Kurokawa K

References (21)

Title : Donepezil prevents olfactory dysfunction and alpha-synuclein aggregation in the olfactory bulb by enhancing autophagy in zinc sulfate-treated mice - Takahashi_2022_Behav.Brain.Res__114175
Author(s) : Takahashi K , Tsuji M , Nakagawasai O , Katsuyama S , Hong L , Miyagawa K , Kurokawa K , Mochida-Saito A , Takeda H , Tadano T
Ref : Behavioural Brain Research , :114175 , 2022
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease is associated with marked olfactory dysfunction observed in the early stages. Clinical studies reported that acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil (DNP) attenuated this deficit; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Herein, we aimed to examine the effects and underlying mechanisms of DNP on olfactory deficits in zinc sulfate (ZnSO(4)) nasal-treated mice, which were used as a model of reversible olfactory impairment. We evaluated olfactory function using the buried food finding test and neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) using immunohistochemistry. Finally, we measured the expression of doublecortin (DCX), neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), olfactory marker protein, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tryptophan hydroxylase 2, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67, p-alpha-synuclein (Ser129), alpha-synuclein, p-AMPK, p-p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) (Thr389), LC3 II/I, and p-p62 in the olfactory bulb (OB) by western blotting. On day 7 after treatment, ZnSO(4)-treated mice exhibited prolonged time to find the buried food, cell proliferation enhancement in the SVZ, increased NeuN, p-alpha-synuclein (Ser129), and alpha-synuclein levels, and decreased DCX and TH levels in the OB; except for TH, these changes normalized on day 14 after treatment. Repeated administration of DNP prevented the ZnSO(4)-induced changes on day 7 after treatment. Moreover, DNP increased p-AMPK and LC3 II/I, and decreased p-p70S6K and p-p62 (Ser351) levels in the OB, suggesting that DNP enhances autophagy in the OB. These findings indicate that DNP may help prevent olfactory dysfunction by autophagy that reduces alpha-synuclein aggregation via the AMPK/mTOC1 pathway.
ESTHER : Takahashi_2022_Behav.Brain.Res__114175
PubMedSearch : Takahashi_2022_Behav.Brain.Res__114175
PubMedID: 36309244

Title : Activation of cholinergic system partially rescues olfactory dysfunction-induced learning and memory deficit in mice - Takahashi_2021_Behav.Brain.Res__113283
Author(s) : Takahashi K , Tsuji M , Nakagawasai O , Katsuyama S , Miyagawa K , Kurokawa K , Mochida-Saito A , Iwasa M , Iwasa H , Takeda H , Tadano T
Ref : Behavioural Brain Research , :113283 , 2021
Abstract : Deficits in olfaction are associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. A recent study reported that intranasal zinc sulfate (ZnSO(4))-treated mice show olfaction and memory deficits. However, it remains unknown whether olfaction deficit-induced learning and memory impairment is associated with the cholinergic system in the brain. In this study, we evaluated olfactory function by the buried food find test, and learning and memory function by the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests in ZnSO(4)-treated mice. The expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) protein in the olfactory bulb (OB), prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala was assessed by western blotting. Moreover, we observed the effect of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine on ZnSO(4)-induced learning and memory deficits. We found that intranasal ZnSO(4)-treated mice exhibited olfactory dysfunction, while this change was recovered on day 14 after treatment. Both short-term and long-term learning and memory were impaired on days 4 and 7 after treatment with ZnSO(4), whereas the former, but not the latter, was recovered on day 14 after treatment. A significant correlation was observed between olfactory function and short-term memory, but not long-term memory. Treatment with ZnSO(4) decreased the ChAT level in the OB on day 4, and increased and decreased the ChAT levels in the OB and hippocampus on day 7, respectively. Physostigmine improved the ZnSO(4)-induced deficit in short-term, but not long-term, memory. Taken together, the present results suggest that short-term memory may be closely associated with olfactory function via the cholinergic system.
ESTHER : Takahashi_2021_Behav.Brain.Res__113283
PubMedSearch : Takahashi_2021_Behav.Brain.Res__113283
PubMedID: 33819530

