE that was irreversible under the conditions used. Hence, the administration of esterified drugs, in combination with these carbamates, may inadvertently result in decreased hydrolysis of the former, thereby limiting their efficacy. Therefore drug:drug interactions should be carefully evaluated in individuals receiving ChE inhibitors.
ESTHER : Tsurkan_2013_Chem.Biol.Interact_203_226
PubMedSearch : Tsurkan_2013_Chem.Biol.Interact_203_226
PubMedID: 23123248

Title : Control of RhoA methylation by carboxylesterase I - Cushman_2013_J.Biol.Chem_288_19177
Author(s) : Cushman I , Cushman SM , Potter PM , Casey PJ
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 288 :19177 , 2013
Abstract : A number of proteins that play key roles in cell signaling are post-translationally modified by the prenylation pathway. The final step in this pathway is methylation of the carboxyl terminus of the prenylated protein by isoprenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase. Due to the impact of methylation on Rho function, we sought to determine if the process was reversible and hence could control Rho function in a dynamic fashion. Elevating isoprenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase activity in cells has profound effects on MDA-MB-231 cell morphology, implying the presence of a pool of unmethylated prenyl proteins in these cells under normal conditions. Using a knockdown approach, we identified a specific esterase, carboxylesterase 1, whose function had a clear impact not only on the methylation status of RhoA but also RhoA activation and cell morphology. These data provide compelling evidence that C-terminal modification of prenyl proteins, rather than being purely a constitutive process, can serve as a point of regulation of function for this important class of protein.
ESTHER : Cushman_2013_J.Biol.Chem_288_19177
PubMedSearch : Cushman_2013_J.Biol.Chem_288_19177
PubMedID: 23658012
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1

Title : Inhibition of recombinant human carboxylesterase 1 and 2 and monoacylglycerol lipase by chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon - Crow_2012_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_258_145
Author(s) : Crow JA , Bittles V , Herring KL , Borazjani A , Potter PM , Ross MK
Ref : Toxicol Appl Pharmacol , 258 :145 , 2012
Abstract : Oxons are the bioactivated metabolites of organophosphorus insecticides formed via cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-catalyzed desulfuration of the parent compound. Oxons react covalently with the active site serine residue of serine hydrolases, thereby inactivating the enzyme. A number of serine hydrolases other than acetylcholinesterase, the canonical target of oxons, have been reported to react with and be inhibited by oxons. These off-target serine hydrolases include carboxylesterase 1 (CES1), CES2, and monoacylglycerol lipase. Carboxylesterases (CES, EC metabolize a number of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds containing ester, amide, and thioester bonds and are important in the metabolism of many pharmaceuticals. Monoglyceride lipase (MGL, EC hydrolyzes monoglycerides including the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The physiological consequences and toxicity related to the inhibition of off-target serine hydrolases by oxons due to chronic, low level environmental exposures are poorly understood. Here, we determined the potency of inhibition (IC(50) values; 15 min preincubation, enzyme and inhibitor) of recombinant CES1, CES2, and MGL by chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon. The order of potency for these three oxons with CES1, CES2, and MGL was chlorpyrifos oxon>paraoxon>methyl paraoxon, although the difference in potency for chlorpyrifos oxon with CES1 and CES2 did not reach statistical significance. We also determined the bimolecular rate constants (k(inact)/K(I)) for the covalent reaction of chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon with CES1 and CES2. Consistent with the results for the IC(50) values, the order of reactivity for each of the three oxons with CES1 and CES2 was chlorpyrifos oxon>paraoxon>methyl paraoxon. The bimolecular rate constant for the reaction of chlorpyrifos oxon with MGL was also determined and was less than the values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon with CES1 and CES2 respectively. Together, the results define the kinetics of inhibition of three important hydrolytic enzymes by activated metabolites of widely used agrochemicals.
ESTHER : Crow_2012_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_258_145
PubMedSearch : Crow_2012_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_258_145
PubMedID: 22100607

Title : Covalent inhibition of recombinant human carboxylesterase 1 and 2 and monoacylglycerol lipase by the carbamates JZL184 and URB597 - Crow_2012_Biochem.Pharmacol_84_1215
Author(s) : Crow JA , Bittles V , Borazjani A , Potter PM , Ross MK
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 84 :1215 , 2012
Abstract : Carboxylesterase type 1 (CES1) and CES2 are serine hydrolases located in the liver and small intestine. CES1 and CES2 actively participate in the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals. Recently, carbamate compounds were developed to inhibit members of the serine hydrolase family via covalent modification of the active site serine. URB597 and JZL184 inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively; however, carboxylesterases in liver have been identified as a major off-target. We report the kinetic rate constants for inhibition of human recombinant CES1 and CES2 by URB597 and JZL184. Bimolecular rate constants (k(inact)/K(i)) for inhibition of CES1 by JZL184 and URB597 were similar [3.9 (+/-0.2) x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1) and 4.5 (+/-1.3) x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively]. However, k(inact)/K(i) for inhibition of CES2 by JZL184 and URB597 were significantly different [2.3 (+/-1.3) x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1) and 3.9 (+/-1.0) x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively]. Rates of inhibition of CES1 and CES2 by URB597 were similar; however, CES1 and MAGL were more potently inhibited by JZL184 than CES2. We also determined kinetic constants for spontaneous reactivation of CES1 carbamoylated by either JZL184 or URB597 and CES1 diethylphosphorylated by paraoxon. The reactivation rate was significantly slower (4.5x) for CES1 inhibited by JZL184 than CES1 inhibited by URB597. Half-life of reactivation for CES1 carbamoylated by JZL184 was 49 +/- 15 h, which is faster than carboxylesterase turnover in HepG2 cells. Together, the results define the kinetics of inhibition for a class of drugs that target hydrolytic enzymes involved in drug and lipid metabolism.
ESTHER : Crow_2012_Biochem.Pharmacol_84_1215
PubMedSearch : Crow_2012_Biochem.Pharmacol_84_1215
PubMedID: 22943979

Title : Global and local molecular dynamics of a bacterial carboxylesterase provide insight into its catalytic mechanism - Yu_2012_J.Mol.Model_18_2869
Author(s) : Yu X , Sigler SC , Hossain D , Wierdl M , Gwaltney SR , Potter PM , Wadkins RM
Ref : J Mol Model , 18 :2869 , 2012
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CEs) are ubiquitous enzymes responsible for the detoxification of xenobiotics. In humans, substrates for these enzymes are far-ranging, and include the street drug heroin and the anticancer agent irinotecan. Hence, their ability to bind and metabolize substrates is of broad interest to biomedical science. In this study, we focused our attention on dynamic motions of a CE from B. subtilis (pnbCE), with emphasis on the question of what individual domains of the enzyme might contribute to its catalytic activity. We used a 10 ns all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, normal mode calculations, and enzyme kinetics to understand catalytic consequences of structural changes within this enzyme. Our results shed light on how molecular motions are coupled with catalysis. During molecular dynamics, we observed a distinct C-C bond rotation between two conformations of Glu310. Such a bond rotation would alternately facilitate and impede protonation of the active site His399 and act as a mechanism by which the enzyme alternates between its active and inactive conformation. Our normal mode results demonstrate that the distinct low-frequency motions of two loops in pnbCE, coil_5 and coil_21, are important in substrate conversion and seal the active site. Mutant CEs lacking these external loops show significantly reduced rates of substrate conversion, suggesting this sealing motion prevents escape of substrate. Overall, the results of our studies give new insight into the structure-function relationship of CEs and have implications for the entire family of alpha/beta fold family of hydrolases, of which this CE is a member.
ESTHER : Yu_2012_J.Mol.Model_18_2869
PubMedSearch : Yu_2012_J.Mol.Model_18_2869
PubMedID: 22127613

Title : Requirements for mammalian carboxylesterase inhibition by substituted ethane-1,2-diones - Parkinson_2011_Bioorg.Med.Chem_19_4635
Author(s) : Parkinson EI , Hatfield MJ , Tsurkan L , Hyatt JL , Edwards CC , Hicks LD , Yan B , Potter PM
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 19 :4635 , 2011
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CE) are ubiquitous enzymes found in both human and animal tissues and are responsible for the metabolism of xenobiotics. This includes numerous natural products, as well as a many clinically used drugs. Hence, the activity of these agents is likely dependent upon the levels and location of CE expression. We have recently identified benzil is a potent inhibitor of mammalian CEs, and in this study, we have assessed the ability of analogues of this compound to inhibit these enzymes. Three different classes of molecules were assayed: one containing different atoms vicinal to the carbonyl carbon atom and the benzene ring [PhXC(O)C(O)XPh, where X=CH(2), CHBr, N, S, or O]; a second containing a panel of alkyl 1,2-diones demonstrating increasing alkyl chain length; and a third consisting of a series of 1-phenyl-2-alkyl-1,2-diones. In general, with the former series of molecules, heteroatoms resulted in either loss of inhibitory potency (when X=N), or conversion of the compounds into substrates for the enzymes (when X=S or O). However, the inclusion of a brominated methylene atom resulted in potent CE inhibition. Subsequent analysis with the alkyl diones [RC(O)C(O)R, where R ranged from CH(3) to C(8)H(1)(7)] and 1-phenyl-2-alkyl-1,2-diones [PhC(O)C(O)R where R ranged from CH(3) to C(6)H(1)(3)], demonstrated that the potency of enzyme inhibition directly correlated with the hydrophobicity (clogP) of the molecules. We conclude from these studies that that the inhibitory power of these 1,2-dione derivatives depends primarily upon the hydrophobicity of the R group, but also on the electrophilicity of the carbonyl group.
ESTHER : Parkinson_2011_Bioorg.Med.Chem_19_4635
PubMedSearch : Parkinson_2011_Bioorg.Med.Chem_19_4635
PubMedID: 21733699

Title : Organ-specific carboxylesterase profiling identifies the small intestine and kidney as major contributors of activation of the anticancer prodrug CPT-11 - Hatfield_2011_Biochem.Pharmacol_81_24
Author(s) : Hatfield MJ , Tsurkan L , Garrett M , Shaver TM , Hyatt JL , Edwards CC , Hicks LD , Potter PM
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 81 :24 , 2011
Abstract : The activation of the anticancer prodrug CPT-11, to its active metabolite SN-38, is primarily mediated by carboxylesterases (CE). In humans, three CEs have been identified, of which human liver CE (hCE1; CES1) and human intestinal CE (hiCE; CES2) demonstrate significant ability to hydrolyze the drug. However, while the kinetic parameters of CPT-11 hydrolysis have been measured, the actual contribution of each enzyme to activate the drug in biological samples has not been addressed. Hence, we have used a combination of specific CE inhibition and conventional chromatographic techniques to determine the amounts, and hydrolytic activity, of CEs present within human liver, kidney, intestinal and lung specimens. These studies confirm that hiCE demonstrates the most efficient kinetic parameters for CPT-11 activation, however, due to the high levels of hCE1 that are expressed in liver, the latter enzyme can contribute up to 50% of the total of drug hydrolysis in this tissue. Conversely, in human duodenum, jejunum, ileum and kidney, where hCE1 expression is very low, greater than 99% of the conversion of CPT-11 to SN-38 was mediated by hiCE. Furthermore, analysis of lung microsomal extracts indicated that CPT-11 activation was more proficient in samples obtained from smokers. Overall, our studies demonstrate that hCE1 plays a significant role in CPT-11 hydrolysis even though it is up to 100-fold less efficient at drug activation than hiCE, and that drug activation in the intestine and kidney are likely major contributors to SN-38 production in vivo.
ESTHER : Hatfield_2011_Biochem.Pharmacol_81_24
PubMedSearch : Hatfield_2011_Biochem.Pharmacol_81_24
PubMedID: 20833148

Title : Carboxylesterase inhibitors - Hatfield_2011_Expert.Opin.Ther.Pat_21_1159
Author(s) : Hatfield MJ , Potter PM
Ref : Expert Opin Ther Pat , 21 :1159 , 2011
Abstract : INTRODUCTION: Carboxylesterases play major roles in the hydrolysis of numerous therapeutically active compounds. This is, in part, due to the prevalence of the ester moiety in these small molecules. However, the impact these enzymes may play on drug stability and pharmacokinetics is rarely considered prior to molecule development. Therefore, the application of selective inhibitors of this class of proteins may have utility in modulating the metabolism, distribution and toxicity of agents that are subjected to enzyme hydrolysis. AREAS COVERED: This review details the development of all such compounds dating back to 1986, but principally focuses on the very recent identification of selective human carboxylesterases inhibitors. EXPERT OPINION: The implementation of carboxylesterase inhibitors may significantly revolutionize drug discovery. Such molecules may allow for improved efficacy of compounds inactivated by this class of enzymes and/or reduce the toxicity of agents that are activated by these proteins. Furthermore, since lack of carboxylesterase activity appears to have no obvious biological consequence, these compounds could be applied in combination with virtually any esterified drug. Therefore, inhibitors of these proteins may have utility in altering drug hydrolysis and distribution in vivo. The characteristics, chemical and biological properties and potential uses of such agents are discussed here.
ESTHER : Hatfield_2011_Expert.Opin.Ther.Pat_21_1159
PubMedSearch : Hatfield_2011_Expert.Opin.Ther.Pat_21_1159
PubMedID: 21609191

Title : Nerve agent hydrolysis activity designed into a human drug metabolism enzyme - Hemmert_2011_PLoS.One_6_e17441
Author(s) : Hemmert AC , Otto TC , Chica RA , Wierdl M , Edwards JS , Lewis SM , Edwards CC , Tsurkan L , Cadieux CL , Kasten SA , Cashman JR , Mayo SL , Potter PM , Cerasoli DM , Redinbo MR
Ref : PLoS ONE , 6 :e17441 , 2011
Abstract : Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents are potent suicide inhibitors of the essential neurotransmitter-regulating enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Due to their acute toxicity, there is significant interest in developing effective countermeasures to OP poisoning. Here we impart nerve agent hydrolysis activity into the human drug metabolism enzyme carboxylesterase 1. Using crystal structures of the target enzyme in complex with nerve agent as a guide, a pair of histidine and glutamic acid residues were designed proximal to the enzyme's native catalytic triad. The resultant variant protein demonstrated significantly increased rates of reactivation following exposure to sarin, soman, and cyclosarin. Importantly, the addition of these residues did not alter the high affinity binding of nerve agents to this protein. Thus, using two amino acid substitutions, a novel enzyme was created that efficiently converted a group of hemisubstrates, compounds that can start but not complete a reaction cycle, into bona fide substrates. Such approaches may lead to novel countermeasures for nerve agent poisoning.
ESTHER : Hemmert_2011_PLoS.One_6_e17441
PubMedSearch : Hemmert_2011_PLoS.One_6_e17441
PubMedID: 21445272
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1

Title : Immobilization of active human carboxylesterase 1 in biomimetic silica nanoparticles - Edwards_2011_Biotechnol.Prog_27_863
Author(s) : Edwards JS , Kumbhar A , Roberts A , Hemmert AC , Edwards CC , Potter PM , Redinbo MR
Ref : Biotechnol Prog , 27 :863 , 2011
Abstract : The encapsulation of proteins in biomimetic silica has recently been shown to successfully maintain enzymes in their active state. Organophosphate (OP) compounds are used as pesticides as well as potent chemical warfare nerve agents. Because these toxicants are life threatening, we sought to generate biomimetic silicas capable of responding to OPs. Here, we present the silica encapsulation of human drug metabolism enzyme carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) in the presence of a range of catalysts. hCE1 was successfully encapsulated into silica particles when lysozyme or the peptide R5 were used as catalysts; in contrast, polyethyleneimine, a catalyst used to encapuslate other enzymes, did not facilitate hCE1 entrapment. hCE1 silica particles in a column chromatography format respond to the presence of the OP pesticides paraoxon and dimethyl-p-nitrophenyl phosphate in solution. These results may lead to novel approaches to detect OP pesticides or other weaponized agents that bind hCE1.
ESTHER : Edwards_2011_Biotechnol.Prog_27_863
PubMedSearch : Edwards_2011_Biotechnol.Prog_27_863
PubMedID: 21509954

Title : Mouse serum paraoxonase-1 lactonase activity is specific for medium-chain length fatty acid lactones - Connelly_2011_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1811_39
Author(s) : Connelly PW , Picardo CM , Potter PM , Teiber JF , Maguire GF , Ng DS
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta , 1811 :39 , 2011
Abstract : Recent studies suggest that paraoxonase-1 (PON1), complexed with high-density lipoproteins, is the major lactonase in the circulation. Using 5-hydroxy eicosatetraenoate delta-lactone (5-HETEL) as the substrate, we observed lactonase activity in serum from Pon1-/- mice. However, 6-12 carbon fatty acid gamma- and delta-lactones were not hydrolyzed in serum from Pon1-/- mice. Serum from both wild-type and Pon1-/- mice contained a lactonase activity towards 5-HETEL and 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone that was resistant to inactivation by EDTA. This lactonase activity was sensitive to the serine esterase inhibitor phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride and co-eluted with carboxylesterase activity by size-exclusion chromatography. Analysis of serum from the Es1e mouse strain, which has a deficiency in the carboxylesterase, ES-1, proved that this activity was due to ES-1. PON1 activity predominated at early time points (30 s), whereas both PON1 and ES-1 contributed equally at later time points (15 min). When both PON1 and ES-1 were inhibited, 5-HETEL was stable in mouse serum. Thus, while long-chain fatty acid lactones are substrates for PON1, they can be hydrolyzed by ES-1 at neutral pH. In contrast, medium-chain length fatty acid lactones are stable in mouse serum in the absence of PON1, suggesting that PON1 plays a specific role in the metabolism of these compounds.
ESTHER : Connelly_2011_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1811_39
PubMedSearch : Connelly_2011_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1811_39
PubMedID: 21044894

