Nakai K

References (8)

Title : Efficacy and Safety of Sustained Release Donepezil High Dose versus Immediate Release Donepezil Standard Dose in Japanese Patients with Severe Alzheimer's Disease: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial - Homma_2016_J.Alzheimers.Dis_52_345
Author(s) : Homma A , Atarashi H , Kubota N , Nakai K , Takase T
Ref : J Alzheimers Dis , 52 :345 , 2016
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Donepezil is an established treatment for mild, moderate, and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). An international study demonstrated superior efficacy of sustained release (SR) 23 mg/day donepezil over immediate release (IR) 10 mg/day donepezil for cognitive function, but not global function in moderate-to-severe AD. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the superiority of SR 23 mg/day donepezil over IR 10 mg/day donepezil in Japanese patients with severe AD (SAD).
METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, Japanese outpatients with SAD were randomly assigned to continue IR 10 mg/day or switch to SR 23 mg/day for 24 weeks. Endpoints included the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB), Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change Plus Caregiver Input (CIBIC-plus), and safety.
RESULTS: Overall, 166 and 185 patients were randomized to receive IR 10 mg/day and SR 23 mg/day, respectively. SR 23 mg/day was not statistically superior to IR 10 mg/day by SIB (least squares mean difference [LSMD]: 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.7, 1.8; p = 0.981) or CIBIC-plus (LSMD: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.0, 0.4; p = 0.080). Common adverse events in the SR 23 mg group were decreased appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, and contusion. Safety findings were consistent with known safety profiles of donepezil. CONCLUSION: SR 23 mg/day donepezil was not superior to IR 10 mg/day donepezil regarding the efficacy endpoints for Japanese SAD. Considering that a 10 mg/day dose is approved for SAD in Japan, the present findings suggest that IR 10 mg/day donepezil is the optimal dosage for Japanese patients with SAD.
ESTHER : Homma_2016_J.Alzheimers.Dis_52_345
PubMedSearch : Homma_2016_J.Alzheimers.Dis_52_345
PubMedID: 26967222

Title : Comparative genomic analyses of Streptococcus mutans provide insights into chromosomal shuffling and species-specific content - Maruyama_2009_BMC.Genomics_10_358
Author(s) : Maruyama F , Kobata M , Kurokawa K , Nishida K , Sakurai A , Nakano K , Nomura R , Kawabata S , Ooshima T , Nakai K , Hattori M , Hamada S , Nakagawa I
Ref : BMC Genomics , 10 :358 , 2009
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries, and it occasionally causes infective endocarditis. While the pathogenicity of this species is distinct from other human pathogenic streptococci, the species-specific evolution of the genus Streptococcus and its genomic diversity are poorly understood. RESULTS: We have sequenced the complete genome of S. mutans serotype c strain NN2025, and compared it with the genome of UA159. The NN2025 genome is composed of 2,013,587 bp, and the two strains show highly conserved core-genome. However, comparison of the two S. mutans strains showed a large genomic inversion across the replication axis producing an X-shaped symmetrical DNA dot plot. This phenomenon was also observed between other streptococcal species, indicating that streptococcal genetic rearrangements across the replication axis play an important role in Streptococcus genetic shuffling. We further confirmed the genomic diversity among 95 clinical isolates using long-PCR analysis. Genomic diversity in S. mutans appears to occur frequently between insertion sequence (IS) elements and transposons, and these diversity regions consist of restriction/modification systems, antimicrobial peptide synthesis systems, and transporters. S. mutans may preferentially reject the phage infection by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). In particular, the CRISPR-2 region, which is highly divergent between strains, in NN2025 has long repeated spacer sequences corresponding to the streptococcal phage genome. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that S. mutans strains evolve through chromosomal shuffling and that phage infection is not needed for gene acquisition. In contrast, S. pyogenes tolerates phage infection for acquisition of virulence determinants for niche adaptation.
ESTHER : Maruyama_2009_BMC.Genomics_10_358
PubMedSearch : Maruyama_2009_BMC.Genomics_10_358
PubMedID: 19656368
Gene_locus related to this paper: strmn-c6spx6 , strmu-BGLB , strmu-SMU.118C , strmu-SMU.643 , strmu-SMU.1314 , strmu-SMU.1443C , strmu-SMU.1678

