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References (5)

Title : Methyl CpG-binding protein isoform MeCP2_e2 is dispensable for Rett syndrome phenotypes but essential for embryo viability and placenta development - Itoh_2012_J.Biol.Chem_287_13859
Author(s) : Itoh M , Tahimic CG , Ide S , Otsuki A , Sasaoka T , Noguchi S , Oshimura M , Goto Y , Kurimasa A
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 287 :13859 , 2012
Abstract : Methyl CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MeCP2) mutations are implicated in Rett syndrome (RTT), one of the common causes of female mental retardation. Two MeCP2 isoforms have been reported: MeCP2_e2 (splicing of all four exons) and MeCP2_e1 (alternative splicing of exons 1, 3, and 4). Their relative expression levels vary among tissues, with MeCP2_e1 being more dominant in adult brain, whereas MeCP2_e2 is expressed more abundantly in placenta, liver, and skeletal muscle. In this study, we performed specific disruption of the MeCP2_e2-defining exon 2 using the Cre-loxP system and examined the consequences of selective loss of MeCP2_e2 function in vivo. We performed behavior evaluation, gene expression analysis, using RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR, and histological analysis. We demonstrate that selective deletion of MeCP2_e2 does not result in RTT-associated neurological phenotypes but confers a survival disadvantage to embryos carrying a MeCP2_e2 null allele of maternal origin. In addition, we reveal a specific requirement for MeCP2_e2 function in extraembryonic tissue, where selective loss of MeCP2_e2 results in placenta defects and up-regulation of peg-1, as determined by the parental origin of the mutant allele. Taken together, our findings suggest a novel role for MeCP2 in normal placenta development and illustrate how paternal X chromosome inactivation in extraembryonic tissues confers a survival disadvantage for carriers of a mutant maternal MeCP2_e2 allele. Moreover, our findings provide an explanation for the absence of reports on MeCP2_e2-specific exon 2 mutations in RTT. MeCP2_e2 mutations in humans may result in a phenotype that evades a diagnosis of RTT.
ESTHER : Itoh_2012_J.Biol.Chem_287_13859
PubMedSearch : Itoh_2012_J.Biol.Chem_287_13859
PubMedID: 22375006
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-MEST

Title : Impaired muscarinic regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the APPswe\/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease - Goto_2008_Eur.J.Pharmacol_583_84
Author(s) : Goto Y , Niidome T , Hongo H , Akaike A , Kihara T , Sugimoto H
Ref : European Journal of Pharmacology , 583 :84 , 2008
Abstract : Cholinergic hypothesis and amyloid cascade hypothesis are mainly proposed for Alzheimer's disease; however, the relationship between these hypotheses is poorly understood. To address the question of whether amyloid beta-peptide pathology affects cholinergic neurotransmission, we examined the effect of a cholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine, on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked by single-pulse stimulation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of various APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice with different degrees of amyloid beta-peptide pathology. Reduced field EPSPs by physostigmine in transgenic mice at 3 months of age, when the mice had negligible amyloid beta-peptide levels and no amyloid beta-peptide deposits, were indistinguishable from those in age-matched wild-type mice. In contrast, reduced field EPSPs by physostigmine in transgenic mice at 5 months of age, when the mice had low amyloid beta-peptide levels and subtle amyloid beta-peptide deposits, were significantly lower than those in age-matched wild-type mice. Next, we characterized acetylcholine receptors, which play important roles in cholinergic neurotransmission, because physostigmine resulted in increased acetylcholine levels in the synaptic cleft. Different reductions of field EPSPs by physostigmine between transgenic and wild-type mice at 5 months of age were not affected by a nicotinic receptor antagonist, mecamylamine; however, reduced field EPSPs by physostigmine in both transgenic and wild-type mice were restored to basal levels by a muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine. These results indicate that cholinergic modulation of glutamatergic transmission is already impaired at the onset of the formation of amyloid beta-peptide deposits, and muscarinic receptor dysfunction is one of the causes of this impairment.
ESTHER : Goto_2008_Eur.J.Pharmacol_583_84
PubMedSearch : Goto_2008_Eur.J.Pharmacol_583_84
PubMedID: 18282567