Title : Structure-activity relationships of substituted 1-pyridyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethanediones: potent, selective carboxylesterase inhibitors - Young_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_8709
Author(s) : Young BM , Hyatt JL , Bouck DC , Chen T , Hanumesh P , Price J , Boyd VA , Potter PM , Webb TR
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 53 :8709 , 2010
Abstract : Inhibition of intestinal carboxylesterases may allow modification of the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamic profile of existing drugs by altering half-life or toxicity. Since previously identified diarylethane-1,2-dione inhibitors are decidedly hydrophobic, a modified dione scaffold was designed and elaborated into a >300 member library, which was subsequently screened to establish the SAR for esterase inhibition. This allowed the identification of single digit nanomolar hiCE inhibitors that showed improvement in selectivity and measured solubility.
ESTHER : Young_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_8709
PubMedSearch : Young_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_8709
PubMedID: 21105730

Title : Inhibition of carboxylesterase activity of THP1 monocytes\/macrophages and recombinant human carboxylesterase 1 by oxysterols and fatty acids - Crow_2010_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1801_31
Author(s) : Crow JA , Herring KL , Xie S , Borazjani A , Potter PM , Ross MK
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta , 1801 :31 , 2010
Abstract : Two major isoforms of human carboxylesterases (CEs) are found in metabolically active tissues, CES1 and CES2. These hydrolytic enzymes are involved in xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. CES1 is abundantly expressed in human liver and monocytes/macrophages, including the THP1 cell line; CES2 is expressed in liver but not in monocytes/macrophages. The cholesteryl ester hydrolysis activity in human macrophages has been attributed to CES1. Here, we report the direct inhibitory effects of several endogenous oxysterols and fatty acids on the CE activity of THP1 monocytes/macrophages and recombinant human CES1 and CES2. Using THP1 whole-cell lysates we found: (1) 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-HC) is a potent inhibitor of carboxylesterase activity (IC50=33 nM); (2) 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol had moderate inhibitory activity (IC(50)=8.1 microM); and (3) cholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol each had little inhibitory activity. 27-HC was a partially noncompetitive inhibitor of recombinant CES1 (K(iapp)=10 nM) and impaired intracellular CES1 activity following treatment of intact THP1 cells. In contrast, recombinant CES2 activity was not inhibited by 27-HC, suggesting isoform-selective inhibition by 27-HC. Furthermore, unsaturated fatty acids were better inhibitors of CES1 activity than saturated fatty acids, while CES2 activity was unaffected by any fatty acid. Arachidonic acid (AA) was the most potent fatty acid inhibitor of recombinant CES1 and acted by a noncompetitive mechanism (K(iapp)=1.7 microM); when not complexed to albumin, exogenous AA penetrated intact THP1 cells and inhibited CES1. Inhibition results are discussed in light of recent structural models for CES1 that describe ligand binding sites separate from the active site. In addition, oxysterol-mediated inhibition of CES1 activity was demonstrated by pretreatment of human liver homogenates or intact THP1 cells with exogenous 27-HC, which resulted in significantly reduced hydrolysis of the pyrethroid insecticide bioresmethrin, a CES1-specific xenobiotic substrate. Collectively, these findings suggest that CE activity of recombinant CES1, cell lysates, and intact cells can be impaired by naturally occurring lipids, which may compromise the ability of CES1 to both detoxify environmental pollutants and metabolize endogenous compounds in vivo.
ESTHER : Crow_2010_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1801_31
PubMedSearch : Crow_2010_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1801_31
PubMedID: 19761868

Title : Recommended nomenclature for five mammalian carboxylesterase gene families: human, mouse, and rat genes and proteins - Holmes_2010_Mamm.Genome_21_427
Author(s) : Holmes RS , Wright MW , Laulederkind SJ , Cox LA , Hosokawa M , Imai T , Ishibashi S , Lehner R , Miyazaki M , Perkins EJ , Potter PM , Redinbo MR , Robert J , Satoh T , Yamashita T , Yan B , Yokoi T , Zechner R , Maltais LJ
Ref : Mamm Genome , 21 :427 , 2010
Abstract : Mammalian carboxylesterase (CES or Ces) genes encode enzymes that participate in xenobiotic, drug, and lipid metabolism in the body and are members of at least five gene families. Tandem duplications have added more genes for some families, particularly for mouse and rat genomes, which has caused confusion in naming rodent Ces genes. This article describes a new nomenclature system for human, mouse, and rat carboxylesterase genes that identifies homolog gene families and allocates a unique name for each gene. The guidelines of human, mouse, and rat gene nomenclature committees were followed and "CES" (human) and "Ces" (mouse and rat) root symbols were used followed by the family number (e.g., human CES1). Where multiple genes were identified for a family or where a clash occurred with an existing gene name, a letter was added (e.g., human CES4A; mouse and rat Ces1a) that reflected gene relatedness among rodent species (e.g., mouse and rat Ces1a). Pseudogenes were named by adding "P" and a number to the human gene name (e.g., human CES1P1) or by using a new letter followed by ps for mouse and rat Ces pseudogenes (e.g., Ces2d-ps). Gene transcript isoforms were named by adding the GenBank accession ID to the gene symbol (e.g., human CES1_AB119995 or mouse Ces1e_BC019208). This nomenclature improves our understanding of human, mouse, and rat CES/Ces gene families and facilitates research into the structure, function, and evolution of these gene families. It also serves as a model for naming CES genes from other mammalian species.
ESTHER : Holmes_2010_Mamm.Genome_21_427
PubMedSearch : Holmes_2010_Mamm.Genome_21_427
PubMedID: 20931200
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1 , human-CES2 , human-CES3 , human-CES4A , human-CES5A

Title : Biochemical and molecular analysis of carboxylesterase-mediated hydrolysis of cocaine and heroin - Hatfield_2010_Br.J.Pharmacol_160_1916
Author(s) : Hatfield MJ , Tsurkan LG , Hyatt JL , Yu X , Edwards CC , Hicks LD , Wadkins RM , Potter PM
Ref : British Journal of Pharmacology , 160 :1916 , 2010
Abstract : BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Carboxylesterases (CEs) metabolize a wide range of xenobiotic substrates including heroin, cocaine, meperidine and the anticancer agent CPT-11. In this study, we have purified to homogeneity human liver and intestinal CEs and compared their ability with hydrolyse heroin, cocaine and CPT-11. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The hydrolysis of heroin and cocaine by recombinant human CEs was evaluated and the kinetic parameters determined. In addition, microsomal samples prepared from these tissues were subjected to chromatographic separation, and substrate hydrolysis and amounts of different CEs were determined. KEY RESULTS: In contrast to previous reports, cocaine was not hydrolysed by the human liver CE, hCE1 (CES1), either as highly active recombinant protein or as CEs isolated from human liver or intestinal extracts. These results correlated well with computer-assisted molecular modelling studies that suggested that hydrolysis of cocaine by hCE1 (CES1), would be unlikely to occur. However, cocaine, heroin and CPT-11 were all substrates for the intestinal CE, hiCE (CES2), as determined using both the recombinant protein and the tissue fractions. Again, these data were in agreement with the modelling results. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results indicate that the human liver CE is unlikely to play a role in the metabolism of cocaine and that hydrolysis of this substrate by this class of enzymes is via the human intestinal protein hiCE (CES2). In addition, because no enzyme inhibition is observed at high cocaine concentrations, potentially this route of hydrolysis is important in individuals who overdose on this agent.
ESTHER : Hatfield_2010_Br.J.Pharmacol_160_1916
PubMedSearch : Hatfield_2010_Br.J.Pharmacol_160_1916
PubMedID: 20649590
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1

Title : In silico design and evaluation of carboxylesterase inhibitors - Stoddard_2010_J.Pestic.Sci_35_240
Author(s) : Stoddard SV , Yu X , Potter PM , Wadkins RM
Ref : Journal of Pesticide Science , 35 :240 , 2010
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CEs) are important enzymes that catalyze biological detoxification, hydrolysis of certain pesticides, and metabolism of many esterified drugs. The development of inhibitors for CE has many potential uses, including increasing drug lifetime and altering biodistrubution; reducing or abrogating toxicity of metabolized drugs; and reducing pest resistance to insecticides. In this review, we discuss the major classes of known mammalian CE inhibitors and describe our computational efforts to design new scaffolds for development of novel, selective inhibitors. We discuss several strategies for in silico inhibitor development, including structure docking, database searching, multidimensional quantitative structure-activity analysis (QSAR), and a newly-used approach that uses QSAR combined with de novo drug design. While our research is focused on design of specific inhibitors for human intestinal carboxylesterase (hiCE), the methods described are generally applicable to inhibitors of other enzymes, including CE from other tissues and organisms.
ESTHER : Stoddard_2010_J.Pestic.Sci_35_240
PubMedSearch : Stoddard_2010_J.Pestic.Sci_35_240

Title : Inactivation of lipid glyceryl ester metabolism in human THP1 monocytes\/macrophages by activated organophosphorus insecticides: role of carboxylesterases 1 and 2 - Xie_2010_Chem.Res.Toxicol_23_1890
Author(s) : Xie S , Borazjani A , Hatfield MJ , Edwards CC , Potter PM , Ross MK
Ref : Chemical Research in Toxicology , 23 :1890 , 2010
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CES) have important roles in pesticide and drug metabolism and contribute to the clearance of ester-containing xenobiotics in mammals. Tissues with the highest levels of CES expression are the liver and small intestine. In addition to xenobiotics, CES also harness their broad substrate specificity to hydrolyze endobiotics, such as cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols. Here, we determined if two human CES isoforms, CES1 and CES2, hydrolyze the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) and anandamide (AEA), and two prostaglandin glyceryl esters (PG-Gs), which are formed by COX-mediated oxygenation of 2AG. We show that recombinant CES1 and CES2 efficiently hydrolyze 2AG to arachidonic acid (AA) but not amide-containing AEA. Steady-state kinetic parameters for CES1- and CES2-mediated 2AG hydrolysis were, respectively, kcat, 59 and 43 min(-1); Km, 49 and 46 muM; and kcat/Km, 1.2 and 0.93 muM(-1) min(-1). kcat/Km values are comparable to published values for rat monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)-catalyzed 2AG hydrolysis. Furthermore, we show that CES1 and CES2 also efficiently hydrolyze PGE2-G and PGF2alpha-G. In addition, when cultured human THP1 macrophages were treated with exogenous 2AG or PG-G (10 muM, 1 h), significant quantities of AA or PGs were detected in the culture medium; however, the ability of macrophages to metabolize these compounds was inhibited (60-80%) following treatment with paraoxon, the toxic metabolite of the insecticide parathion. Incubation of THP1 cell lysates with small-molecule inhibitors targeting CES1 (thieno[3,2-e][1]benzothiophene-4,5-dione or JZL184) significantly reduced lipid glyceryl ester hydrolase activities (40-50% for 2AG and 80-95% for PG-Gs). Immunodepletion of CES1 also markedly reduced 2AG and PG-G hydrolase activities. These results suggested that CES1 is in part responsible for the hydrolysis of 2AG and PG-Gs in THP1 cells, although it did not rule out a role for other hydrolases, especially with regard to 2AG metabolism since a substantial portion of its hydrolysis was not inactivated by the inhibitors. An enzyme (Mr 31-32 kDa) of unknown function was detected by serine hydrolase activity profiling of THP1 cells and may be a candidate. Finally, the amounts of in situ generated 2AG and PG-Gs in macrophages were enhanced by treating the cells with bioactive metabolites of OP insecticides. Collectively, the results suggest that in addition to MAGL and fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which have both been documented to terminate endocannabinoid signaling, CES may also have a role. Furthermore, since PG-Gs have been shown to possess biological activities in their own right, CES may represent an important enzyme class that regulates their in vivo levels.
ESTHER : Xie_2010_Chem.Res.Toxicol_23_1890
PubMedSearch : Xie_2010_Chem.Res.Toxicol_23_1890
PubMedID: 21049984

Title : Human carboxylesterase 1 stereoselectively binds the nerve agent cyclosarin and spontaneously hydrolyzes the nerve agent sarin - Hemmert_2010_Mol.Pharmacol_77_508
Author(s) : Hemmert AC , Otto TC , Wierdl M , Edwards CC , Fleming CD , MacDonald M , Cashman JR , Potter PM , Cerasoli DM , Redinbo MR
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 77 :508 , 2010
Abstract : Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents are potent toxins that inhibit cholinesterases and produce a rapid and lethal cholinergic crisis. Development of protein-based therapeutics is being pursued with the goal of preventing nerve agent toxicity and protecting against the long-term side effects of these agents. The drug-metabolizing enzyme human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a candidate protein-based therapeutic because of its similarity in structure and function to the cholinesterase targets of nerve agent poisoning. However, the ability of wild-type hCE1 to process the G-type nerve agents sarin and cyclosarin has not been determined. We report the crystal structure of hCE1 in complex with the nerve agent cyclosarin. We further use stereoselective nerve agent analogs to establish that hCE1 exhibits a 1700- and 2900-fold preference for the P(R) enantiomers of analogs of soman and cyclosarin, respectively, and a 5-fold preference for the P(S) isomer of a sarin analog. Finally, we show that for enzyme inhibited by racemic mixtures of bona fide nerve agents, hCE1 spontaneously reactivates in the presence of sarin but not soman or cyclosarin. The addition of the neutral oxime 2,3-butanedione monoxime increases the rate of reactivation of hCE1 from sarin inhibition by more than 60-fold but has no effect on reactivation with the other agents examined. Taken together, these data demonstrate that hCE1 is only reactivated after inhibition with the more toxic P(S) isomer of sarin. These results provide important insights toward the long-term goal of designing novel forms of hCE1 to act as protein-based therapeutics for nerve agent detoxification.
ESTHER : Hemmert_2010_Mol.Pharmacol_77_508
PubMedSearch : Hemmert_2010_Mol.Pharmacol_77_508
PubMedID: 20051531
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1

Title : Therapeutic targeting of melanoma cells using neural stem cells expressing carboxylesterase, a CPT-11 activating enzyme - Gutova_2010_Curr.Stem.Cell.Res.Ther_5_273
Author(s) : Gutova M , Najbauer J , Chen MY , Potter PM , Kim SU , Aboody KS
Ref : Curr Stem Cell Res Ther , 5 :273 , 2010
Abstract : Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been investigated in preclinical models as delivery vehicles for therapeutic genes for treatment of tumors in the central nervous system and other organs. Melanoma at early stages is effectively treated with surgery and radiotherapy, however metastatic disease is almost universally fatal, thus novel therapeutic approaches are needed. We studied the use of HB1.F3.CD therapeutic NSCs, a well-characterized clonal cell line derived from human fetal telencephalon, for their potential of secreting prodrug-activating enzyme. HB1.F3.CD cells were transduced by adenovirus encoding rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE), which converts CPT-11 into SN-38, a potent topoisomerase 1 inhibitor. In vitro cell migration assays revealed robust migration of NSCs to conditioned media from melanoma cells. Cytokine profiles showed that IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and TIMP-2, known chemoattractants for stem cells, were highly expressed by melanoma cells. Exposure of melanoma cells to conditioned media from the HB1.F3.CD.rCE cells in the presence of CPT-11 increased the tumor cell-killing effect by approximately 100-fold when compared to CPT-11 alone. Our data demonstrate the rational for NSC-based enzyme/prodrug therapeutic approach to target metastatic melanoma. Future experiments will evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of NSC-mediated melanoma therapy in animal models, which will provide the basis for targeted therapy in patients with advanced melanoma.
ESTHER : Gutova_2010_Curr.Stem.Cell.Res.Ther_5_273
PubMedSearch : Gutova_2010_Curr.Stem.Cell.Res.Ther_5_273
PubMedID: 19951251

Title : Nanoparticles containing anti-inflammatory agents as chemotherapy adjuvants II: role of plasma esterases in drug release -
Author(s) : Lu X , Howard MD , Talbert DR , Rinehart JJ , Potter PM , Jay M , Leggas M
Ref : AAPS J , 11 :120 , 2009
PubMedID: 19225893