Title : Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs - Ota_2004_Nat.Genet_36_40
Author(s) : Ota T , Suzuki Y , Nishikawa T , Otsuki T , Sugiyama T , Irie R , Wakamatsu A , Hayashi K , Sato H , Nagai K , Kimura K , Makita H , Sekine M , Obayashi M , Nishi T , Shibahara T , Tanaka T , Ishii S , Yamamoto J , Saito K , Kawai Y , Isono Y , Nakamura Y , Nagahari K , Murakami K , Yasuda T , Iwayanagi T , Wagatsuma M , Shiratori A , Sudo H , Hosoiri T , Kaku Y , Kodaira H , Kondo H , Sugawara M , Takahashi M , Kanda K , Yokoi T , Furuya T , Kikkawa E , Omura Y , Abe K , Kamihara K , Katsuta N , Sato K , Tanikawa M , Yamazaki M , Ninomiya K , Ishibashi T , Yamashita H , Murakawa K , Fujimori K , Tanai H , Kimata M , Watanabe M , Hiraoka S , Chiba Y , Ishida S , Ono Y , Takiguchi S , Watanabe S , Yosida M , Hotuta T , Kusano J , Kanehori K , Takahashi-Fujii A , Hara H , Tanase TO , Nomura Y , Togiya S , Komai F , Hara R , Takeuchi K , Arita M , Imose N , Musashino K , Yuuki H , Oshima A , Sasaki N , Aotsuka S , Yoshikawa Y , Matsunawa H , Ichihara T , Shiohata N , Sano S , Moriya S , Momiyama H , Satoh N , Takami S , Terashima Y , Suzuki O , Nakagawa S , Senoh A , Mizoguchi H , Goto Y , Shimizu F , Wakebe H , Hishigaki H , Watanabe T , Sugiyama A , Takemoto M , Kawakami B , Watanabe K , Kumagai A , Itakura S , Fukuzumi Y , Fujimori Y , Komiyama M , Tashiro H , Tanigami A , Fujiwara T , Ono T , Yamada K , Fujii Y , Ozaki K , Hirao M , Ohmori Y , Kawabata A , Hikiji T , Kobatake N , Inagaki H , Ikema Y , Okamoto S , Okitani R , Kawakami T , Noguchi S , Itoh T , Shigeta K , Senba T , Matsumura K , Nakajima Y , Mizuno T , Morinaga M , Sasaki M , Togashi T , Oyama M , Hata H , Komatsu T , Mizushima-Sugano J , Satoh T , Shirai Y , Takahashi Y , Nakagawa K , Okumura K , Nagase T , Nomura N , Kikuchi H , Masuho Y , Yamashita R , Nakai K , Yada T , Ohara O , Isogai T , Sugano S
Ref : Nat Genet , 36 :40 , 2004
Abstract : As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.
ESTHER : Ota_2004_Nat.Genet_36_40
PubMedSearch : Ota_2004_Nat.Genet_36_40
PubMedID: 14702039
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD1 , human-ABHD4 , human-ABHD12 , human-ABHD16A , human-ACOT1 , human-LDAH , human-ABHD18 , human-CES1 , human-CES4A , human-CES5A , human-CPVL , human-DAGLB , human-EPHX2 , human-KANSL3 , human-LIPA , human-LPL , human-MEST , human-NDRG1 , human-NLGN1 , human-NLGN4X , human-PRCP , human-PRSS16 , human-SERAC1 , human-TMEM53