Title : Establishment and Characterization of a Novel Caco-2 Subclone with a Similar Low Expression Level of Human Carboxylesterase 1 to Human Small Intestine - Ohura_2016_Drug.Metab.Dispos_44_1890
Author(s) : Ohura K , Nishiyama H , Saco S , Kurokawa K , Imai T
Ref : Drug Metabolism & Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals , 44 :1890 , 2016
Abstract : Caco-2 cells predominantly express human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1), unlike the human intestine that predominantly expresses human carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2). Transport experiments using Caco-2 cell monolayers often lead to misestimation of the intestinal absorption of prodrugs because of this difference, as prodrugs designed to increase the bioavailability of parent drugs are made to be resistant to hCE2 in the intestine, so that they can be hydrolyzed by hCE1 in the liver. In the present study, we tried to establish a new Caco-2 subclone, with a similar pattern of carboxylase expression to human intestine, to enable a more accurate estimation of the intestinal absorption of prodrugs. Although no subclone could be identified with high expression levels of only hCE2, two subclones, #45 and #78, with extremely low expression levels of hCE1 were subcloned from parental Caco-2 cells by the limiting dilution technique. Unfortunately, subclone #45 did not form enterocyte-like cell monolayers due to low expression of claudins and beta-actin. However, subclone #78 formed polarized cell monolayers over 4 weeks and showed similar paracellular and transcellular transport properties to parental Caco-2 cell monolayers. In addition, the intestinal transport of oseltamivir, a hCE1 substrate, could be evaluated in subclone #78 cell monolayers, including P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux under nonhydrolysis conditions, unlike parental Caco-2 cells. Consequently, it is proposed that subclone #78 may provide a more effective system in which to evaluate the intestinal absorption of prodrugs that are intended to be hydrolyzed by hCE1.
ESTHER : Ohura_2016_Drug.Metab.Dispos_44_1890
PubMedSearch : Ohura_2016_Drug.Metab.Dispos_44_1890
PubMedID: 27638507
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES1

Title : Complete Genome Sequence of a Phenanthrene Degrader, Mycobacterium sp. Strain EPa45 (NBRC 110737), Isolated from a Phenanthrene-Degrading Consortium - Kato_2015_Genome.Announc_3_e00782
Author(s) : Kato H , Ogawa N , Ohtsubo Y , Oshima K , Toyoda A , Mori H , Nagata Y , Kurokawa K , Hattori M , Fujiyama A , Tsuda M
Ref : Genome Announc , 3 : , 2015
Abstract : A phenanthrene degrader, Mycobacterium sp. EPa45, was isolated from a phenanthrene-degrading consortium. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of EPa45, which has a 6.2-Mb single circular chromosome. We propose a phenanthrene degradation pathway in EPa45 based on the complete genome sequence.
ESTHER : Kato_2015_Genome.Announc_3_e00782
PubMedSearch : Kato_2015_Genome.Announc_3_e00782
PubMedID: 26184940
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9myco-a0a0g3iim6 , 9myco-a0a0g3ijm3 , 9myco-a0a0g3ipv9 , 9myco-a0a0g3iuf8 , 9myco-a0a0g3ivy5 , 9myco-a0a0g3ihb1