Title : Comparison of benzil and trifluoromethyl ketone (TFK)-mediated carboxylesterase inhibition using classical and 3D-quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis - Harada_2009_Bioorg.Med.Chem_17_149
Author(s) : Harada T , Nakagawa Y , Wadkins RM , Potter PM , Wheelock CE
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 17 :149 , 2009
Abstract : Carboxylesterases are enzymes that hydrolyze a broad suite of endogenous and exogenous ester-containing compounds to the corresponding alcohol and carboxylic acid. These enzymes metabolize a number of therapeutics including the anti-tumor agent CPT-11, the anti-viral drug oseltamivir, and the anti-thrombogenic agent clopidogrel as well as many agrochemicals. In addition, carboxylesterases are involved in lipid homeostasis, including cholesterol metabolism and transport with a proposed role in the development of atherosclerosis. Several different scaffolds capable of inhibiting carboxylesterases have been reported, including organophosphates, carbamates, trifluoromethyl ketone-containing structures (TFKs), and aromatic ethane-1,2-diones. Of these varied groups, only the 1,2-diones evidence carboxylesterase isoform-selectivity, which is an important characteristic for therapeutic application and probing biological mechanisms. This study constructed a series of classical and 3D-QSAR models to examine the physiochemical parameters involved in the observed selectivity of three mammalian carboxylesterases: human intestinal carboxylesterase (hiCE), human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1), and rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE). CoMFA-based models for the benzil-analogs described 88%, 95% and 76% of observed activity for hiCE, hCE1 and rCE, respectively. For TFK-containing compounds, two distinct models were constructed using either the ketone or gem-diol form of the inhibitor. For all three enzymes, the CoMFA ketone models comprised more biological activity than the corresponding gem-diol models; however the differences were small with described activity for all models ranging from 85-98%. A comprehensive model incorporating both benzil and TFK structures described 92%, 85% and 87% of observed activity for hiCE, hCE1 and rCE, respectively. Both classical and 3D-QSAR analysis showed that the observed isoform-selectivity with the benzil-analogs could be described by the volume parameter. This finding was successfully applied to examine substrate selectivity, demonstrating that the relative volumes of the alcohol and acid moieties of ester-containing substrates were predictive for whether hydrolysis was preferred by hiCE or hCE1. Based upon the integrated benzil and TFK model, the next generation inhibitors should combine the A-ring and the 1,2-dione of the benzil inhibitor with the long alkyl chain of the TFK-inhibitor in order to optimize selectivity and potency. These new inhibitors could be useful for elucidating the role of carboxylesterase activity in fatty acid homeostasis and the development of atherosclerosis as well as effecting the controlled activation of carboxylesterase-based prodrugs in situ.
ESTHER : Harada_2009_Bioorg.Med.Chem_17_149
PubMedSearch : Harada_2009_Bioorg.Med.Chem_17_149
PubMedID: 19062296

Title : Improved, selective, human intestinal carboxylesterase inhibitors designed to modulate 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin (Irinotecan\; CPT-11) toxicity - Hicks_2009_J.Med.Chem_52_3742
Author(s) : Hicks LD , Hyatt JL , Stoddard S , Tsurkan L , Edwards CC , Wadkins RM , Potter PM
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 52 :3742 , 2009
Abstract : CPT-11 is an antitumor prodrug that is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterases (CE) to yield SN-38, a potent topoisomerase I poison. However, the dose limiting toxicity delays diarrhea that is thought to arise, in part, from activation of the prodrug by a human intestinal CE (hiCE). Therefore, we have sought to identify selective inhibitors of hiCE that may have utility in modulating drug toxicity. We have evaluated one such class of molecules (benzene sulfonamides) and developed QSAR models for inhibition of this protein. Using these predictive models, we have synthesized a panel of fluorene analogues that are selective for hiCE, demonstrating no cross reactivity to the human liver CE, hCE1, or toward human cholinesterases, and have K(i) values as low as 14 nM. These compounds prevented hiCE-mediated hydrolysis of the drug and the potency of enzyme inhibition correlated with the clogP of the molecules. These studies will allow the development and application of hiCE-specific inhibitors designed to selectively modulate drug hydrolysis in vivo.
ESTHER : Hicks_2009_J.Med.Chem_52_3742
PubMedSearch : Hicks_2009_J.Med.Chem_52_3742
PubMedID: 19534556

Title : Evaluation of the 'side door' in carboxylesterase-mediated catalysis and inhibition - Streit_2008_Biol.Chem_389_149
Author(s) : Streit TM , Borazjani A , Lentz SE , Wierdl M , Potter PM , Gwaltney SR , Ross MK
Ref : Biol Chem , 389 :149 , 2008
Abstract : Abstract Structures of mammalian carboxylesterases (CEs) reveal the presence of a 'side door' that is proposed to act as an alternative pore for the trafficking of substrates and products. p-Nitrobenzyl esterase (pnb CE) from Bacillus subtilis exhibits close structural homology and a similar side-door domain as mammalian CEs. We investigated the role of a specific 'gate' residue at the side door (i.e., Leu 362) during pnb CE-catalyzed hydrolysis of model esters, pesticides, and lipids. Recombinant pnb CE proteins containing mutations at position 362 demonstrated markedly lower kcat and kcat/Km values. The mutation with the most significant impact on catalysis was the L362R mutant (kcat/Km was 22-fold lower). Moreover, the ability of the L362R mutant to be inhibited by organophosphates (OP) was also lower. Investigation into the altered catalytic proficiency using pH-activity studies indicated that the catalytic triad of the mutant enzyme was preserved. Furthermore, viscosity variation and carbamate inhibition experiments indicated that rates of substrate association and acylation/deacylation were lower. Finally, recombinant CEs were found to possess lipolytic activity toward cholesteryl oleate and 2-arachidonylglycerol. In summary, the L362R mutant CE markedly slowed the rate of ester hydrolysis and was less sensitive to OP inhibition. The apparent causes of the diminished catalysis are discussed.
ESTHER : Streit_2008_Biol.Chem_389_149
PubMedSearch : Streit_2008_Biol.Chem_389_149
PubMedID: 18163883

Title : Inhibition of carboxylesterase 1 is associated with cholesteryl ester retention in human THP-1 monocyte\/macrophages - Crow_2008_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1781_643
Author(s) : Crow JA , Middleton BL , Borazjani A , Hatfield MJ , Potter PM , Ross MK
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta , 1781 :643 , 2008
Abstract : Cholesteryl esters are hydrolyzed by cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) yielding free cholesterol for export from macrophages. Hence, CEH has an important regulatory role in macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). CEH and human carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) appear to be the same enzyme. CES1 is inhibited by oxons, the bioactive metabolites of organophosphate (OP) pesticides. Here, we show that CES1 protein is robustly expressed in human THP-1 monocytes/macrophages and its biochemical activity inhibited following treatment of cell lysates and intact cells with chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon, or methyl paraoxon (with nanomolar IC(50) values) or after immunodepletion of CES1 protein. CES1 protein expression in cells is unaffected by a 24-h paraoxon treatment, suggesting that the reduced hydrolytic activity is due to covalent inhibition of CES1 by oxons and not down-regulation of expression. Most significantly, treatment of cholesterol-loaded macrophages with either paraoxon (a non-specific CES inhibitor) or benzil (a specific CES inhibitor) caused enhanced retention of intracellular cholesteryl esters and a "foamy" phenotype, consistent with reduced cholesteryl ester mobilization. Thus, exposure to OP pesticides, which results in the inhibition of CES1, may also inhibit macrophage RCT, an important process in the regression of atherosclerosis.
ESTHER : Crow_2008_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1781_643
PubMedSearch : Crow_2008_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1781_643
PubMedID: 18762277
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1

Title : Modifications of human carboxylesterase for improved prodrug activation - Hatfield_2008_Expert.Opin.Drug.Metab.Toxicol_4_1153
Author(s) : Hatfield JM , Wierdl M , Wadkins RM , Potter PM
Ref : Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol , 4 :1153 , 2008
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Carboxylesterases (CEs) are ubiquitous enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of numerous clinically useful drugs. As ester moieties are frequently included in molecules to improve their water solubility and bioavailability, de facto they become substrates for CEs. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we describe the properties of human CEs with regard to their ability to activate anticancer prodrugs and demonstrate how structure-based design can be used to modulate substrate specificity and to increase efficiency of hydrolysis.
METHODS: A specific example using CPT-11 and a human liver CE is discussed. However, these techniques can be applied to other enzymes and their associated prodrugs.
RESULTS: Structure-guided mutagenesis of CEs can be employed to alter substrate specificity and generate novel enzymes that are efficacious at anticancer prodrug activation.
ESTHER : Hatfield_2008_Expert.Opin.Drug.Metab.Toxicol_4_1153
PubMedSearch : Hatfield_2008_Expert.Opin.Drug.Metab.Toxicol_4_1153
PubMedID: 18721110

Title : An improved human carboxylesterase for enzyme\/prodrug therapy with CPT-11 - Wierdl_2008_Cancer.Gene.Ther_15_183
Author(s) : Wierdl M , Tsurkan L , Hyatt JL , Edwards CC , Hatfield MJ , Morton CL , Houghton PJ , Danks MK , Redinbo MR , Potter PM
Ref : Cancer Gene Therapy , 15 :183 , 2008
Abstract : CPT-11 is a potent antitumor agent that is activated by carboxylesterases (CE) and intracellular expression of CEs that can activate the drug results in increased cytotoxicity to the drug. As activation of CPT-11 (irinotecan-7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin) by human CEs is relatively inefficient, we have developed enzyme/prodrug therapy approaches based on the CE/CPT-11 combination using a rabbit liver CE (rCE). However, the in vivo application of this technology may be hampered by the development of an immune response to rCE. Therefore, we have developed a mutant human CE (hCE1m6), based on the human liver CE hCE1, that can activate CPT-11 approximately 70-fold more efficiently than the wild-type protein and can be expressed at high levels in mammalian cells. Indeed, adenoviral-mediated delivery of hCE1m6 with human tumor cells resulted in up to a 670-fold reduction in the IC(50) value for CPT-11, as compared to cells transduced with vector control virus. Furthermore, xenograft studies with human tumors expressing hCE1m6 confirm the ability of this enzyme to activate CPT-11 in vivo and induce antitumor activity. We propose that this enzyme should likely be less immunogenic than rCE and would be suitable for the in vivo application of CE/CPT-11 enzyme/prodrug therapy.
ESTHER : Wierdl_2008_Cancer.Gene.Ther_15_183
PubMedSearch : Wierdl_2008_Cancer.Gene.Ther_15_183
PubMedID: 18188187

Title : Identification of human intestinal carboxylesterase as the primary enzyme for activation of a doxazolidine carbamate prodrug - Barthel_2008_J.Med.Chem_51_298
Author(s) : Barthel BL , Torres RC , Hyatt JL , Edwards CC , Hatfield MJ , Potter PM , Koch TH
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 51 :298 , 2008
Abstract : Doxazolidine (Doxaz), a formaldehyde-doxorubicin (Dox) conjugate, exhibits markedly increased tumor toxicity with respect to Dox without a concurrent increase in toxicity to cardiomyocytes. Pentyl PABC-Doxaz (PPD) is a Doxaz carbamate prodrug that is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterases. Here, we identify human intestinal carboxylesterase (hiCE) as the agent of activation for PPD. Upon prodrug treatment, cells that express higher levels of hiCE responded with lower IC50 values for growth inhibition. Exposing MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, which respond poorly and express little hiCE, to PPD together with hiCE resulted in a dramatic decrease in the IC50, a decrease that was absent when human carboxylesterase 1 was added to prodrug treatment. Finally, U373MG glioblastoma cells overexpressing hiCE displayed approximately 100-fold reduction in the IC50 for PPD compared to cells lacking the carboxylesterase. Overall, our studies indicate that PPD is selectively hydrolyzed to the active metabolite by hiCE.
ESTHER : Barthel_2008_J.Med.Chem_51_298
PubMedSearch : Barthel_2008_J.Med.Chem_51_298
PubMedID: 18173233

Title : Planarity and constraint of the carbonyl groups in 1,2-diones are determinants for selective inhibition of human carboxylesterase 1 - Hyatt_2007_J.Med.Chem_50_5727
Author(s) : Hyatt JL , Wadkins RM , Tsurkan L , Hicks LD , Hatfield MJ , Edwards CC , Ross CR, 2nd , Cantalupo SA , Crundwell G , Danks MK , Guy RK , Potter PM
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 50 :5727 , 2007
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CE) are ubiquitous enzymes responsible for the detoxification of xenobiotics, including numerous clinically used drugs. Therefore, the selective inhibition of these proteins may prove useful in modulating drug half-life and bioavailability. Recently, we identified 1,2-diones as potent inhibitors of CEs, although little selectivity was observed in the inhibition of either human liver CE (hCE1) or human intestinal CE (hiCE). In this paper, we have further examined the inhibitory properties of ethane-1,2-diones toward these proteins and determined that, when the carbonyl oxygen atoms are cis-coplanar, the compounds demonstrate specificity for hCE1. Conversely, when the dione oxygen atoms are not planar (or are trans-coplanar), the compounds are more potent at hiCE inhibition. These properties have been validated in over 40 1,2-diones that demonstrate inhibitory activity toward at least one of these enzymes. Statistical analysis of the results confirms the correlation (P < 0.001) between the dione dihedral angle and the preferential inhibition of either hiCE or hCE1. Overall, the results presented here define the parameters necessary for small molecule inhibition of human CEs.
ESTHER : Hyatt_2007_J.Med.Chem_50_5727
PubMedSearch : Hyatt_2007_J.Med.Chem_50_5727
PubMedID: 17941623

Title : Crystal structures of human carboxylesterase 1 in covalent complexes with the chemical warfare agents soman and tabun - Fleming_2007_Biochemistry_46_5063
Author(s) : Fleming CD , Edwards CC , Kirby SD , Maxwell DM , Potter PM , Cerasoli DM , Redinbo MR
Ref : Biochemistry , 46 :5063 , 2007
Abstract : The organophosphorus nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX exert their toxic effects by inhibiting the action of human acetylcholinesterase, a member of the serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes. The current treatments for nerve agent exposure must be administered quickly to be effective, and they often do not eliminate long-term toxic side effects associated with organophosphate poisoning. Thus, there is significant need for effective prophylactic methods to protect at-risk personnel from nerve agent exposure, and protein-based approaches have emerged as promising candidates. We present the 2.7 A resolution crystal structures of the serine hydrolase human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1), a broad-spectrum drug metabolism enzyme, in covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate complexes with the chemical weapons soman and tabun. The structures reveal that hCE1 binds stereoselectively to these nerve agents; for example, hCE1 appears to react preferentially with the 10(4)-fold more lethal PS stereoisomer of soman relative to the PR form. In addition, structural features of the hCE1 active site indicate that the enzyme may be resistant to dead-end organophosphate aging reactions that permanently inactivate other serine hydrolases. Taken together, these data provide important structural details toward the goal of engineering hCE1 into an organophosphate hydrolase and protein-based therapeutic for nerve agent exposure.
ESTHER : Fleming_2007_Biochemistry_46_5063
PubMedSearch : Fleming_2007_Biochemistry_46_5063
PubMedID: 17407327
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1

Title : Analysis of mammalian carboxylesterase inhibition by trifluoromethylketone-containing compounds - Wadkins_2007_Mol.Pharmacol_71_713
Author(s) : Wadkins RM , Hyatt JL , Edwards CC , Tsurkan L , Redinbo MR , Wheelock CE , Jones PD , Hammock BD , Potter PM
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 71 :713 , 2007
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CE) are ubiquitous enzymes that hydrolyze numerous ester-containing xenobiotics, including complex molecules, such as the anticancer drugs irinotecan (CPT-11) and capecitabine and the pyrethroid insecticides. Because of the role of CEs in the metabolism of many exogenous and endogenous ester-containing compounds, a number of studies have examined the inhibition of this class of enzymes. Trifluoromethylketone-containing (TFK) compounds have been identified as potent CE inhibitors. In this article, we present inhibition constants for 21 compounds, including a series of sulfanyl, sulfinyl, and sulfonyl TFKs with three mammalian CEs, as well as human acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase. To examine the nature of the slow tight-binding inhibitor/enzyme interaction, assays were performed using either a 5-min or a 24-h preincubation period. Results showed that the length of the preincubation interval significantly affects the inhibition constants on a structurally dependent basis. The TFK-containing compounds were generally potent inhibitors of mammalian CEs, with Ki values as low as 0.3 nM observed. In most cases, thioether-containing compounds were more potent inhibitors then their sulfinyl or sulfonyl analogs. QSAR analyses demonstrated excellent observed versus predicted values correlations (r2 ranging from 0.908-0.948), with cross-correlation coefficients (q2) of approximately 0.9. In addition, pseudoreceptor models for the TKF analogs were very similar to structures and models previously obtained using benzil- or sulfonamide-based CE inhibitors. These studies indicate that more potent, selective CE inhibitors, containing long alkyl or aromatic groups attached to the thioether chemotype in TFKs, can be developed for use in in vivo enzyme inhibition.
ESTHER : Wadkins_2007_Mol.Pharmacol_71_713
PubMedSearch : Wadkins_2007_Mol.Pharmacol_71_713
PubMedID: 17167034

Title : Hydrolysis of pyrethroids by human and rat tissues: examination of intestinal, liver and serum carboxylesterases - Crow_2007_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_221_1
Author(s) : Crow JA , Borazjani A , Potter PM , Ross MK
Ref : Toxicol Appl Pharmacol , 221 :1 , 2007
Abstract : Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroid insecticides in humans is one of the major catabolic pathways that clear these compounds from the body. Rodent models are often used to determine the disposition and clearance rates of these esterified compounds. In this study the distribution and activities of esterases that catalyze pyrethroid metabolism have been investigated in vitro using several human and rat tissues, including small intestine, liver and serum. The major esterase in human intestine is carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2). We found that the pyrethroid trans-permethrin is effectively hydrolyzed by a sample of pooled human intestinal microsomes (5 individuals), while deltamethrin and bioresmethrin are not. This result correlates well with the substrate specificity of recombinant hCE2 enzyme. In contrast, a sample of pooled rat intestinal microsomes (5 animals) hydrolyze trans-permethrin 4.5-fold slower than the sample of human intestinal microsomes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that pooled samples of cytosol from human or rat liver are approximately 2-fold less hydrolytically active (normalized per mg protein) than the corresponding microsomal fraction toward pyrethroid substrates; however, the cytosolic fractions do have significant amounts (approximately 40%) of the total esteratic activity. Moreover, a 6-fold interindividual variation in carboxylesterase 1 protein expression in human hepatic cytosols was observed. Human serum was shown to lack pyrethroid hydrolytic activity, but rat serum has hydrolytic activity that is attributed to a single CE isozyme. We purified the serum CE enzyme to homogeneity to determine its contribution to pyrethroid metabolism in the rat. Both trans-permethrin and bioresmethrin were effectively cleaved by this serum CE, but deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin and cis-permethrin were slowly hydrolyzed. Lastly, two model lipase enzymes were examined for their ability to hydrolyze pyrethroids. However, no hydrolysis products could be detected. Together, these results demonstrate that extrahepatic esterolytic metabolism of specific pyrethroids may be significant. Moreover, hepatic cytosolic and microsomal hydrolytic metabolism should each be considered during the development of pharmacokinetic models that predict the disposition of pyrethroids and other esterified compounds.
ESTHER : Crow_2007_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_221_1
PubMedSearch : Crow_2007_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_221_1
PubMedID: 17442360