Title : Enhancement of hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission through 5-HT1A receptor-mediated pathways by repeated lithium treatment in rats - Fujii_2000_Can.J.Physiol.Pharmacol_78_392
Author(s) : Fujii T , Nakai K , Nakajima Y , Kawashima K
Ref : Canadian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology , 78 :392 , 2000
Abstract : Hippocampal cholinergic neuronal activity is reported to be regulated, at least partly, through serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptors. Chronic lithium treatment has been shown to alter both behavioral and neurochemical responses mediated by postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. We investigated whether long-term lithium treatment affects central cholinergic neurotransmission through 5-HT1A receptor-mediated pathways. Changes in acetylcholine (ACh) release induced by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, in the rat hippocampus were measured using a microdialysis technique and a radioimmunoassay for ACh. Administration of lithium for 21 days resulted in a serum lithium concentration of 1.03 mM and caused little change in density or affinity of [3H]8-OH-DPAT binding sites in the hippocampus. The local application of 8-OH-DPAT into the hippocampus of lithium treated rats increased the ACh efflux in both the absence and the presence of physostigmine, a cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor, in the perfusion fluid. The basal ACh efflux of lithium treated rats was not different from that of the control rats under normal conditions, but was significantly higher than that of the controls when ChE was inhibited. These results demonstrate that chronic lithium treatment increases spontaneous ACh release in the hippocampus under conditions of ChE inhibition, but not under normal conditions, and enhances cholinergic neurotransmission through 5-HT1A receptor-mediated pathways, and suggest that activation of 5-HT1A receptor function by lithium is related to the enhancement of hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission.
ESTHER : Fujii_2000_Can.J.Physiol.Pharmacol_78_392
PubMedSearch : Fujii_2000_Can.J.Physiol.Pharmacol_78_392
PubMedID: 10841434

Title : Enhancement of the serotonin-mediated acetylcholine release by repeated desmethylimipramine treatment in the hippocampus of freely moving rats - Fujii_1999_Jpn.J.Pharmacol_80_303
Author(s) : Fujii T , Ohba S , Nakai K , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T , Kawashima K
Ref : Japanese Journal of Pharmacology , 80 :303 , 1999
Abstract : A possible involvement of serotonin-mediated cholinergic activation in the antidepressant effect of desmethylimipramine (DMI) was investigated by determination of the effects of a single or repeated DMI administration on acetylcholine (ACh) release in the hippocampus using an in vivo microdialysis technique and a radioimmunoassay for ACh. Rats were administered DMI (10 mg/kg, i.p.) acutely or repeatedly for 21 days. A single or repeated DMI administration did not cause any significant effects on the basal ACh release compared with the respective controls. Atropine perfusion in the acutely DMI-treated or control rats increased the ACh release to the same degree. In repeatedly DMI-treated rats, serotonin (5-HT) (1 to 10 microM) perfusion enhanced significantly the ACh release. However, 5-HT in acutely DMI-treated rats enhanced significantly the ACh release only at 10 microM. 5-HT did not cause any changes in ACh release in control rats. Hippocampal 5-HT content of acutely DMI-treated rats was significantly higher than that of saline-treated control rats, while no difference was observed between the repeatedly DMI- and saline-treated rats. These findings suggest, for the first time, that DMI induced a facilitation of cholinergic neurotransmission in the rat hippocampus through the activation of 5-HT-receptor function.
ESTHER : Fujii_1999_Jpn.J.Pharmacol_80_303
PubMedSearch : Fujii_1999_Jpn.J.Pharmacol_80_303
PubMedID: 10496330

Title : Effect of WAY-100135 on the hippocampal acetylcholine release potentiated by 8-OH-DPAT, a serotonin1A receptor agonist, in normal and p-chlorophenylalanine-treated rats as measured by in vivo microdialysis - Nakai_1998_Neurosci.Res_31_23
Author(s) : Nakai K , Fujii T , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T , Kawashima K
Ref : Neurosci Res , 31 :23 , 1998
Abstract : The mechanisms involved in the enhancement of acetylcholine (ACh) release in the rat hippocampus by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor agonist, were investigated using in vivo microdialysis. Administration of p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg, i.p.), a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, 3 days before the dialysis experiments reduced the hippocampal 5-HT content to 30% of that in saline-treated rats, but did not affect basal ACh release in the hippocampus. 8-OH-DPAT administered systemically (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) or applied locally (30 microM) into the hippocampus through the dialysis probe significantly enhanced the release of ACh in the hippocampus of PCPA-treated rats to the same degree as that in saline-treated rats. Pretreatment with (+)WAY-100135 (5 mg/kg, i.p.), a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, completely eliminated the enhancement of ACh release induced by locally applied 8-OH-DPAT, but only partially reduced the effects induced by systemically administered 8-OH-DPAT, in both groups of rats. Systemically administered 8-OH-DPAT induced hyperlocomotion in the both saline- and PCPA-treated rats, but this was not eliminated by (+)WAY-100135. 8-OH-DPAT applied locally into the hippocampus did not elicit hyperlocomotion in either group of rats. These results suggest that the modification of endogenous 5-HT release via the 5-HT1A autoreceptor is not involved in the 8-OH-DPAT-induced increase of hippocampal ACh release, and that the increase of ACh release induced by locally applied 8-OH-DPAT involves mainly hippocampal postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor stimulation. In addition, a possibility that subtypes of 5-HT receptors other than the 5-HT1A receptor, probably 5-HT7 receptor in the septum as well as postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor in the hippocampus, are involved in the increased hippocampal ACh release induced by systemically administered 8-OH-DPAT is discussed.
ESTHER : Nakai_1998_Neurosci.Res_31_23
PubMedSearch : Nakai_1998_Neurosci.Res_31_23
PubMedID: 9704975