Title : Klebsormidium flaccidum genome reveals primary factors for plant terrestrial adaptation - Hori_2014_Nat.Commun_5_3978
Author(s) : Hori K , Maruyama F , Fujisawa T , Togashi T , Yamamoto N , Seo M , Sato S , Yamada T , Mori H , Tajima N , Moriyama T , Ikeuchi M , Watanabe M , Wada H , Kobayashi K , Saito M , Masuda T , Sasaki-Sekimoto Y , Mashiguchi K , Awai K , Shimojima M , Masuda S , Iwai M , Nobusawa T , Narise T , Kondo S , Saito H , Sato R , Murakawa M , Ihara Y , Oshima-Yamada Y , Ohtaka K , Satoh M , Sonobe K , Ishii M , Ohtani R , Kanamori-Sato M , Honoki R , Miyazaki D , Mochizuki H , Umetsu J , Higashi K , Shibata D , Kamiya Y , Sato N , Nakamura Y , Tabata S , Ida S , Kurokawa K , Ohta H
Ref : Nat Commun , 5 :3978 , 2014
Abstract : The colonization of land by plants was a key event in the evolution of life. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the filamentous terrestrial alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Division Charophyta, Order Klebsormidiales) to elucidate the early transition step from aquatic algae to land plants. Comparison of the genome sequence with that of other algae and land plants demonstrate that K. flaccidum acquired many genes specific to land plants. We demonstrate that K. flaccidum indeed produces several plant hormones and homologues of some of the signalling intermediates required for hormone actions in higher plants. The K. flaccidum genome also encodes a primitive system to protect against the harmful effects of high-intensity light. The presence of these plant-related systems in K. flaccidum suggests that, during evolution, this alga acquired the fundamental machinery required for adaptation to terrestrial environments.
ESTHER : Hori_2014_Nat.Commun_5_3978
PubMedSearch : Hori_2014_Nat.Commun_5_3978
PubMedID: 24865297
Gene_locus related to this paper: kleni-a0a1y1i5c5 , kleni-a0a1y1i3f9 , kleni-a0a1y1hnk2 , kleni-a0a1y1hsz2 , kleni-a0a1y1hva2 , kleni-a0a1y1i2g3 , kleni-a0a1y1i4h5 , kleni-a0a1y1i9h9

Title : Genome evolution and plasticity of Serratia marcescens, an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen - Iguchi_2014_Genome.Biol.Evol_6_2096
Author(s) : Iguchi A , Nagaya Y , Pradel E , Ooka T , Ogura Y , Katsura K , Kurokawa K , Oshima K , Hattori M , Parkhill J , Sebaihia M , Coulthurst SJ , Gotoh N , Thomson NR , Ewbank JJ , Hayashi T
Ref : Genome Biol Evol , 6 :2096 , 2014
Abstract : Serratia marcescens is an important nosocomial pathogen that can cause an array of infections, most notably of the urinary tract and bloodstream. Naturally, it is found in many environmental niches, and is capable of infecting plants and animals. The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant strains producing extended-spectrum or metallo beta-lactamases now pose a threat to public health worldwide. Here we report the complete genome sequences of two carefully selected S. marcescens strains, a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate (strain SM39) and an insect isolate (strain Db11). Our comparative analyses reveal the core genome of S. marcescens and define the potential metabolic capacity, virulence, and multidrug resistance of this species. We show a remarkable intraspecies genetic diversity, both at the sequence level and with regards genome flexibility, which may reflect the diversity of niches inhabited by members of this species. A broader analysis with other Serratia species identifies a set of approximately 3,000 genes that characterize the genus. Within this apparent genetic diversity, we identified many genes implicated in the high virulence potential and antibiotic resistance of SM39, including the metallo beta-lactamase and multiple other drug resistance determinants carried on plasmid pSMC1. We further show that pSMC1 is most closely related to plasmids circulating in Pseudomonas species. Our data will provide a valuable basis for future studies on S. marcescens and new insights into the genetic mechanisms that underlie the emergence of pathogens highly resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents.
ESTHER : Iguchi_2014_Genome.Biol.Evol_6_2096
PubMedSearch : Iguchi_2014_Genome.Biol.Evol_6_2096
PubMedID: 25070509
Gene_locus related to this paper: serma-a0a031rry9 , serma-a0a0a5sc46