Title : Tumor-targeted enzyme\/prodrug therapy mediates long-term disease-free survival of mice bearing disseminated neuroblastoma - Danks_2007_Cancer.Res_67_22
Author(s) : Danks MK , Yoon KJ , Bush RA , Remack JS , Wierdl M , Tsurkan L , Kim SU , Garcia E , Metz MZ , Najbauer J , Potter PM , Aboody KS
Ref : Cancer Research , 67 :22 , 2007
Abstract : Neural stem cells and progenitor cells migrate selectively to tumor loci in vivo. We exploited the tumor-tropic properties of HB1.F3.C1 cells, an immortalized cell line derived from human fetal telencephalon, to deliver the cDNA encoding a secreted form of rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE) to disseminated neuroblastoma tumors in mice. This enzyme activates the prodrug CPT-11 more efficiently than do human enzymes. Mice bearing multiple tumors were treated with rCE-expressing HB1.F3.C1 cells and schedules of administration of CPT-11 that produced levels of active drug (SN-38) tolerated by patients. Both HB1.F3.C1 cells and CPT-11 were given i.v. None of the untreated mice and 30% of mice that received only CPT-11 survived long term. In contrast, 90% of mice treated with rCE-expressing HB1.F3.C1 cells and 15 mg/kg CPT-11 survived for 1 year without detectable tumors. Plasma carboxylesterase activity and SN-38 levels in mice receiving both rCE-expressing HB1.F3.C1 cells (HB1.F3.C1/AdCMVrCE) and CPT-11 were comparable with those in mice receiving CPT-11 only. These data support the hypothesis that the antitumor effect of the described neural stem/progenitor cell-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (NDEPT) is mediated by production of high concentrations of active drug selectively at tumor sites, thereby maximizing the antitumor effect of CPT-11. NDEPT approaches merit further investigation as effective, targeted therapy for metastatic tumors. We propose that the described approach may have greatest use for eradicating minimum residual disease.
ESTHER : Danks_2007_Cancer.Res_67_22
PubMedSearch : Danks_2007_Cancer.Res_67_22
PubMedID: 17210679

Title : Analysis of the inhibition of mammalian carboxylesterases by novel fluorobenzoins and fluorobenzils - Hicks_2007_Bioorg.Med.Chem_15_3801
Author(s) : Hicks LD , Hyatt JL , Moak T , Edwards CC , Tsurkan L , Wierdl M , Ferreira AM , Wadkins RM , Potter PM
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 15 :3801 , 2007
Abstract : We have synthesized and assessed the ability of symmetrical fluorobenzoins and fluorobenzils to inhibit mammalian carboxylesterases (CE). The majority of the latter were excellent inhibitors of CEs however unexpectedly, the fluorobenzoins were very good enzyme inhibitors. Positive correlations were seen with the charge on the hydroxyl carbon atom, the carbonyl oxygen, and the Hammett constants for the derived K(i) values with the fluorobenzoins.
ESTHER : Hicks_2007_Bioorg.Med.Chem_15_3801
PubMedSearch : Hicks_2007_Bioorg.Med.Chem_15_3801
PubMedID: 17399985

Title : Selective inhibition of carboxylesterases by isatins, indole-2,3-diones - Hyatt_2007_J.Med.Chem_50_1876
Author(s) : Hyatt JL , Moak T , Hatfield MJ , Tsurkan L , Edwards CC , Wierdl M , Danks MK , Wadkins RM , Potter PM
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 50 :1876 , 2007
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CE) are ubiquitous enzymes thought to be responsible for the metabolism and detoxification of xenobiotics. Numerous clinically used drugs including Demerol, lidocaine, capecitabine, and CPT-11 are hydrolyzed by these enzymes. Hence, the identification and application of selective CE inhibitors may prove useful in modulating the metabolism of esterified drugs in vivo. Having recently identified benzil (diphenylethane-1,2-dione) as a potent selective inhibitor of CEs, we sought to evaluate the inhibitory activity of related 1,2-diones toward these enzymes. Biochemical assays and kinetic studies demonstrated that isatins (indole-2,3-diones), containing hydrophobic groups attached at a variety of positions within these molecules, could act as potent, specific CE inhibitors. Interestingly, the inhibitory potency of the isatin compounds was related to their hydrophobicity, such that compounds with clogP values of <1.25 were ineffective at enzyme inhibition. Conversely, analogs demonstrating clogP values>5 routinely yielded Ki values in the nM range. Furthermore, excellent 3D QSAR correlates were obtained for two human CEs, hCE1 and hiCE. While the isatin analogues were generally less effective at CE inhibition than the benzils, the former may represent valid lead compounds for the development of inhibitors for use in modulating drug metabolism in vivo.
ESTHER : Hyatt_2007_J.Med.Chem_50_1876
PubMedSearch : Hyatt_2007_J.Med.Chem_50_1876
PubMedID: 17378546

Title : Multisite promiscuity in the processing of endogenous substrates by human carboxylesterase 1 - Bencharit_2006_J.Mol.Biol_363_201
Author(s) : Bencharit S , Edwards CC , Morton CL , Howard-Williams EL , Kuhn P , Potter PM , Redinbo MR
Ref : Journal of Molecular Biology , 363 :201 , 2006
Abstract : Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a drug and endobiotic-processing serine hydrolase that exhibits relatively broad substrate specificity. It has been implicated in a variety of endogenous cholesterol metabolism pathways including the following apparently disparate reactions: cholesterol ester hydrolysis (CEH), fatty acyl Coenzyme A hydrolysis (FACoAH), acyl-Coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransfer (ACAT), and fatty acyl ethyl ester synthesis (FAEES). The structural basis for the ability of hCE1 to perform these catalytic actions involving large substrates and products has remained unclear. Here we present four crystal structures of the hCE1 glycoprotein in complexes with the following endogenous substrates or substrate analogues: Coenzyme A, the fatty acid palmitate, and the bile acids cholate and taurocholate. While the active site of hCE1 was known to be promiscuous and capable of interacting with a variety of chemically distinct ligands, these structures reveal that the enzyme contains two additional ligand-binding sites and that each site also exhibits relatively non-specific ligand-binding properties. Using this multisite promiscuity, hCE1 appears structurally capable of assembling several catalytic events depending, apparently, on the physiological state of the cellular environment. These results expand our understanding of enzyme promiscuity and indicate that, in the case of hCE1, multiple non-specific sites are employed to perform distinct catalytic actions.
ESTHER : Bencharit_2006_J.Mol.Biol_363_201
PubMedSearch : Bencharit_2006_J.Mol.Biol_363_201
PubMedID: 16962139
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1

Title : Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroids by human and other mammalian carboxylesterases - Ross_2006_Biochem.Pharmacol_71_657
Author(s) : Ross MK , Borazjani A , Edwards CC , Potter PM
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 71 :657 , 2006
Abstract : Pyrethroid chemicals are attractive alternatives to the organophosphates (OPs) because of their selective toxicity against pests rather than mammals. The carboxylesterases (CEs) are hepatic enzymes that metabolize ester-containing xenobiotics such as pyrethroids. The primary aim of this study was to gain insight into the catalytic properties of the CE enzymes in humans that metabolize pyrethroids, while a secondary aim was to investigate pyrethroid metabolism using CEs from other mammalian species. Pure human CEs (hCE-1 and hCE-2), a rabbit CE (rCE), and two rat CEs (Hydrolases A and B) were used to study the hydrolytic metabolism of the following pyrethroids: 1Rtrans-resmethrin (bioresmethrin), 1RStrans-permethrin, and 1RScis-permethrin. hCE-1 and hCE-2 hydrolyzed trans-permethrin 8- and 28-fold more efficiently than cis-permethrin (when k(cat)/K(m) values were compared), respectively. In contrast, hydrolysis of bioresmethrin was catalyzed efficiently by hCE-1, but not by hCE-2. The kinetic parameters for the pure rat and rabbit CEs were qualitatively similar to the human CEs when hydrolysis rates of the investigated pyrethroids were evaluated. Further, a comparison of pyrethroid hydrolysis by hepatic microsomes from rats, mice, and humans indicated that the rates for each compound were similar between species, which further supports the use of rodent models for pyrethroid metabolism studies. An eight-fold range in hydrolytic rates for 11 individual human liver samples toward trans-permethrin was also found, although this variability was not related to the levels of hCE-1 protein in each sample. We also determined that the CE inhibitor 2-chloro-3,4-dimethoxybenzil blocked hCE-2-catalyzed trans-permethrin hydrolysis 36 times more potently than hCE-1. Thus, this inhibitor will be useful in future studies that examine CE-mediated metabolism of pyrethroids. While there are likely other esterases in human liver that hydrolyze pyrethroids, the results of this study clearly demonstrate that hCE-1 and hCE-2 are human pyrethroid-hydrolyzing CEs.
ESTHER : Ross_2006_Biochem.Pharmacol_71_657
PubMedSearch : Ross_2006_Biochem.Pharmacol_71_657
PubMedID: 16387282

Title : Intracellular inhibition of carboxylesterases by benzil: modulation of CPT-11 cytotoxicity - Hyatt_2006_Mol.Cancer.Ther_5_2281
Author(s) : Hyatt JL , Tsurkan L , Wierdl M , Edwards CC , Danks MK , Potter PM
Ref : Mol Cancer Ther , 5 :2281 , 2006
Abstract : Carboxylesterases are ubiquitous proteins responsible for the detoxification of xenobiotics. However, these enzymes also activate prodrugs, such as the anticancer agents capecitabine and CPT-11. As a consequence, overexpression of carboxylesterases within tumor cells sensitizes these cells to CPT-11. We have recently identified two classes of carboxylesterase inhibitors based on either a benzil (diphenylethane-1,2-dione) or a benzene sulfonamide scaffold and showed that these compounds inhibit carboxylesterases with Kis in the low nanomolar range. Because both classes of inhibitors show reversible enzyme inhibition, conventional in vitro biochemical assays would not accurately reflect the in situ levels of carboxylesterase activity or inhibition. Therefore, we have developed a novel assay for the determination of intracellular carboxylesterase activity using 4-methylumbelliferone as a substrate. These studies show that benzil and a dimethylbenzil analogue efficiently enter cells and inhibit human intestinal carboxylesterase and rabbit liver carboxylesterase intracellularly. This inhibition results in reduced cytotoxicity to CPT-11 due to the lack of carboxylesterase-mediated conversion of the prodrug to SN-38. These results suggest that intracellular modulation of carboxylesterase activity with benzil or its analogues may be applied to minimize the toxicity of normal cells to CPT-11.
ESTHER : Hyatt_2006_Mol.Cancer.Ther_5_2281
PubMedSearch : Hyatt_2006_Mol.Cancer.Ther_5_2281
PubMedID: 16985062

Title : Carboxylesterases--detoxifying enzymes and targets for drug therapy - Potter_2006_Curr.Med.Chem_13_1045
Author(s) : Potter PM , Wadkins RM
Ref : Curr Med Chem , 13 :1045 , 2006
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CE) are ubiquitous enzymes responsible for the detoxification of xenobiotics. Many therapeutically useful drugs are metabolized by these proteins which impacts upon the efficiency of drug treatment. In some instances, CEs convert inactive prodrugs to active metabolites, a process that is essential for biological activity. Such compounds include the anticancer agents CPT-11 (3) and capecitabine (4), the antibiotics Ceftin (9) and Vantin, as well as the illicit street drug heroin (6). However, more commonly, CEs hydrolyze many esterified drugs to inactive products that are then excreted. Agents such as flestolol (11), meperidine (5), lidocaine (8) and cocaine (7), are all hydrolyzed and inactivated by these enzymes. Therefore the efficacy of esterified drugs will be dependent upon the distribution and catalytic activity of different CEs. In this review, we examine the structural aspects of CEs and their roles in drug detoxification and propose that modulation of CE activity may allow for improvements in, and potentiation of, drug efficacy.
ESTHER : Potter_2006_Curr.Med.Chem_13_1045
PubMedSearch : Potter_2006_Curr.Med.Chem_13_1045
PubMedID: 16611083

Title : Development of an etoposide prodrug for dual prodrug-enzyme antitumor therapy - Yoon_2006_Mol.Cancer.Ther_5_1577
Author(s) : Yoon KJ , Qi J , Remack JS , Virga KG , Hatfield MJ , Potter PM , Lee RE , Danks MK
Ref : Mol Cancer Ther , 5 :1577 , 2006
Abstract : Enzyme-prodrug approaches to cancer therapy, theoretically, have the potential to mediate tumor-selective cytotoxicity. However, even if tumor-specific prodrug activation is achieved, enzyme-prodrug systems investigated thus far comprised a single enzyme and a specific prodrug. Although targeted, such systems constitute single-agent therapy, which may be ineffective and/or may promote development of drug resistance. Therefore, a goal of our laboratories was to design and characterize a novel dipiperidinyl derivative of etoposide [1,4'-dipiperidine-1'-carboxylate-etoposide (dp-VP16)] that would act as a prodrug. We envisioned that dp-VP16 would be converted to the active chemotherapeutic agent VP-16 by the same rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE) that we have previously shown to efficiently activate the prodrug irinotecan (CPT-11). This dp-VP16 prodrug might then be used in combination with CPT-11, with both drugs activated by a single enzyme. We evaluated the ability of pure rCE and two human carboxylesterases, hCE1 and hiCE (hCE2), to activate dp-VP16 in vitro, and in neuroblastoma cell lines designed to express/overexpress each enzyme. In SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cell transfectants, expression of rCE or hiCE decreased the IC50 of dp-VP16 as a single agent by 8.3- and 3.4-fold, respectively, in growth inhibition assays. Purified hCE1 did not metabolize dp-VP16 in vitro and did not affect its IC50 in intact cells. The combination indices of sequential exposure to CPT-11 followed by dp-VP16 ranged from approximately 0.4 to 0.6, suggesting that this combination produced greater-than-additive cytotoxicity in neuroblastoma cells expressing rCE. These data provide proof-of-principle that enzyme-prodrug therapy approaches comprised of prodrugs with complementary mechanisms of cytotoxicity that are activated by a single enzyme can be developed.
ESTHER : Yoon_2006_Mol.Cancer.Ther_5_1577
PubMedSearch : Yoon_2006_Mol.Cancer.Ther_5_1577
PubMedID: 16818517

Title : Species differences in the in vitro metabolism of deltamethrin and esfenvalerate: differential oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism by humans and rats - Godin_2006_Drug.Metab.Dispos_34_1764
Author(s) : Godin SJ , Scollon EJ , Hughes MF , Potter PM , DeVito MJ , Ross MK
Ref : Drug Metabolism & Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals , 34 :1764 , 2006
Abstract : Pyrethroids are neurotoxic pesticides whose pharmacokinetic behavior plays a role in their potency. This study examined the elimination of esfenvalerate and deltamethrin from rat and human liver microsomes. A parent depletion approach in the presence and absence of NADPH was used to assess species differences in biotransformation pathways, rates of elimination, and intrinsic hepatic clearance. Esfenvalerate was eliminated primarily via NADPH-dependent oxidative metabolism in both rat and human liver microsomes. The intrinsic hepatic clearance (CL(INT)) of esfenvalerate was estimated to be 3-fold greater in rodents than in humans on a per kilogram body weight basis. Deltamethrin was also eliminated primarily via NADPH-dependent oxidative metabolism in rat liver microsomes; however, in human liver microsomes, deltamethrin was eliminated almost entirely via NADPH-independent hydrolytic metabolism. The CL(INT) for deltamethrin was estimated to be 2-fold more rapid in humans than in rats on a per kilogram body weight basis. Metabolism by purified rat and human carboxylesterases (CEs) were used to further examine the species differences in hydrolysis of deltamethrin and esfenvalerate. Results of CE metabolism revealed that human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE-1) was markedly more active toward deltamethrin than the class 1 rat CEs hydrolase A and B and the class 2 human CE (hCE-2); however, hydrolase A metabolized esfenvalerate 2-fold faster than hCE-1, whereas hydrolase B and hCE-1 hydrolyzed esfenvalerate at equal rates. These studies demonstrate a significant species difference in the in vitro pathways of biotransformation of deltamethrin in rat and human liver microsomes, which is due in part to differences in the intrinsic activities of rat and human carboxylestersases.
ESTHER : Godin_2006_Drug.Metab.Dispos_34_1764
PubMedSearch : Godin_2006_Drug.Metab.Dispos_34_1764
PubMedID: 16855054