Title : Haplotype structures of EPHX1 and their effects on the metabolism of carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide in Japanese epileptic patients - Nakajima_2005_Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol_61_25
Author(s) : Nakajima Y , Saito Y , Shiseki K , Fukushima-Uesaka H , Hasegawa R , Ozawa S , Sugai K , Katoh M , Saitoh O , Ohnuma T , Kawai M , Ohtsuki T , Suzuki C , Minami N , Kimura H , Goto Y , Kamatani N , Kaniwa N , Sawada J
Ref : European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , 61 :25 , 2005
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is an enzyme that detoxifies reactive epoxides and catalyzes the biotransformation of carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-epoxide) to carbamazepine-10,11-diol (CBZ-diol). Utilizing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the EPHX1 gene encoding mEH, we identified the haplotypes of EPHX1 blocks and investigated the association between the block haplotypes and CBZ-epoxide metabolism.
METHODS: SNPs of EPHX1 were analyzed by means of polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing using DNA extracted from the blood leukocytes of 96 Japanese epileptic patients, including 58 carbamazepine-administered patients. The plasma concentrations of CBZ and its four metabolites were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS: From sequencing all 9 exons and their surrounding introns, 29 SNPs were found in EPHX1. The SNPs were separated into three blocks on the basis of linkage disequilibrium, and the block haplotype combinations (diplotypes) were assigned. Using plasma CBZ-diol/CBZ-epoxide ratios (diol/epoxide ratios) indicative of the mEH activity, the effects of the diplotypes in each EPHX1 block were analyzed on CBZ-epoxide metabolism. In block 2, the diol/epoxide ratios increased significantly depending on the number of haplotype *2 bearing Y113H (P=0.0241). In block 3, the ratios decreased depending on the number of haplotype *2 bearing H139R (P=0.0351). Also, an increasing effect of a *1 subtype, *1c, was observed on the ratio. CONCLUSION: These results show that some EPHX1 haplotypes are associated with altered CBZ-epoxide metabolism. This is the first report on the haplotype structures of EPHX1 and their potential in vivo effects.
ESTHER : Nakajima_2005_Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol_61_25
PubMedSearch : Nakajima_2005_Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol_61_25
PubMedID: 15692831

Title : Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs - Ota_2004_Nat.Genet_36_40
Author(s) : Ota T , Suzuki Y , Nishikawa T , Otsuki T , Sugiyama T , Irie R , Wakamatsu A , Hayashi K , Sato H , Nagai K , Kimura K , Makita H , Sekine M , Obayashi M , Nishi T , Shibahara T , Tanaka T , Ishii S , Yamamoto J , Saito K , Kawai Y , Isono Y , Nakamura Y , Nagahari K , Murakami K , Yasuda T , Iwayanagi T , Wagatsuma M , Shiratori A , Sudo H , Hosoiri T , Kaku Y , Kodaira H , Kondo H , Sugawara M , Takahashi M , Kanda K , Yokoi T , Furuya T , Kikkawa E , Omura Y , Abe K , Kamihara K , Katsuta N , Sato K , Tanikawa M , Yamazaki M , Ninomiya K , Ishibashi T , Yamashita H , Murakawa K , Fujimori K , Tanai H , Kimata M , Watanabe M , Hiraoka S , Chiba Y , Ishida S , Ono Y , Takiguchi S , Watanabe S , Yosida M , Hotuta T , Kusano J , Kanehori K , Takahashi-Fujii A , Hara H , Tanase TO , Nomura Y , Togiya S , Komai F , Hara R , Takeuchi K , Arita M , Imose N , Musashino K , Yuuki H , Oshima A , Sasaki N , Aotsuka S , Yoshikawa Y , Matsunawa H , Ichihara T , Shiohata N , Sano S , Moriya S , Momiyama H , Satoh N , Takami S , Terashima Y , Suzuki O , Nakagawa S , Senoh A , Mizoguchi H , Goto Y , Shimizu F , Wakebe H , Hishigaki H , Watanabe T , Sugiyama A , Takemoto M , Kawakami B , Watanabe K , Kumagai A , Itakura S , Fukuzumi Y , Fujimori Y , Komiyama M , Tashiro H , Tanigami A , Fujiwara T , Ono T , Yamada K , Fujii Y , Ozaki K , Hirao M , Ohmori Y , Kawabata A , Hikiji T , Kobatake N , Inagaki H , Ikema Y , Okamoto S , Okitani R , Kawakami T , Noguchi S , Itoh T , Shigeta K , Senba T , Matsumura K , Nakajima Y , Mizuno T , Morinaga M , Sasaki M , Togashi T , Oyama M , Hata H , Komatsu T , Mizushima-Sugano J , Satoh T , Shirai Y , Takahashi Y , Nakagawa K , Okumura K , Nagase T , Nomura N , Kikuchi H , Masuho Y , Yamashita R , Nakai K , Yada T , Ohara O , Isogai T , Sugano S
Ref : Nat Genet , 36 :40 , 2004
Abstract : As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.
ESTHER : Ota_2004_Nat.Genet_36_40
PubMedSearch : Ota_2004_Nat.Genet_36_40
PubMedID: 14702039
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD1 , human-ABHD4 , human-ABHD12 , human-ABHD16A , human-ACOT1 , human-LDAH , human-ABHD18 , human-CES1 , human-CES4A , human-CES5A , human-CPVL , human-DAGLB , human-EPHX2 , human-KANSL3 , human-LIPA , human-LPL , human-MEST , human-NDRG1 , human-NLGN1 , human-NLGN4X , human-PRCP , human-PRSS16 , human-SERAC1 , human-TMEM53