Title : Demonstration of the facilitatory role of 8-OH-DPAT on cholinergic transmission in the rat hippocampus using in vivo microdialysis - Fujii_1997_Brain.Res_761_244
Author(s) : Fujii T , Yoshizawa M , Nakai K , Fujimoto K , Suzuki T , Kawashima K
Ref : Brain Research , 761 :244 , 1997
Abstract : The role of the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor in the regulation of acetylcholine (ACh) release in the hippocampus was investigated using an in vivo microdialysis technique and a sensitive radioimmunoassay specific for ACh. The mean (+/- S.E.M.) basal ACh contents in the hippocampal perfusate of conscious, freely moving rats was 60 +/- 4 (n = 29) and 3691 +/- 265 fmol/30 min (n = 31), respectively, in the absence and presence of physostigmine (Phy) in the perfusion fluid. Systemic administration of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 0.5 mg/kg, s.c.), a 5-HT1A agonist, significantly enhanced ACh release both in the presence and absence of Phy. Local application of 8-OH-DPAT (3-30 microM) into the hippocampus through the microdialysis probe significantly potentiated ACh release only in the presence of Phy, whereas no significant effect was observed in its absence. Pretreatment with NAN-190 (3 mg/kg, i.p.), a 5-HT1A antagonist, eliminated the increasing effect of systemically applied 8-OH-DPAT on ACh release, while NAN-190 alone had no effect on basal ACh release either in the absence or presence of Phy. Consistent with the time course of ACh release, systemic administration of 8-OH-DPAT evoked hyperlocomotion, which was reversed by NAN-190. However, local hippocampal application of 8-OH-DPAT did not affect the locomotor activity of the rats. These findings suggest that at least two different sites are involved in the 8-OH-DPAT-induced increase in the release of ACh in the rat hippocampus in vivo.
ESTHER : Fujii_1997_Brain.Res_761_244
PubMedSearch : Fujii_1997_Brain.Res_761_244
PubMedID: 9252022

Title : Identification of open reading frames in Schizosaccharomyces pombe cDNAs - Yoshioka_1997_DNA.Res_4_363
Author(s) : Yoshioka S , Kato K , Nakai K , Okayama H , Nojima H
Ref : DNA Research , 4 :363 , 1997
Abstract : A total of 214 non-overlapping cDNA clones from Schizosaccharomyces pombe were selected and completely sequenced. The clones not previously reported were divided into the following three groups: 1) homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes (139 clones); 2) homologous to genes from other organisms but not to those from Sac. cerevisiae (4 clones); and 3) no similar sequences (40 clones). Among the 31 sequences identical to those in the public databases, 4 genes have regions corresponding to introns. Protein sequences which had homologs both in budding yeast and mammals were compared with those from Sac. cerevisiae and mammals. The search revealed that the evolutionary distances among these species are similar at least with genes of this category.
ESTHER : Yoshioka_1997_DNA.Res_4_363
PubMedSearch : Yoshioka_1997_DNA.Res_4_363
PubMedID: 9501991
Gene_locus related to this paper: schpo-SPBC16A3.12C