Title : Development of a tumor-selective approach to treat metastatic cancer - Aboody_2006_PLoS.One_1_e23
Author(s) : Aboody KS , Bush RA , Garcia E , Metz MZ , Najbauer J , Justus KA , Phelps DA , Remack JS , Yoon KJ , Gillespie S , Kim SU , Glackin CA , Potter PM , Danks MK
Ref : PLoS ONE , 1 :e23 , 2006
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Patients diagnosed with metastatic cancer have almost uniformly poor prognoses. The treatments available for patients with disseminated disease are usually not curative and have side effects that limit the therapy that can be given. A treatment that is selectively toxic to tumors would maximize the beneficial effects of therapy and minimize side effects, potentially enabling effective treatment to be administered. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We postulated that the tumor-tropic property of stem cells or progenitor cells could be exploited to selectively deliver a therapeutic gene to metastatic solid tumors, and that expression of an appropriate transgene at tumor loci might mediate cures of metastatic disease. To test this hypothesis, we injected HB1.F3.C1 cells transduced to express an enzyme that efficiently activates the anti-cancer prodrug CPT-11 intravenously into mice bearing disseminated neuroblastoma tumors. The HB1.F3.C1 cells migrated selectively to tumor sites regardless of the size or anatomical location of the tumors. Mice were then treated systemically with CPT-11, and the efficacy of treatment was monitored. Mice treated with the combination of HB1.F3.C1 cells expressing the CPT-11-activating enzyme and this prodrug produced tumor-free survival of 100% of the mice for >6 months (P<0.001 compared to control groups). CONCLUSIONS: The novel and significant finding of this study is that it may be possible to exploit the tumor-tropic property of stem or progenitor cells to mediate effective, tumor-selective therapy for metastatic tumors, for which no tolerated curative treatments are currently available.
ESTHER : Aboody_2006_PLoS.One_1_e23
PubMedSearch : Aboody_2006_PLoS.One_1_e23
PubMedID: 17183650

Title : Structural insights into drug processing by human carboxylesterase 1: tamoxifen, mevastatin, and inhibition by benzil - Fleming_2005_J.Mol.Biol_352_165
Author(s) : Fleming CD , Bencharit S , Edwards CC , Hyatt JL , Tsurkan L , Bai F , Fraga C , Morton CL , Howard-Williams EL , Potter PM , Redinbo MR
Ref : Journal of Molecular Biology , 352 :165 , 2005
Abstract : Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) exhibits broad substrate specificity and is involved in xenobiotic processing and endobiotic metabolism. We present and analyze crystal structures of hCE1 in complexes with the cholesterol-lowering drug mevastatin, the breast cancer drug tamoxifen, the fatty acyl ethyl ester (FAEE) analogue ethyl acetate, and the novel hCE1 inhibitor benzil. We find that mevastatin does not appear to be a substrate for hCE1, and instead acts as a partially non-competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. Similarly, we show that tamoxifen is a low micromolar, partially non-competitive inhibitor of hCE1. Further, we describe the structural basis for the inhibition of hCE1 by the nanomolar-affinity dione benzil, which acts by forming both covalent and non-covalent complexes with the enzyme. Our results provide detailed insights into the catalytic and non-catalytic processing of small molecules by hCE1, and suggest that the efficacy of clinical drugs may be modulated by targeted hCE1 inhibitors.
ESTHER : Fleming_2005_J.Mol.Biol_352_165
PubMedSearch : Fleming_2005_J.Mol.Biol_352_165
PubMedID: 16081098
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1

Title : Mammalian carboxylesterases: from drug targets to protein therapeutics - Redinbo_2005_Drug.Discov.Today_10_313
Author(s) : Redinbo MR , Potter PM
Ref : Drug Discov Today , 10 :313 , 2005
Abstract : Our understanding of the detailed recognition and processing of clinically useful therapeutic agents has grown rapidly in recent years, and we are now able to begin to apply this knowledge to the rational treatment of disease. Mammalian carboxylesterases (CEs) are enzymes with broad substrate specificities that have key roles in the metabolism of a wide variety of clinical drugs, illicit narcotics and chemical nerve agents. Here, the functions, mechanism of action and structures of human CEs are reviewed, with the goal of understanding how these proteins are able to act in such a non-specific fashion, yet catalyze a remarkably specific chemical reaction. Current approaches to harness these enzymes as protein-based therapeutics for drug and chemical toxin clearance are described, as well as their uses for targeted chemotherapeutic prodrug activation. Also included is an outline of how selective CE inhibitors could be used as co-drugs to improve the efficacy of clinically approved agents.
ESTHER : Redinbo_2005_Drug.Discov.Today_10_313
PubMedSearch : Redinbo_2005_Drug.Discov.Today_10_313
PubMedID: 15749280

Title : Inhibition of carboxylesterases by benzil (diphenylethane-1,2-dione) and heterocyclic analogues is dependent upon the aromaticity of the ring and the flexibility of the dione moiety - Hyatt_2005_J.Med.Chem_48_5543
Author(s) : Hyatt JL , Stacy V , Wadkins RM , Yoon KJ , Wierdl M , Edwards CC , Zeller M , Hunter AD , Danks MK , Crundwell G , Potter PM
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 48 :5543 , 2005
Abstract : Benzil has been identified as a potent selective inhibitor of carboxylesterases (CEs). Essential components of the molecule required for inhibitory activity include the dione moiety and the benzene rings, and substitution within the rings affords increased selectivity toward CEs from different species. Replacement of the benzene rings with heterocyclic substituents increased the K(i) values for the compounds toward three mammalian CEs when using o-nitrophenyl acetate as a substrate. Logarithmic plots of the K(i) values versus the empirical resonance energy, the heat of union of formation energy, or the aromatic stabilization energy determined from molecular orbital calculations for the ring structures yielded linear relationships that allowed prediction of the efficacy of the diones toward CE inhibition. Using these data, we predicted that 2,2'-naphthil would be an excellent inhibitor of mammalian CEs. This was demonstrated to be correct with a K(i) value of 1 nM being observed for a rabbit liver CE. In addition, molecular simulations of the movement of the ring structures around the dione dihedral indicated that the ability of the compounds to inhibit CEs was due, in part, to rotational constraints enforced by the dione moiety. Overall, these studies identify subdomains within the aromatic ethane-1,2-diones, that are responsible for CE inhibition.
ESTHER : Hyatt_2005_J.Med.Chem_48_5543
PubMedSearch : Hyatt_2005_J.Med.Chem_48_5543
PubMedID: 16107154

Title : The 3D structure of the anticancer prodrug CPT-11 with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase rationalizes its inhibitory action on AChE and its hydrolysis by butyrylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase - Harel_2005_Chem.Biol.Interact_157-158_153
Author(s) : Harel M , Hyatt JL , Brumshtein B , Morton CL , Wadkins RM , Silman I , Sussman JL , Potter PM
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 157-158 :153 , 2005
Abstract : The anticancer prodrug CPT-11 is a highly effective camptothecin analog that has been approved for the treatment of colon cancer. The 2.6 angstroms resolution crystal structure of its complex with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (TcAChE) demonstrates that CPT-11 binds to TcAChE and spans its gorge similarly to the Alzheimer drug, Aricept. The crystal structure clearly reveals the interactions, which contribute to the inhibitory action of CPT-11. Modeling of the complexes of CPT-11 with mammalian butyrylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase, both of which are known to hydrolyze the drug, shows how binding to either of the two enzymes yields a productive substrate-enzyme complex.
ESTHER : Harel_2005_Chem.Biol.Interact_157-158_153
PubMedSearch : Harel_2005_Chem.Biol.Interact_157-158_153
PubMedID: 16289500
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : The crystal structure of the complex of the anticancer prodrug 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11) with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase provides a molecular explanation for its cholinergic action - Harel_2005_Mol.Pharmacol_67_1874
Author(s) : Harel M , Hyatt JL , Brumshtein B , Morton CL , Yoon KJ , Wadkins RM , Silman I , Sussman JL , Potter PM
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 67 :1874 , 2005
Abstract : The anticancer prodrug 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino-]carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11) is a highly effective camptothecin analog that has been approved for the treatment of colon cancer. It is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterases to yield 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), a potent topoisomerase I poison. However, upon high-dose intravenous administration of CPT-11, a cholinergic syndrome is observed that can be ameliorated by atropine. Previous studies have indicated that CPT-11 can inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and here, we provide a detailed analysis of the inhibition of AChE by CPT-11 and by structural analogs. These studies demonstrate that the terminal dipiperidino moiety in CPT-11 plays a major role in enzyme inhibition, and this has been confirmed by X-ray crystallographic studies of a complex of the drug with Torpedo californica AChE. Our results indicate that CPT-11 binds within the active site gorge of the protein in a fashion similar to that observed with the Alzheimer drug donepezil. The 3D structure of the CPT-11/AChE complex also permits modeling of CPT-11 complexed with mammalian butyrylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase, both of which are known to hydrolyze the drug to the active metabolite. Overall, the results presented here clarify the mechanism of AChE inhibition by CPT-11 and detail the interaction of the drug with the protein. These studies may allow the design of both novel camptothecin analogs that would not inhibit AChE and new AChE inhibitors derived from the camptothecin scaffold.
ESTHER : Harel_2005_Mol.Pharmacol_67_1874
PubMedSearch : Harel_2005_Mol.Pharmacol_67_1874
PubMedID: 15772291
Gene_locus related to this paper: torca-ACHE

Title : Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by the anticancer prodrug CPT-11 - Hyatt_2005_Chem.Biol.Interact_157-158_247
Author(s) : Hyatt JL , Tsurkan L , Morton CL , Yoon KJ , Harel M , Brumshtein B , Silman I , Sussman JL , Wadkins RM , Potter PM
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 157-158 :247 , 2005
Abstract : CPT-11 (irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin) is an anticancer prodrug that has been approved for the treatment of colon cancer. It is a member of the camptothecin class of drugs and activation to the active metabolite SN-38, is mediated by carboxylesterases (CE). SN-38 is a potent topoisomerase I poison and is highly effective at killing human tumor cells, with IC50 values in the low nM range. However, upon high dose administration of CPT-11 to cancer patients, a cholinergic syndrome is observed, that can be rapidly ameliorated by atropine. This suggests a direct interaction of the drug or its metabolites with acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Kinetic studies indicated that CPT-11 was primarily responsible for AChE inhibition with the 4-piperidinopiperidine moiety, the major determinant in the loss of enzyme activity. Structural analogs of 4-piperidinopiperidine however, did not inhibit AChE, including a benzyl piperazine derivate of CPT-11. These results suggest that novel anticancer drugs could be synthesized that do not inhibit AChE, or alternatively, that novel AChE inhibitors could be designed based around the camptothecin scaffold.
ESTHER : Hyatt_2005_Chem.Biol.Interact_157-158_247
PubMedSearch : Hyatt_2005_Chem.Biol.Interact_157-158_247
PubMedID: 16257398

Title : Identification and characterization of novel benzil (diphenylethane-1,2-dione) analogues as inhibitors of mammalian carboxylesterases - Wadkins_2005_J.Med.Chem_48_2906
Author(s) : Wadkins RM , Hyatt JL , Wei X , Yoon KJ , Wierdl M , Edwards CC , Morton CL , Obenauer JC , Damodaran K , Beroza P , Danks MK , Potter PM
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 48 :2906 , 2005
Abstract : Carboxylesterases (CE) are ubiquitous enzymes responsible for the metabolism of xenobiotics. Because the structural and amino acid homology among esterases of different classes, the identification of selective inhibitors of these proteins has proved problematic. Using Telik's target-related affinity profiling (TRAP) technology, we have identified a class of compounds based on benzil (1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-dione) that are potent CE inhibitors, with K(i) values in the low nanomolar range. Benzil and 30 analogues demonstrated selective inhibition of CEs, with no inhibitory activity toward human acetylcholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase. Analysis of structurally related compounds indicated that the ethane-1,2-dione moiety was essential for enzyme inhibition and that potency was dependent on the presence of, and substitution within, the benzene ring. 3D-QSAR analyses of these benzil analogues for three different mammalian CEs demonstrated excellent correlations of observed versus predicted K(i) (r(2) > 0.91), with cross-validation coefficients (q(2)) of 0.9. Overall, these results suggest that selective inhibitors of CEs with potential for use in clinical applications can be designed.
ESTHER : Wadkins_2005_J.Med.Chem_48_2906
PubMedSearch : Wadkins_2005_J.Med.Chem_48_2906
PubMedID: 15828829

Title : Update on gene therapy approaches for cancer - Wierdl_2005_Curr.Hematol.Rep_4_294
Author(s) : Wierdl M , Potter PM
Ref : Curr Hematol Rep , 4 :294 , 2005
Abstract : The goal of cancer gene therapy is the selective and efficient eradication of tumor cells without significant systemic toxicity. Although several different gene therapy approaches have been developed and tested both in preclinical and clinical trials, none of these methods are suitable for the safe and efficient treatment of cancer. Recent advances in tumor cell biology have accelerated the identification of novel proteins as targets for gene transfer strategies. However, the development of vectors and delivery systems for specific and efficient gene therapy has not kept pace with these discoveries. Below, we describe the most widely used gene therapy approaches and discuss the caveats of using these techniques in the clinic.
ESTHER : Wierdl_2005_Curr.Hematol.Rep_4_294
PubMedSearch : Wierdl_2005_Curr.Hematol.Rep_4_294
PubMedID: 16009044

Title : Brain tumor oncolysis with replication-conditional herpes simplex virus type 1 expressing the prodrug-activating genes, CYP2B1 and secreted human intestinal carboxylesterase, in combination with cyclophosphamide and irinotecan - Tyminski_2005_Cancer.Res_65_6850
Author(s) : Tyminski E , Leroy S , Terada K , Finkelstein DM , Hyatt JL , Danks MK , Potter PM , Saeki Y , Chiocca EA
Ref : Cancer Research , 65 :6850 , 2005
Abstract : The treatment of malignant glioma is currently ineffective. Oncolytic viruses are being explored as a means to selectively lyse tumor cells in the brain. We have engineered a mutant herpes simplex virus type 1 with deletions in the viral UL39 and gamma(1)34.5 genes and an insertion of the two prodrug activating genes, CYP2B1 and secreted human intestinal carboxylesterase. Each of these can convert the inactive prodrugs, cyclophosphamide and irinotecan (CPT-11), into their active metabolites, respectively. This new oncolytic virus (MGH2) displays increased antitumor efficacy against human glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo when combined with cyclophosphamide and CPT-11. Importantly, cyclophosphamide, CPT-11, or the combination of cyclophosphamide and CPT-11 does not significantly affect oncolytic virus replication. Therefore, MGH2 provides effective multimodal therapy for gliomas in preclinical models when combined with these chemotherapy agents.
ESTHER : Tyminski_2005_Cancer.Res_65_6850
PubMedSearch : Tyminski_2005_Cancer.Res_65_6850
PubMedID: 16061668

Title : Activation and antitumor activity of CPT-11 in plasma esterase-deficient mice - Morton_2005_Cancer.Chemother.Pharmacol_56_629
Author(s) : Morton CL , Iacono L , Hyatt JL , Taylor KR , Cheshire PJ , Houghton PJ , Danks MK , Stewart CF , Potter PM
Ref : Cancer Chemother Pharmacol , 56 :629 , 2005
Abstract : PURPOSE: To examine the antitumor activity and the pharmacokinetics of CPT-11 (irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino] carbonyloxycamptothecin) in a plasma esterase-deficient scid mouse model, bearing human tumor xenografts. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Plasma carboxylesterase (CE)-deficient mice were bred with scid animals to develop a strain that would allow growth of human tumor xenografts. Following xenotransplantation, the effect of the plasma esterase on antitumor activity following CPT-11 administration was assessed. In addition, detailed pharmacokinetic studies examining plasma and biliary disposition of CPT-11 and its metabolites were performed. RESULTS: In mice lacking plasma carboxylesterase, the mean SN-38 systemic exposures were approximately fourfold less than that observed in control animals. Consistent with the pharmacokinetic data, four to fivefold more CPT-11 was required to induce regressions in human Rh30 xenografts grown in esterase-deficient scid mice, as opposed to those grown in scid animals. Additionally, the route of elimination of CPT-11, SN-38, and SN-38 glucuronide (SN-38G) was principally in the bile. CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacokinetic profile for CPT-11 and its metabolites in the esterase-deficient mice more closely reflects that seen in humans. Hence, these mice may represent a more accurate model for antitumor studies with this drug and other agents metabolized by CEs.
ESTHER : Morton_2005_Cancer.Chemother.Pharmacol_56_629
PubMedSearch : Morton_2005_Cancer.Chemother.Pharmacol_56_629
PubMedID: 15918039

Title : Development of prodrugs for enzyme-mediated, tumor-selective therapy - Yoon_2005_Curr.Med.Chem.Anticancer.Agents_5_107
Author(s) : Yoon KJ , Potter PM , Danks MK
Ref : Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents , 5 :107 , 2005
Abstract : Anticancer enzyme/prodrug approaches to therapy are designed to activate prodrugs specifically at tumor loci, to achieve antitumor responses with minimal toxicity. The equivocal success of these approaches thus far has led to searches for more efficient combinations. This mini-review evaluates and compares characteristics of seven selected enzyme/prodrug combinations, and discusses goals for future development of effective combinations.
ESTHER : Yoon_2005_Curr.Med.Chem.Anticancer.Agents_5_107
PubMedSearch : Yoon_2005_Curr.Med.Chem.Anticancer.Agents_5_107
PubMedID: 15777218