Title : Complete Genome Sequence of a Propionibacterium acnes Isolate from a Sarcoidosis Patient - Minegishi_2013_Genome.Announc_1_E00016
Author(s) : Minegishi K , Aikawa C , Furukawa A , Watanabe T , Nakano T , Ogura Y , Ohtsubo Y , Kurokawa K , Hayashi T , Maruyama F , Nakagawa I , Eishi Y
Ref : Genome Announc , 1 : , 2013
Abstract : Propionibacterium acnes is a human skin commensal that resides preferentially within sebaceous follicles and is the only microorganism that has been isolated from sarcoid lesions. We report the complete genome sequence of P. acnes, which was isolated from a Japanese patient with sarcoidosis.
ESTHER : Minegishi_2013_Genome.Announc_1_E00016
PubMedSearch : Minegishi_2013_Genome.Announc_1_E00016
PubMedID: 23405284
Gene_locus related to this paper: proac-q6a5t3 , proac-q6a981

Title : Genomic structure of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 strain GT-S - Tajima_2011_DNA.Res_18_393
Author(s) : Tajima N , Sato S , Maruyama F , Kaneko T , Sasaki NV , Kurokawa K , Ohta H , Kanesaki Y , Yoshikawa H , Tabata S , Ikeuchi M , Sato N
Ref : DNA Research , 18 :393 , 2011
Abstract : Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is the most popular cyanobacterial strain, serving as a standard in the research fields of photosynthesis, stress response, metabolism and so on. A glucose-tolerant (GT) derivative of this strain was used for genome sequencing at Kazusa DNA Research Institute in 1996, which established a hallmark in the study of cyanobacteria. However, apparent differences in sequences deviating from the database have been noticed among different strain stocks. For this reason, we analysed the genomic sequence of another GT strain (GT-S) by 454 and partial Sanger sequencing. We found 22 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in comparison to the published sequence of the Kazusa strain. However, Sanger sequencing of 36 direct PCR products of the Kazusa strains stored in small aliquots resulted in their identity with the GT-S sequence at 21 of the 22 sites, excluding the possibility of their being SNPs. In addition, we were able to combine five split open reading frames present in the database sequence, and to remove the C-terminus of an ORF. Aside from these, two of the Insertion Sequence elements were not present in the GT-S strain. We have thus become able to provide an accurate genomic sequence of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 for future studies on this important cyanobacterial strain.
ESTHER : Tajima_2011_DNA.Res_18_393
PubMedSearch : Tajima_2011_DNA.Res_18_393
PubMedID: 21803841
Gene_locus related to this paper: synsp-ester

Title : Complete genome sequence of the wild-type commensal Escherichia coli strain SE15, belonging to phylogenetic group B2 - Toh_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_1165
Author(s) : Toh H , Oshima K , Toyoda A , Ogura Y , Ooka T , Sasamoto H , Park SH , Iyoda S , Kurokawa K , Morita H , Itoh K , Taylor TD , Hayashi T , Hattori M
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 192 :1165 , 2010
Abstract : Escherichia coli SE15 (O150:H5) is a human commensal bacterium recently isolated from feces of a healthy adult and classified into E. coli phylogenetic group B2, which includes the majority of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Here, we report the finished and annotated genome sequence of this organism.
ESTHER : Toh_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_1165
PubMedSearch : Toh_2010_J.Bacteriol_192_1165
PubMedID: 20008064
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-Aes , ecoli-rutD , ecoli-bioh , ecoli-C0410 , ecoli-C2429 , ecoli-C4836 , ecoli-dlhh , ecoli-entf , ecoli-fes , ecoli-mhpc , ecoli-pldb , ecoli-ptrb , ecoli-yafa , ecoli-yaim , ecoli-ybff , ecoli-ycfp , ecoli-ycjy , ecoli-yeiG , ecoli-YFBB , ecoli-yghX , ecoli-yhet , ecoli-yiel , ecoli-yjfp , ecoli-ypfh , ecoli-ypt1 , ecoli-yqia , ecoli-YfhR , ecos5-d2nhh3 , yerpe-YBTT , ecolx-f4suw9