Title : Five novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the EPHX1 gene encoding microsomal epoxide hydrolase - Shiseki_2003_Drug.Metab.Pharmacokinet_18_150
Author(s) : Shiseki K , Itoda M , Saito Y , Nakajima Y , Maekawa K , Kimura H , Goto Y , Saitoh O , Katoh M , Ohnuma T , Kawai M , Sugai K , Ohtsuki T , Suzuki C , Minami N , Ozawa S , Sawada J
Ref : Drug Metab Pharmacokinet , 18 :150 , 2003
Abstract : Five novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the EPHX1 gene from 96 Japanese epileptic patients. The detected SNPs were as follows: 1) SNP, MPJ6_EX1009; GENE NAME, EPHX1 ACCESSION NUMBER, NT_004525.12; LENGTH, 25 bases; 5'-CCTCACTTCAGTG/ACTGGGCTTTGCC-3'. 2) SNP, MPJ6_EX1013; GENE NAME, EPHX1; ACCESSION NUMBER, NT_004525.12; LENGTH, 25 bases; 5'-TCCGCAGCCAGGG/CAGGACGACAGCA-3'. 3) SNP, MPJ6_EX1026; GENE NAME, EPHX1; ACCESSION NUMBER, NT_004525.12; LENGTH, 25 bases; 5'-GTTCTCCCTGGAC/TGACCTGCTGACC-3'. 4) SNP, MPJ6_EX1028; GENE NAME, EPHX1; ACCESSION NUMBER, NT_004525.12; LENGTH, 25 bases; 5'-AGGCAGGGGGACG/AGCCAGTCTTGGG-3'. 5) SNP, MPJ6_EX1030; GENE NAME, EPHX1; ACCESSION NUMBER, NT_004525.12; LENGTH, 25 bases; 5'-TGAAAAGTGGGTG/AAGGTTCAAGTAC-3'. The frequencies were 0.016 for MPJ6_EX1028 (IVS8+54G>A) and 0.005 for the other SNPs. The SNP MPJ6_EX1013 (130G>C) results in an amino acid alteration (E44Q). The other three SNPs in the coding region, MPJ6_EX1009 (30G>A), MPJ6_EX1026 (1056C>T), and MPJ6_EX1030 (1239G>A) result in synonymous changes (V10V, D352D, and V413V, respectively).
ESTHER : Shiseki_2003_Drug.Metab.Pharmacokinet_18_150
PubMedSearch : Shiseki_2003_Drug.Metab.Pharmacokinet_18_150
PubMedID: 15618730
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-EPHX1