Title : Discovery of novel selective inhibitors of human intestinal carboxylesterase for the amelioration of irinotecan-induced diarrhea: synthesis, quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis, and biological activity - Wadkins_2004_Mol.Pharmacol_65_1336
Author(s) : Wadkins RM , Hyatt JL , Yoon KJ , Morton CL , Lee RE , Damodaran K , Beroza P , Danks MK , Potter PM
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 65 :1336 , 2004
Abstract : The dose-limiting toxicity of the highly effective anticancer agent 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxy-camptothecin (irinotecan; CPT-11) is delayed diarrhea. This is thought to be caused by either bacteria-mediated hydrolysis of the glucuronide conjugate of the active metabolite 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) or direct conversion of CPT-11 to SN-38 by carboxylesterases (CE) in the small intestine. After drug administration, a very high level of CPT-11 is present in the bile; this is deposited into the duodenum, the region of the gut with the highest levels of CE activity. Hence, it is likely that direct conversion of the drug to SN-38 is partially responsible for the diarrhea associated with this agent. In an attempt to ameliorate this toxicity, we have applied Target-Related Affinity Profiling to identify novel CE inhibitors that are selective inhibitors of the human intestinal enzyme (hiCE). Seven inhibitors, all sulfonamide derivatives, demonstrated greater than 200-fold selectivity for hiCE compared with the human liver CE hCE1, and none was an inhibitor of human acetylcholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis demonstrated excellent correlations with the predicted versus experimental Ki values (r2 = 0.944) for hiCE. Additionally, design and synthesis of a tetrafluorine-substituted sulfonamide analog, which QSAR indicated would demonstrate improved inhibition of hiCE, validated the computer predictive analyses. These and other phenyl-substituted sulfonamides compounds are regarded as lead compounds for the development of effective, selective CE inhibitors for clinical applications.
ESTHER : Wadkins_2004_Mol.Pharmacol_65_1336
PubMedSearch : Wadkins_2004_Mol.Pharmacol_65_1336
PubMedID: 15155827

Title : Molecular modeling of CPT-11 metabolism by carboxylesterases (CEs): use of pnb CE as a model - Wierdl_2004_Biochemistry_43_1874
Author(s) : Wierdl M , Morton CL , Nguyen NK , Redinbo MR , Potter PM
Ref : Biochemistry , 43 :1874 , 2004
Abstract : CPT-11 is a prodrug that is converted in vivo to the topoisomerase I poison SN-38 by carboxylesterases (CEs). Among the CEs studied thus far, a rabbit liver CE (rCE) converts CPT-11 to SN-38 most efficiently. Despite extensive sequence homology, however, the human homologues of this protein, hCE1 and hiCE, metabolize CPT-11 with significantly lower efficiencies. To understand these differences in drug metabolism, we wanted to generate mutations at individual amino acid residues to assess the effects of these mutations on CPT-11 conversion. We identified a Bacillus subtilis protein (pnb CE) that could be used as a model for the mammalian CEs. We demonstrated that pnb CE, when expressed in Escherichia coli, metabolizes both the small esterase substrate o-NPA and the bulky prodrug CPT-11. Furthermore, we found that the pnb CE and rCE crystal structures show an only 2.4 A rmsd variation over 400 residues of the alpha-carbon trace. Using the pnb CE model, we demonstrated that the "side-door" residues, S218 and L362, and the corresponding residues in rCE, L252 and L424, were important in CPT-11 metabolism. Furthermore, we found that at position 218 or 252 the size of the residue, and at position 362 or 424 the hydrophobicity and charge of the residue, were the predominant factors in influencing drug activation. The most significant change in CPT-11 metabolism was observed with the L424R variant rCE that converted 10-fold less CPT-11 than the wild-type protein. As a result, COS-7 cells expressing this mutant were 3-fold less sensitive to CPT-11 than COS-7 cells expressing the wild-type protein.
ESTHER : Wierdl_2004_Biochemistry_43_1874
PubMedSearch : Wierdl_2004_Biochemistry_43_1874
PubMedID: 14967028

Title : Enzyme-prodrug systems: carboxylesterase\/CPT-11 -
Author(s) : Danks MK , Potter PM
Ref : Methods Mol Med , 90 :247 , 2004
PubMedID: 14657567

Title : Characterization of inhibitors of specific carboxylesterases: development of carboxylesterase inhibitors for translational application - Yoon_2004_Mol.Cancer.Ther_3_903
Author(s) : Yoon KJ , Hyatt JL , Morton CL , Lee RE , Potter PM , Danks MK
Ref : Mol Cancer Ther , 3 :903 , 2004
Abstract : Carboxylesterases, expressed at high levels in human liver and intestine, are thought to detoxify xenobiotics. The anticancer prodrug 7-ethyl-10-[4-1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11) is also metabolized by carboxylesterases to produce the active drug 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin. Activation of CPT-11 by human intestinal carboxylesterase (hiCE) in the human intestine may contribute to delayed onset diarrhea, a dose-limiting side effect of this drug. The goal of this study was to develop small molecule inhibitors selective for hiCE to circumvent or treat the toxic side effects of CPT-11. A secondary goal was to develop molecules that specifically inhibit activation of CPT-11 by a rabbit liver carboxylesterase (rCE). rCE is the most efficient CPT-11-activating enzyme thus far identified, and this enzyme is being developed for viral-directed enzyme prodrug therapy applications. Based on in vitro assays with partially purified hiCE and rCE proteins and on growth inhibition assays using U373MG human glioma cells transfected to express hiCE or rCE (U373pIREShiCE or U373pIRESrCE), we identified specific inhibitors of each enzyme. Lead compounds are derivatives of nitrophenol having 4-(furan-2-carbonyl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid or 4-[(4-chlorophenyl)-phenylmethyl]-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid substitutions in the p position. Kinetic analysis of each compound for hiCE compared with rCE showed that the Ki values of the most selective of these inhibitors differed by 6- to 10-fold. In growth inhibition assays, nontoxic, low micromolar concentrations of these inhibitors increased the EC50 of CPT-11 for U373pIREShiCE or U373pIRESrCE cells by 13- to >1,500-fold. The four compounds characterized in this study will serve as lead compounds for a series of inhibitors to be constructed using a combinatorial approach.
ESTHER : Yoon_2004_Mol.Cancer.Ther_3_903
PubMedSearch : Yoon_2004_Mol.Cancer.Ther_3_903
PubMedID: 15299073

Title : Human carboxylesterase 1: from drug metabolism to drug discovery - Redinbo_2003_Biochem.Soc.Trans_31_620
Author(s) : Redinbo MR , Bencharit S , Potter PM
Ref : Biochemical Society Transactions , 31 :620 , 2003
Abstract : Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a serine esterase involved in both drug metabolism and activation, as well as other biological processes. hCE1 catalyses the hydrolysis of heroin and cocaine, and the transesterification of cocaine in the presence of ethanol to the toxic metabolite cocaethylene. We have determined the crystal structures of hCE1 in complex with either the cocaine analogue homatropine or the heroin analogue naloxone. These are the first structures of a human carboxylesterase, and they provide details about narcotic metabolism in humans. hCE1's active site contains rigid and flexible pockets, explaining the enzyme's ability to act both specifically and promiscuously. hCE1 has also been reported to contain cholesteryl ester hydrolase, fatty acyl-CoA hydrolase and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activities, and thus appears to be involved in cholesterol metabolism. Since the enzyme may be useful as a treatment for cocaine overdose, and may afford protection against chemical weapons like Sarin, Soman and VX gas, hCE1 could serve as both a drug and a drug target. Selective hCE1 inhibitors targeted to several sites on the enzyme may also pave the way for novel clinical tools to manage cholesterol homoeostasis in humans.
ESTHER : Redinbo_2003_Biochem.Soc.Trans_31_620
PubMedSearch : Redinbo_2003_Biochem.Soc.Trans_31_620
PubMedID: 12773168
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1

Title : Crystal structure of human carboxylesterase 1 complexed with the Alzheimer's drug tacrine: from binding promiscuity to selective inhibition - Bencharit_2003_Chem.Biol_10_341
Author(s) : Bencharit S , Morton CL , Hyatt JL , Kuhn P , Danks MK , Potter PM , Redinbo MR
Ref : Chemical Biology , 10 :341 , 2003
Abstract : Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a broad-spectrum bioscavenger that plays important roles in narcotic metabolism, clinical prodrug activation, and the processing of fatty acid and cholesterol derivatives. We determined the 2.4 A crystal structure of hCE1 in complex with tacrine, the first drug approved for treating Alzheimer's disease, and compare this structure to the Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase (AcChE)-tacrine complex. Tacrine binds in multiple orientations within the catalytic gorge of hCE1, while it stacks in the smaller AcChE active site between aromatic side chains. Our results show that hCE1's promiscuous action on distinct substrates is enhanced by its ability to interact with ligands in multiple orientations at once. Further, we use our structure to identify tacrine derivatives that act as low-micromolar inhibitors of hCE1 and may provide new avenues for treating narcotic abuse and cholesterol-related diseases.
ESTHER : Bencharit_2003_Chem.Biol_10_341
PubMedSearch : Bencharit_2003_Chem.Biol_10_341
PubMedID: 12725862
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1

Title : Structural basis of heroin and cocaine metabolism by a promiscuous human drug-processing enzyme - Bencharit_2003_Nat.Struct.Biol_10_349
Author(s) : Bencharit S , Morton CL , Xue Y , Potter PM , Redinbo MR
Ref : Nat Struct Biol , 10 :349 , 2003
Abstract : We present the first crystal structures of a human protein bound to analogs of cocaine and heroin. Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a broad-spectrum bioscavenger that catalyzes the hydrolysis of heroin and cocaine, and the detoxification of organophosphate chemical weapons, such as sarin, soman and tabun. Crystal structures of the hCE1 glycoprotein in complex with the cocaine analog homatropine and the heroin analog naloxone provide explicit details about narcotic metabolism in humans. The hCE1 active site contains both specific and promiscuous compartments, which enable the enzyme to act on structurally distinct chemicals. A selective surface ligand-binding site regulates the trimer-hexamer equilibrium of hCE1 and allows each hCE1 monomer to bind two narcotic molecules simultaneously. The bioscavenger properties of hCE1 can likely be used to treat both narcotic overdose and chemical weapon exposure.
ESTHER : Bencharit_2003_Nat.Struct.Biol_10_349
PubMedSearch : Bencharit_2003_Nat.Struct.Biol_10_349
PubMedID: 12679808
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1

Title : A prodrug strategy using ONYX-015-based replicating adenoviruses to deliver rabbit carboxylesterase to tumor cells for conversion of CPT-11 to SN-38 - Stubdal_2003_Cancer.Res_63_6900
Author(s) : Stubdal H , Perin N , Lemmon M , Holman P , Bauzon M , Potter PM , Danks MK , Fattaey A , Dubensky T , Johnson L
Ref : Cancer Research , 63 :6900 , 2003
Abstract : ONYX-015 has been used successfully in the clinic as a cancer therapeutic in combination with chemotherapy. The combination of ONYX-015 and chemotherapy appears to be more efficacious than either regimen alone. In this study, we try to enhance this combination by "arming" ONYX-015 with a therapeutic transgene, an approach more commonly used with nonreplicating viruses in the context of gene therapy. We chose the prodrug converting enzyme carboxylesterase (CE), which converts the camptothecin derivative CPT-11 (irinotecan) to the much more potent chemotherapeutic SN-38. The transgene was introduced into three distinct positions in the E3 region of the adenovirus genome to allow either early or late expression during the virus life cycle. We demonstrate that each of these ONYX-015-based adenoviruses expresses an active CE enzyme that can efficiently convert CPT-11 to SN-38. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of CE-expressing viruses, but not control viruses, is enhanced significantly in the presence of the prodrug. Finally, we demonstrate that we can achieve transgene expression and activity in vivo in a human tumor xenograft model, and that treatment with a CE-expressing virus in combination with CPT-11 enhances survival of tumor-bearing mice. These results indicate that the addition of a prodrug converting enzyme may be a feasible approach to additionally enhance the efficacy of replicating adenoviruses as cancer therapeutics.
ESTHER : Stubdal_2003_Cancer.Res_63_6900
PubMedSearch : Stubdal_2003_Cancer.Res_63_6900
PubMedID: 14583489

Title : p53-mediated regulation of expression of a rabbit liver carboxylesterase confers sensitivity to 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11) - Wierdl_2003_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_304_699
Author(s) : Wierdl M , Morton CL , Harris LC , Danks MK , Schuetz JD , Potter PM
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 304 :699 , 2003
Abstract : We have exploited the ability of wild-type (wt) p53 to repress gene expression and produce tumor-selective cytotoxicity using viral-directed enzyme prodrug therapy. Vectors containing either the cytomegalovirus or Rous sarcoma virus promoter regulating transcription of a rabbit liver carboxylesterase (CE) have been constructed. Upon transfection of these plasmids into cells expressing either wt or mutant p53, differential expression of the CE has been observed, resulting in sensitization of the cells expressing the latter protein to the anticancer prodrug irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino] carb- onyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11). Transduction of isogenic cell lines with adenovirus containing CE under control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter confirmed the decreased sensitization of cells expressing wtp53 to CPT-11. These studies indicate that the inactivation of wtp53 by mutant p53 in human tumor cells may be sufficient enough to generate a therapeutic window for enhanced cytotoxicity with CPT-11.
ESTHER : Wierdl_2003_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_304_699
PubMedSearch : Wierdl_2003_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_304_699
PubMedID: 12538824

Title : Carboxylesterase-mediated sensitization of human tumor cells to CPT-11 cannot override ABCG2-mediated drug resistance - Wierdl_2003_Mol.Pharmacol_64_279
Author(s) : Wierdl M , Wall A , Morton CL , Sampath J , Danks MK , Schuetz JD , Potter PM
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 64 :279 , 2003
Abstract : The recently introduced camptothecin-derived chemotherapeutic agents have demonstrated remarkable promise in cancer therapy and as such have been approved for use in humans for the treatment of ovarian, lung, and colon cancer. CPT-11 is a prodrug that is activated by esterases to yield the potent topoisomerase I inhibitor, SN-38. Considerable success has been achieved in the treatment of both naive and drug-resistant colon cancer with CPT-11. However, mechanisms of resistance to this agent have not been explored in detail. The role of the ATP-dependent drug transporter ABCG2 in CPT-11 cytotoxicity is unclear because some ABCG2 mutants confer camptothecin resistance, whereas others do not. Because CPT-11 is activated by carboxylesterases (CEs), we assessed the relative contribution of each protein in mediating CPT-11 toxicity by both drug accumulation and cell growth-inhibition assays. Our results indicate that the expression of ABCG2 protects cells from CPT-11 toxicity, even in the presence of high levels of a rabbit liver carboxylesterase (rCE), which can efficiently activate the drug. However, this can be partially overcome by the ABCG2 inhibitor reserpine. These studies indicate that overexpression of ABCG2 in vivo would probably overcome any increased drug activation that might be achieved by gene delivery or antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy methods using rCE.
ESTHER : Wierdl_2003_Mol.Pharmacol_64_279
PubMedSearch : Wierdl_2003_Mol.Pharmacol_64_279
PubMedID: 12869632

Title : Activation of a camptothecin prodrug by specific carboxylesterases as predicted by quantitative structure-activity relationship and molecular docking studies - Yoon_2003_Mol.Cancer.Ther_2_1171
Author(s) : Yoon KJ , Krull EJ , Morton CL , Bornmann WG , Lee RE , Potter PM , Danks MK
Ref : Mol Cancer Ther , 2 :1171 , 2003
Abstract : 7-Ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin (irinotecan, CPT-11) is a camptothecin prodrug that is metabolized by carboxylesterases (CE) to the active metabolite 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), a topoisomerase I inhibitor. CPT-11 has shown encouraging antitumor activity against a broad spectrum of tumor types in early clinical trials, but hematopoietic and gastrointestinal toxicity limit its administration. To increase the therapeutic index of CPT-11 and to develop other prodrug analogues for enzyme/prodrug gene therapy applications, our laboratories propose to develop camptothecin prodrugs that will be activated by specific CEs. Specific analogues might then be predicted to be activated, for example, predominantly by human liver CE(hCE1), by human intestinal CE (hiCE), or in gene therapy approaches using a rabbit liver CE (rCE). This study describes a molecular modeling approach to relate the structure of rCE-activated camptothecin prodrugs with their biological activation. Comparative molecular field analysis, comparative molecular similarity index analysis, and docking studies were used to predict the biological activity of a 4-benzylpiperazine derivative of CPT-11 [7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-benzyl)-1-piperazino]carbonyloxycamptothecin (BP-CPT)] in U373MG glioma cell lines transfected with plasmids encoding rCE or hiCE. BP-CPT has been reported to be activated more efficiently than CPT-11 by a rat serum esterase activity; however, three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship studies predicted that rCE would activate BP-CPT less efficiently than CPT-11. This was confirmed by both growth inhibition experiments and kinetic studies. The method is being used to design camptothecin prodrugs predicted to be activated by specific CEs.
ESTHER : Yoon_2003_Mol.Cancer.Ther_2_1171
PubMedSearch : Yoon_2003_Mol.Cancer.Ther_2_1171
PubMedID: 14617791

Title : Synthesis and evaluation of esters and carbamates to identify critical functional groups for esterase-specific metabolism - Yoon_2003_Bioorg.Med.Chem_11_3237
Author(s) : Yoon KJ , Morton CL , Potter PM , Danks MK , Lee RE
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 11 :3237 , 2003
Abstract : In an effort to develop novel prodrugs for viral directed enzyme prodrug therapy (VDEPT) approaches to chemotherapy, eleven esters and carbamates of o-nitrophenol, p-nitrophenol, and beta-naphthol were synthesized and characterized as substrates for rabbit (rCE) and human liver (hCE1) carboxylesterases. All of the esters of o-, p-nitrophenols, and beta-naphthols showed moderate hydrolysis by both rCE and hCE1. Esters of beta-naphthols exhibited higher hydrolysis rates compared to esters of p-nitrophenols by rCE. Of the carbamates, 4-benzyl-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid 2-nitrophenol showed preferential hydrolysis by rCE compared to hCE1 with a V(max) of 54.4 micromoles/min/mg, and a K(m) value of 1071 microM. Substrate metabolism by a specific CE or inhibition of CEs by each compound depended on several factors, including the types of functional groups and linking moieties.
ESTHER : Yoon_2003_Bioorg.Med.Chem_11_3237
PubMedSearch : Yoon_2003_Bioorg.Med.Chem_11_3237
PubMedID: 12837533

Title : Efficacy and toxicity of a virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy purging method: preclinical assessment and application to bone marrow samples from neuroblastoma patients - Wagner_2002_Cancer.Res_62_5001
Author(s) : Wagner LM , Guichard SM , Burger RA , Morton CL , Straign CM , Ashmun RA , Harris LC , Houghton PJ , Potter PM , Danks MK
Ref : Cancer Research , 62 :5001 , 2002
Abstract : Autologous stem cell transplantation is used to rescue cancer patients from myelosuppression caused by high-dose chemotherapy. However, autologous grafts often contain tumor cells that can contribute directly to relapse. Current purging methods are useful when fewer than 1% tumor cells contaminate the bone marrow, and patients with tumor burdens of >1% are considered ineligible for chemotherapy that necessitates stem cell rescue. Using neuroblastoma (NB) as a model system, we developed a method that is effective even with tumor burdens of 10-25%. Mixtures of NB-1691 NB cells and CD34(+) hematopoietic cells purged by this method showed no evidence of viable tumor cells as assessed by clonogenic assays or reverse transcription-PCR for the NB cell markers tyrosine hydroxylase and N-MYC. The efficacy and lack of toxicity of the method were verified using in vivo mouse models. Severe combined immunodeficient mice that received purged cell preparations containing 10% NB-1691 cells survived without evidence of disease for the observation period (>1 year), whereas mice that received unpurged cells developed disseminated disease requiring euthanasia 73-96 days after injection of cells. No evidence of toxicity to the mice was detected by numerous laboratory values for bone marrow, liver, and kidney function, and no difference was seen in the ability of purged cell mixtures versus unmanipulated CD34(+) cells to reconstitute the marrow of non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient mice. In a pilot study, marrow was obtained from eight patients who had >/=1% metastatic tumor burden. All eight samples were purged to the level of detection by reverse transcription-PCR (samples from seven patients) or clonogenic potential (sample from one patient), whichever assay was used. The described adenovirus/rabbit carboxylesterase/CPT-11 (irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin) virus-directed enzyme prodrug method may be useful for patients whose tumor burdens exceed 1% at the time of stem cell harvest. Assessment of purging efficacy with additional samples from NB patients is ongoing.
ESTHER : Wagner_2002_Cancer.Res_62_5001
PubMedSearch : Wagner_2002_Cancer.Res_62_5001
PubMedID: 12208753

Title : Structural insights into CPT-11 activation by mammalian carboxylesterases - Bencharit_2002_Nat.Struct.Biol_9_337
Author(s) : Bencharit S , Morton CL , Howard-Williams EL , Danks MK , Potter PM , Redinbo MR
Ref : Nat Struct Biol , 9 :337 , 2002
Abstract : Mammalian carboxylesterases cleave the anticancer prodrug CPT-11 (Irinotecan) into SN-38, a potent topoisomerase I poison, and 4-piperidino-piperidine (4PP). We present the 2.5 A crystal structure of rabbit liver carboxylesterase (rCE), the most efficient enzyme known to activate CPT-11 in this manner, in complex with the leaving group 4PP. 4PP is observed bound adjacent to a high-mannose Asn-linked glycosylation site on the surface of rCE. This product-binding site is separated from the catalytic gorge by a thin wall of amino acid side chains, suggesting that 4PP may be released through this secondary product exit pore. The crystallographic observation of a leaving group bound on the surface of rCE supports the 'back door' product exit site proposed for the acetylcholinesterases. These results may facilitate the design of improved anticancer drugs or enzymes for use in viral-directed cancer cotherapies.
ESTHER : Bencharit_2002_Nat.Struct.Biol_9_337
PubMedSearch : Bencharit_2002_Nat.Struct.Biol_9_337
PubMedID: 11967565
Gene_locus related to this paper: rabit-1cxes

Title : Structural constraints affect the metabolism of 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11) by carboxylesterases - Wadkins_2001_Mol.Pharmacol_60_355
Author(s) : Wadkins RM , Morton CL , Weeks JK , Oliver L , Wierdl M , Danks MK , Potter PM
Ref : Molecular Pharmacology , 60 :355 , 2001
Abstract : 7-Ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin [CPT-11 (irinotecan)] is a water-soluble camptothecin-derived prodrug that is activated by esterases to yield the potent topoisomerase I poison SN-38. We identified a rabbit liver carboxylesterase (CE) that was very efficient at CPT-11 metabolism; however, a human homolog that was more than 81% identical to this protein activated the drug poorly. Recently, two other human CEs have been isolated that are efficient in the conversion of CPT-11 to SN-38, yet both demonstrate little homology to the rabbit protein. To understand this phenomenon, we have characterized a series of esterases from human and rabbit, including several chimeric proteins, for their ability to metabolize CPT-11. Computer predictive modeling indicated that the ability of each enzyme to activate CPT-11 was dependent on the size of the entrance to the active site. Kinetic studies with a series of nitrophenyl and naphthyl esters confirmed these predictions, indicating that activation of CPT-11 by a CE is constrained by size-limited access of the drug to the active site catalytic amino acid residues.
ESTHER : Wadkins_2001_Mol.Pharmacol_60_355
PubMedSearch : Wadkins_2001_Mol.Pharmacol_60_355
PubMedID: 11455023

Title : Sensitization of human tumor cells to CPT-11 via adenoviral-mediated delivery of a rabbit liver carboxylesterase - Wierdl_2001_Cancer.Res_61_5078
Author(s) : Wierdl M , Morton CL , Weeks JK , Danks MK , Harris LC , Potter PM
Ref : Cancer Research , 61 :5078 , 2001
Abstract : Irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11) is activated by carboxylesterases (CE) to yield the potent topoisomerase I inhibitor, SN-38. We have demonstrated previously that a rabbit liver CE is approximately 100-1000-fold more efficient at drug activation than a highly homologous human CE. In an attempt to use rabbit CE expression in combination with CPT-11 for gene therapy approaches for the treatment of cancer, we have developed an adenoviral vector expressing this intracellular CE. After transduction, this virus produces very high levels of CE activity in a panel of human tumor cell lines and results in marked sensitization to CPT-11 of all of the transduced cells. Reductions in IC(50) values for this drug ranged from 11-127-fold. Additionally, comparison with an adenovirus expressing a secreted form of the rabbit CE indicated that a collateral effect could be achieved with reductions in the IC(50) values ranging from 4-19-fold. These data suggest that the described reagents may be suitable for use in vivo in a viral-directed enzyme prodrug therapy approach using CPT-11.
ESTHER : Wierdl_2001_Cancer.Res_61_5078
PubMedSearch : Wierdl_2001_Cancer.Res_61_5078
PubMedID: 11431344

Title : A virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy approach to purging neuroblastoma cells from hematopoietic cells using adenovirus encoding rabbit carboxylesterase and CPT-11 - Meck_2001_Cancer.Res_61_5083
Author(s) : Meck MM , Wierdl M , Wagner LM , Burger RA , Guichard SM , Krull EJ , Harris LC , Potter PM , Danks MK
Ref : Cancer Research , 61 :5083 , 2001
Abstract : Tumor cells that contaminate hematopoietic cell preparations contribute to the relapse of neuroblastoma patients who receive autologous stem cell rescue as a component of therapy. Therefore, effective purging methods are needed. This study details in vitro experiments to develop a viral-directed enzyme prodrug purging method that specifically targets neuroblastoma cells. The approach uses an adenovirus to deliver the cDNA encoding a rabbit liver carboxylesterase that efficiently activates the prodrug irinotecan,7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11). The data show that an adenoviral multiplicity of infection of 50 transduces 100% of cultured neuroblastoma cells and primary tumor cells, irrespective of the level of tumor cell line contamination. Exposure of neuroblastoma cell lines or of mixtures of these cell lines with CD34(+) cells at a ratio of 10:90 to replication-deficient AdRSVrCE for 24 h and subsequent exposure of cells to 1-5 microM CPT-11 for 4 h increased the toxicity of CPT-11 to three neuroblastoma cell lines (SJNB-1, NB-1691, and SK-N-SH) from approximately 20-50-fold and eradicated their clonogenic potential. Also, after "purging," RNA for neuroblastoma cell markers (tyrosine hydroxylase, synaptophysin, and N-MYC) was undetectable by reverse transcription-PCR. In contrast, the purging protocol did not affect the number or type of colonies formed by CD34(+) cells in an in vitro progenitor cell assay. No bystander effect on CD34(+) cells was observed. The method described is being investigated for its potential clinical utility, particularly its efficacy for use with patients having relatively high tumor burdens, because no published methods have been shown to be efficacious when the tumor burden exceeds 1%.
ESTHER : Meck_2001_Cancer.Res_61_5083
PubMedSearch : Meck_2001_Cancer.Res_61_5083
PubMedID: 11431345

Title : Use of a modified ornithine decarboxylase promoter to achieve efficient c-MYC- or N-MYC-regulated protein expression - Iyengar_2001_Cancer.Res_61_3045
Author(s) : Iyengar RV , Pawlik CA , Krull EJ , Phelps DA , Burger RA , Harris LC , Potter PM , Danks MK
Ref : Cancer Research , 61 :3045 , 2001
Abstract : One of the advantages of viral-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (VDEPT) is its potential for tumor-specific cytotoxicity. However, the viruses used to deliver cDNAs encoding prodrug-activating enzymes transduce normal cells as well as tumor cells, and several approaches to achieve tumor-specific expression of the delivered cDNAs are being investigated. One such approach is to regulate transcription of the prodrug-activating enzyme with a promoter that is preferentially activated by tumor cells. Published data suggest that the most promising transcription factor/promoter/enhancer combinations are those activated by a tumor-specific transcription factor to retain tumor cell specificity but that are equal in strength to nonspecific viral promoters in their ability to up-regulate target cDNAs. This report identifies MYC-responsive, modified ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) promoter/enhancer sequences that up-regulate target protein expression in tumor cells overexpressing either N-MYC or c-MYC protein. The most efficient of the four constructs assessed contained six additional CACGTG MYC binding sites 5' to the endogenous ODC promoter (R6ODC). Reporter assays with this chimeric promoter/enhancer regulating expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase demonstrated 50-250-fold more activity in MYC-expressing cells compared with similar assays with promoterless plasmids. The R6ODC regulatory sequence was approximately equivalent to the CMV promoter in inducing expression of the neomycin resistance gene in c-MYC-expressing SW480 and HT-29 colon carcinoma cells and in N-MYC-expressing NB-1691 neuroblastoma cells. The modified ODC promoter may, therefore, be useful in achieving tissue-specific expression of target proteins in tumor cells that overexpress c- or N-MYC.
ESTHER : Iyengar_2001_Cancer.Res_61_3045
PubMedSearch : Iyengar_2001_Cancer.Res_61_3045
PubMedID: 11306486

Title : Proficient metabolism of irinotecan by a human intestinal carboxylesterase - Khanna_2000_Cancer.Res_60_4725
Author(s) : Khanna R , Morton CL , Danks MK , Potter PM
Ref : Cancer Research , 60 :4725 , 2000
Abstract : Irinotecan [7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11)] is metabolized by esterases to yield the potent topoisomerase I poison 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin. One of the major side effects observed with CPT-11 is gastrointestinal toxicity, and we supposed that this might be due to local activation of CPT-11 within the gut. Carboxylesterase (CE) activity was detected in human gut biopsies, and extracts of these tissues converted CPT-11 to 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin in vitro. Expression of a human intestinal CE cDNA in COS-7 cells produced extracts that demonstrated proficient CPT-11 activation and conferred sensitivity of cells to CPT-11. These results suggest that gut toxicity from CPT-11 may be due in part to direct drug conversion by CEs present within the small intestine.
ESTHER : Khanna_2000_Cancer.Res_60_4725
PubMedSearch : Khanna_2000_Cancer.Res_60_4725
PubMedID: 10987276

Title : Use of the ornithine decarboxylase promoter to achieve N-MYC-mediated overexpression of a rabbit carboxylesterase to sensitize neuroblastoma cells to CPT-11 - Pawlik_2000_Mol.Ther_1_457
Author(s) : Pawlik CA , Iyengar RV , Krull EJ , Mason SE , Khanna R , Harris LC , Potter PM , Danks MK , Guichard SM
Ref : Mol Ther , 1 :457 , 2000
Abstract : Overexpression of specific transcription factors by tumor cells can be exploited to regulate expression of proteins that induce apoptosis or activate prodrugs, thereby producing tumor-selective toxicity. A majority of advanced-stage neuroblastomas overexpress the transcription factor N-MYC, and this overexpression is associated with poor prognosis. This study describes regulation of expression by N-MYC, via the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) promoter, of a rabbit liver carboxylesterase (CE) that activates the prodrug CPT-11. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter assays and CE activity assays in transiently transfected neuroblastoma cell lines (SJNB-1, SJNB-4, NB-1691) and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines (JR1neo20, JR1Nmyc6, JR1Nmyc9) support this approach as a potential method for sensitizing tumor cells to CPT-11. Clonogenic assays with IMR32 human neuroblastoma cells which express N-MYC and that had been stably transfected with a plasmid containing an ODC promoter/CE cassette corroborated results of enzyme activity assays. Specifically, IMR32.ODC.CE cells expressed approximately eightfold more CE activity than IMR32.CMV.neo cells; and 5 microM CPT-11 reduced the clonogenic potential of IMR32.ODC.CE cells to zero, while 50 microM CPT-11 was required to produce the same effect with IMR32.CMV.neo cells. Current experiments focus on adenoviral delivery of an ODC promoter/CE cDNA cassette for potential virus-directed enzyme prodrug therapy applications.
ESTHER : Pawlik_2000_Mol.Ther_1_457
PubMedSearch : Pawlik_2000_Mol.Ther_1_457
PubMedID: 10933967

Title : Construction of adenovirus for high level expression of small RNAs in mammalian cells. Application to a Bcl-2 ribozyme - Potter_2000_Mol.Biotechnol_15_105
Author(s) : Potter PM , McKenzie PP , Hussain N , Noonberg S , Morton CL , Harris LC
Ref : Mol Biotechnol , 15 :105 , 2000
Abstract : A series of plasmid vectors have been generated to allow the rapid construction of adenoviral vectors designed to express small RNA sequences. A truncated human U6 gene containing convenient restriction sites has been shown to be expressed at high levels following electroporation into a series of human cell lines. This gene was ligated into a promoterless adenoviral plasmid, and we have generated high titer virus by homologous recombination with adenoviral Addl327 DNA in 293 cells. Recombinant adenovirus containing a hammerhead ribozyme sequence targeted toward the Bcl-2 mRNA has been used to transduce a panel of human tumor cell lines. We have demonstrated high level expression of the recombinant U6 gene containing the ribozyme and reduction of Bcl-2 protein in transduced cells. These plasmids are suitable for the development of adenoviral vectors designed to express both ribozymes and antisense RNA in human cells.
ESTHER : Potter_2000_Mol.Biotechnol_15_105
PubMedSearch : Potter_2000_Mol.Biotechnol_15_105
PubMedID: 10949823

Title : Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a horse liver butyrylcholinesterase: evidence for CPT-11 drug activation - Wierdl_2000_Biochem.Pharmacol_59_773
Author(s) : Wierdl M , Morton CL , Danks MK , Potter PM
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 59 :773 , 2000
Abstract : Butyrylcholinesterases (BuChEs; acylcholine acylhydrolase; EC have been demonstrated to convert the anticancer agent CPT-11 (irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin) into its active metabolite SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin). In addition, significant differences in the extent of drug metabolism have been observed with BuChEs derived from different species. In an attempt to understand these differences, we have isolated the cDNA encoding a horse BuChE. Based upon the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of a purified horse BuChE, we designed degenerate primers to amplify the coding sequence from horse liver cDNA. Following polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends, we generated an 1850-bp DNA fragment, containing an 1806-bp open reading frame. The cDNA encodes a protein of 602 amino acid residues, including a 28-amino-acid NH2-terminal signal peptide. Furthermore, the DNA sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence revealed extensive homology to butyrylcholinesterase genes from several other species. In vitro transcription-translation of the cDNA produced a 66-kDa protein, identical to the size of native horse serum BuChE following removal of carbohydrate residues with endoglycosidase F. Additionally, transient expression of the cDNA in Cos-7 cells yielded extracts that exhibited cholinesterase activity and demonstrated a Km value for butyrylthiocholine of 106+/-9 nM. This extract converted the anticancer drug CPT-11 into SN-38, demonstrating that this drug can be activated by enzymes other than carboxylesterases.
ESTHER : Wierdl_2000_Biochem.Pharmacol_59_773
PubMedSearch : Wierdl_2000_Biochem.Pharmacol_59_773
PubMedID: 10718335
Gene_locus related to this paper: horse-BCHE

Title : Comparison of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, Spodoptera frugiperda, and COS7 cells for recombinant gene expression. Application to a rabbit liver carboxylesterase - Morton_2000_Mol.Biotechnol_16_193
Author(s) : Morton CL , Potter PM
Ref : Mol Biotechnol , 16 :193 , 2000
Abstract : Expression of a rabbit liver carboxylesterase has been achieved in several different model systems including Escherichia coli, Pichia pastoris, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Spodoptera frugiperda, and COS7 cells. Although, recombinant protein was observed in E. coli sonicates, little or no enzymatic activity was detected. Similarly, no activity was observed following expression in S. cerevisiae. In contrast, active protein was produced in P. pastoris, from S. frugiperda following baculoviral infection and in COS7 cells following transient transfection of plasmid DNA. For the preparation of small amounts of protein for kinetic and biochemical studies, enzyme expressed in P. pastoris has proved sufficient. However, to produce large amounts of carboxylesterase for structural studies, baculoviral-mediated expression of a secreted form of the protein in S. frugiperda was the most efficient. Using this system, we have generated and purified milligram quantities of essentially pure protein. These results demonstrate that the choice of in vitro system for the generation of large amounts of active carboxylesterase, and probably most endoplasmic reticulum processed proteins, is crucial for high level expression and subsequent purification.
ESTHER : Morton_2000_Mol.Biotechnol_16_193
PubMedSearch : Morton_2000_Mol.Biotechnol_16_193
PubMedID: 11252804

Title : Activation of CPT-11 in mice: identification and analysis of a highly effective plasma esterase - Morton_2000_Cancer.Res_60_4206
Author(s) : Morton CL , Wierdl M , Oliver L , Ma MK , Danks MK , Stewart CF , Eiseman JL , Potter PM
Ref : Cancer Research , 60 :4206 , 2000
Abstract : The camptothecin prodrug CPT-11 (irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin) is converted by esterases to yield the potent topoisomerase I poison SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin). Recently, a mouse strain (Es1(e)) has been identified that demonstrates reduced plasma esterase activity, and we have monitored the ability of plasma from these mice to metabolize CPT-11. Total plasma esterase activity was reduced 3-fold in Esl(e)mice in comparison to control mice, and this resulted in a 200-fold reduction in SN-38 production after incubation with CPT-11 in vitro. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies of CPT-11 and SN-38 in these animals demonstrated approximately 5-fold less conversion to SN-38. However, extracts derived from tissues from Es1(e) animals revealed total esterase activities similar to those of control mice, and these extracts metabolized CPT-11 with equal efficiency. Northern analysis of RNA isolated from organs indicated that the liver was the primary source of Es-1 gene expression and that very low levels of Es-1 RNA were present in Es1(e) mice. These results suggest that the reduced levels of Es-1 esterase present in Es1(e) mice are due to down-regulation of gene transcription, and that this plasma esterase is responsible for the majority of CPT-11 metabolism in mice.
ESTHER : Morton_2000_Cancer.Res_60_4206
PubMedSearch : Morton_2000_Cancer.Res_60_4206
PubMedID: 10945631

Title : The anticancer prodrug CPT-11 is a potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase but is rapidly catalyzed to SN-38 by butyrylcholinesterase - Morton_1999_Cancer.Res_59_1458
Author(s) : Morton CL , Wadkins RM , Danks MK , Potter PM
Ref : Cancer Research , 59 :1458 , 1999
Abstract : Patients treated with high doses of CPT-11 rapidly develop a cholinergic syndrome that can be alleviated by atropine. Although CPT-11 was not a substrate for acetylcholinesterase (AcChE), in vitro assays confirmed that CPT-11 inhibited both human and electric eel AcChE with apparent K(i)s of 415 and 194 nM, respectively. In contrast, human or equine butyryl-cholinesterase (BuChE) converted CPT-11 to SN-38 with K(m)s of 42.4 and 44.2 microM for the human and horse BuChE, respectively. Modeling of CPT-11 within the predicted active site of AcChE and BuChE corroborated experimental results indicating that, although the drug was oriented correctly for activation, the constraints dictated by the active site gorge were such that CPT-11 would be unlikely to be activated by AcChE.
ESTHER : Morton_1999_Cancer.Res_59_1458
PubMedSearch : Morton_1999_Cancer.Res_59_1458
PubMedID: 10197614

Title : Water soluble 20(S)-glycinate esters of 10,11-methylenedioxycamptothecins are highly active against human breast cancer xenografts - Wadkins_1999_Cancer.Res_59_3424
Author(s) : Wadkins RM , Potter PM , Vladu B , Marty J , Mangold G , Weitman S , Manikumar G , Wani MC , Wall ME , Von Hoff DD
Ref : Cancer Research , 59 :3424 , 1999
Abstract : Water-soluble 20(S)-glycinate esters of two highly potent 10,11-methylenedioxy analogues of camptothecin (CPT) have been synthesized and evaluated for their ability to eradicate human breast cancer tumor xenografts. The glycinate ester moiety increases the water solubility of the 10,11-methylenedioxy analogues 4-16-fold. However, in contrast to CPT-11, a water-soluble CPT analogue that was recently approved for second line treatment of colorectal cancer, the 20(S)-glycinate esters do not require carboxylesterase for conversion to their active forms. The glycinate esters are hydrolyzed to their parent, free 20(S)-hydroxyl active analogues in phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) and in mouse and human plasma. The glycinate esters are also 20-40-fold less potent than CPT-11 in inhibiting human acetylcholinesterase. In vivo, we examined 20(S)-glycinate-10,11-methylenedioxycamptothecin, 20(S)-glycinate-7-chloromethyl-10,11-methylenedioxycamptothecin, and CPT-11. We found that the two 10,11-methylenedioxy analogues had antitumor activity against breast cancer xenografts that was comparable to that of CPT-11. Our results indicate that water-soluble 20(S)-glycinate esters of highly potent CPT analogues provide compounds that maintain biological activity, do not require interactions with carboxylesterases, and do not inhibit human acetylcholinesterase.
ESTHER : Wadkins_1999_Cancer.Res_59_3424
PubMedSearch : Wadkins_1999_Cancer.Res_59_3424
PubMedID: 10416605

Title : Comparison of activation of CPT-11 by rabbit and human carboxylesterases for use in enzyme\/prodrug therapy - Danks_1999_Clin.Cancer.Res_5_917
Author(s) : Danks MK , Morton CL , Krull EJ , Cheshire PJ , Richmond LB , Naeve CW , Pawlik CA , Houghton PJ , Potter PM
Ref : Clin Cancer Research , 5 :917 , 1999
Abstract : Several recent studies have examined the possibility of producing tumor-specific cytotoxicity with various enzyme/ prodrug combinations. The enzymes are targeted to tumor cells either with antibodies (ADEPT, antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy) or with viruses (VDEPT). The goal of the present study was to identify an appropriate enzyme for use in activating the prodrug 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piper-idino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothe cin (CPT-11). In this study, we compared the efficiency of CPT-11 metabolism by rabbit and human carboxylesterases in in vitro and in situ assays. Although the rabbit and human enzymes are very similar (81% identical; 86% homologous) and the active site amino acids are 100% identical, the rabbit enzyme was 100-1000-fold more efficient at converting CPT-11 to SN-38 in vitro and was 12-55-fold more efficient in sensitizing transfected cells to CPT-11. In vivo, Rh30 rhabdomyosarcoma cells expressing the rabbit carboxylesterase and grown as xenografts in immune-deprived mice were also more sensitive to CPT-11 than were control xenografts or xenografts expressing the human enzyme. Each of the three types of xenografts regressed when the mice were treated with CPT-11 given i.v. at 2.5 mg of CPT-11/kg/daily for 5 days/week for 2 weeks [(dx5)2] (one cycle of therapy), repeated every 21 days for a total of three cycles. However, following cessation of treatment, recurrent tumors were detected in seven of seven mice bearing control Rh30 xenografts and in two of seven mice bearing Rh30 xenografts that expressed the human enzyme. No tumors recurred in mice bearing xenografts that expressed the rabbit carboxylesterase. We conclude that rabbit carboxylesterase/CPT-11 may be a useful enzyme/prodrug combination.
ESTHER : Danks_1999_Clin.Cancer.Res_5_917
PubMedSearch : Danks_1999_Clin.Cancer.Res_5_917
PubMedID: 10213229

Title : Conversion of the CPT-11 metabolite APC to SN-38 by rabbit liver carboxylesterase - Guichard_1998_Clin.Cancer.Res_4_3089
Author(s) : Guichard SM , Morton CL , Krull EJ , Stewart CF , Danks MK , Potter PM
Ref : Clin Cancer Research , 4 :3089 , 1998
Abstract : The anticancer drug CPT-11 (7-ethyl-[4(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin) is a water-soluble derivative of camptothecin. We report here the conversion of APC (7-ethyl-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidino] carbonyloxycamptothecin), an inactive metabolite of CPT-11, to SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin), the active metabolite of CPT-11, by a rabbit liver carboxylesterase. This reaction is not catalyzed by any known human enzyme. The formation of SN-38 from APC was characterized by an apparent Km of 37.9 +/- 7.1 microM and a Vmax of 16.9 +/- 0.9 pmol/units/min. SN-38 was confirmed as a reaction product by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. A 24-h incubation of 10 microM APC with 500 units/ml of rabbit carboxylesterase produced 4 microM SN-38. The product of this reaction inhibited the growth of U373 MG human glioblastoma cells in vitro. The IC50 for a 24-h exposure of U373 MG cells to APC in the presence of 50 units/ml of rabbit carboxylesterase was 0.27 +/- 0.08 microM, whereas APC alone demonstrated no inhibition of growth at concentrations up to 1 microM. The IC50 of U373 MG cells transfected with the cDNA encoding the rabbit carboxylesterase (U373pIRESrabbit) and exposed to APC for 24 h was 0.8 +/- 0.1 microM APC, whereas the growth of cells transfected with vector control (U373pIRES) was unaffected by up to 1 microM APC. Because APC is nontoxic to human cells, we are investigating the possibility of using APC/rabbit carboxylesterase in a prodrug/enzyme therapeutic approach.
ESTHER : Guichard_1998_Clin.Cancer.Res_4_3089
PubMedSearch : Guichard_1998_Clin.Cancer.Res_4_3089
PubMedID: 9865925

Title : Overexpression of a rabbit liver carboxylesterase sensitizes human tumor cells to CPT-11 - Danks_1998_Cancer.Res_58_20
Author(s) : Danks MK , Morton CL , Pawlik CA , Potter PM
Ref : Cancer Research , 58 :20 , 1998
Abstract : CPT-11 [7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin ] is a prodrug that is converted to the active metabolite SN-38 by carboxylesterases. In its active form, the drug inhibits topoisomerase I, causes DNA damage, and induces apoptosis. Data in this study show metabolism of CPT-11 to SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin) by a rabbit liver carboxylesterase in vitro and growth-inhibitory activity of the products of the reaction. Additionally, stable expression of the cDNA encoding this protein in Rh30 human rhabdomyosarcoma cells increased the sensitivity of the cells to CPT-11 8.1-fold. We propose that this prodrug/enzyme combination can be exploited therapeutically in a manner analogous to approaches currently under investigation with the combinations of ganciclovir/herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and 5-fluorocytosine/cytosine deaminase.
ESTHER : Danks_1998_Cancer.Res_58_20
PubMedSearch : Danks_1998_Cancer.Res_58_20
PubMedID: 9426050
Gene_locus related to this paper: rabit-1cxes

Title : Isolation and partial characterization of a cDNA encoding a rabbit liver carboxylesterase that activates the prodrug irinotecan (CPT-11) - Potter_1998_Cancer.Res_58_2646
Author(s) : Potter PM , Pawlik CA , Morton CL , Naeve CW , Danks MK
Ref : Cancer Research , 58 :2646 , 1998
Abstract : We have isolated a cDNA encoding a rabbit carboxylesterase (CE; EC that converts the camptothecin-derived prodrug irinotecan (CPT-11) to the potent topoisomerase I inhibitor 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin. NH2-terminal amino acid sequencing of a purified rabbit CE allowed the design of redundant oligonucleotides to perform PCR from rabbit liver cDNA. DNA sequencing of the PCR product confirmed the identity of the clone, and after both 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify the entire cDNA. The 1698-bp open reading frame encoded a 565-amino acid protein containing the characteristic CE B-1 and B-2 motifs, a hydrophobic NH2-terminal leader sequence, and the COOH-terminal residues HIEL that are thought to be responsible for protein localization in the endoplasmic reticulum. Transient expression of the cDNA in COS-7 cells resulted in CE activity in cell extracts and increased the sensitivity of cells to CPT-11. Additionally, stable expression of the rabbit liver CE cDNA in the human glioma U-373 MG cell line resulted in a 56-fold decrease in the IC50 value for CPT-11, whereas the expression of a human alveolar macrophage cDNA encoding a highly homologous CE produced no change in drug sensitivity.
ESTHER : Potter_1998_Cancer.Res_58_2646
PubMedSearch : Potter_1998_Cancer.Res_58_2646
PubMedID: 9635592
Gene_locus related to this paper: rabit-1cxes

Title : Cellular localization domains of a rabbit and a human carboxylesterase: influence on irinotecan (CPT-11) metabolism by the rabbit enzyme - Potter_1998_Cancer.Res_58_3627
Author(s) : Potter PM , Wolverton JS , Morton CL , Wierdl M , Danks MK
Ref : Cancer Research , 58 :3627 , 1998
Abstract : Enzyme activation of prodrugs to improve the therapeutic index of specific anticancer agents is an attractive alternative to current chemotherapy regimens. This study addresses the potential for activating irinotecan (CPT-11) with recombinant carboxylesterases (CEs). CEs are a ubiquitous class of enzymes thought to be involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics. Their primary amino acid sequence indicates that these proteins should be localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. By PCR-mediated mutagenesis of a rabbit liver and a human alveolar macrophage CE cDNA, expression in Cos7 cells, and subsequent immunohistochemical localization, we have determined that an 18-amino acid NH2-terminal hydrophobic signal peptide is responsible for the localization of these proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. By similar approaches, we have demonstrated that the COOH-terminal amino acids HIEL prevent secretion of the proteins from the cell. Enzymatic activity was lost by removing the NH2-terminal domain; however, active enzyme could be detected in the culture media of cells expressing the COOH-terminally truncated proteins. Secretion of CEs lacking the six COOH-terminal amino acids could be prevented with brefeldin A, confirming that these truncated enzymes were processed and released from cells by endoplasmic reticulum-mediated exocytosis. Double-truncation mutant enzymes lacking both NH2- and COOH-terminal sequences demonstrated immunostaining patterns similar to those of the NH2-terminally truncated proteins and also lacked CE activity. In all cases, metabolism of the classic esterase substrate o-nitrophenyl acetate predicted the sensitivity of cells expressing the rabbit CE to the anticancer agent CPT-11. In addition, the secreted enzyme sensitized Cos7 cells to this drug, indicating that protein association with a lipid bilayer is not required for substrate metabolism.
ESTHER : Potter_1998_Cancer.Res_58_3627
PubMedSearch : Potter_1998_Cancer.Res_58_3627
PubMedID: 9721871

Title : In situ subcellular localization of epitope-tagged human and rabbit carboxylesterases - Potter_1998_Cytometry_32_223
Author(s) : Potter PM , Wolverton JS , Morton CL , Whipple DO , Danks MK
Ref : Cytometry , 32 :223 , 1998
Abstract : Carboxylesterases are a ubiquitous class of enzymes thought to be involved in xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification. Primary amino acid sequence data suggest that these proteins localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. However, since this family of proteins is highly homologous, the generation of specific reagents to monitor expression and subcellular localization has been unsuccessful. To accomplish in situ detection of a human alveolar macrophage carboxylesterase and a rabbit liver carboxylesterase, we constructed plasmids that expressed recombinant proteins containing an 11 amino acid influenza hemagglutinin tag near the C-terminus. These proteins retained carboxylesterase activity as determined by the conversion of o-nitrophenol acetate to o-nitrophenol. Following transfection of plasmids encoding these proteins into mammalian cells, cells were analyzed by both fluorescence and electron microscopy. The tagged enzymes were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum of both Cos7 monkey kidney cells and Rh30 human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. No tagged protein was detectable in the culture media. Hence, epitope tagging allowed the analysis of expression and localization of specific carboxylesterases. The methods described in this paper are, therefore, applicable to any protein, including those that are highly homologous to other candidate molecules.
ESTHER : Potter_1998_Cytometry_32_223
PubMedSearch : Potter_1998_Cytometry_32_223
PubMedID: 9667512

Title : Metabolism of 2-naphthylamine and benzidine by rat and human bladder organ cultures - Moore_1984_Carcinogenesis_5_949
Author(s) : Moore BP , Potter PM , Hicks RM
Ref : Carcinogenesis , 5 :949 , 1984
Abstract : The metabolism of benzidine and 2-naphthylamine, two aromatic amines which are carcinogenic for the human, was investigated in human and rat bladder organ cultures. There was little oxidative metabolism of either carcinogen in either species. In particular, N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine, a proximate carcinogen of 2-naphthylamine could not be detected. In contrast, large amounts of the acetylated metabolites, N-acetylbenzidine, N,N-diacetylbenzidine and N-acetyl-2-naphthylamine were formed both in rat and human bladder cultures. The results suggest that metabolism of these carcinogens in situ in the bladder is unlikely to contribute to their carcinogenic effect but instead may have a positive protective role.
ESTHER : Moore_1984_Carcinogenesis_5_949
PubMedSearch : Moore_1984_Carcinogenesis_5_949
PubMedID: 6733857