Title : Pseudo-internuclear ophthalmoplegia as a sign of overlapping myasthenia gravis in a patient with 'intractable' hypothyroidism - Yamazaki_2010_Intern.Med_49_69
Author(s) : Yamazaki Y , Sugiura T , Kurokawa K
Ref : Intern Med , 49 :69 , 2010
Abstract : We describe a 52-year-old man with a history of increasing fatigability and gait disturbances that were first attributed to hypothyroidism. On examination, he had bilateral pseudo-internuclear ophthalmoplegia with weakness of adduction and abducting nystagmus. Convergence was also impaired and he showed proximal weakness of the limb. Intravenous edrophonium almost completely abolished the nystagmus and adducting muscle weakness, and improved the strength of proximal muscles groups. The clinical response to the administration of edrophonium, the presence of AChR binding antibodes and the repetitive nerve stimulation test findings indicated that the patient had pseudo-internuclear ophthalmoplegia as a manifestation of generalized myasthenia gravis. Whereas hypothyroidism was effectively controlled with levothyroxine, his subsequent response to thymectomy, prednisolone and cholinesterase inhibitors confirmed the diagnosis of generalized myasthenia gravis.
ESTHER : Yamazaki_2010_Intern.Med_49_69
PubMedSearch : Yamazaki_2010_Intern.Med_49_69
PubMedID: 20046005

Title : Comparative genomics reveal the mechanism of the parallel evolution of O157 and non-O157 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli - Ogura_2009_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_106_17939
Author(s) : Ogura Y , Ooka T , Iguchi A , Toh H , Asadulghani M , Oshima K , Kodama T , Abe H , Nakayama K , Kurokawa K , Tobe T , Hattori M , Hayashi T
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 106 :17939 , 2009
Abstract : Among the various pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is the most devastating. Although serotype O157:H7 strains are the most prevalent, strains of different serotypes also possess similar pathogenic potential. Here, we present the results of a genomic comparison between EHECs of serotype O157, O26, O111, and O103, as well as 21 other, fully sequenced E. coli/Shigella strains. All EHECs have much larger genomes (5.5-5.9 Mb) than the other strains and contain surprisingly large numbers of prophages and integrative elements (IEs). The gene contents of the 4 EHECs do not follow the phylogenetic relationships of the strains, and they share virulence genes for Shiga toxins and many other factors. We found many lambdoid phages, IEs, and virulence plasmids that carry the same or similar virulence genes but have distinct evolutionary histories, indicating that independent acquisition of these mobile genetic elements has driven the evolution of each EHEC. Particularly interesting is the evolution of the type III secretion system (T3SS). We found that the T3SS of EHECs is composed of genes that were introduced by 3 different types of genetic elements: an IE referred to as the locus of enterocyte effacement, which encodes a central part of the T3SS; SpLE3-like IEs; and lambdoid phages carrying numerous T3SS effector genes and other T3SS-related genes. Our data demonstrate how E. coli strains of different phylogenies can independently evolve into EHECs, providing unique insights into the mechanisms underlying the parallel evolution of complex virulence systems in bacteria.
ESTHER : Ogura_2009_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_106_17939
PubMedSearch : Ogura_2009_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_106_17939
PubMedID: 19815525
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-Aes , ecoli-rutD , ecoli-bioh , ecoli-C2429 , ecoli-C4836 , ecoli-d7xp23 , ecoli-dlhh , ecoli-entf , ecoli-fes , ecoli-mhpc , ecoli-pldb , ecoli-ptrb , ecoli-yafa , ecoli-yaim , ecoli-ybff , ecoli-ycfp , ecoli-ycjy , ecoli-yeiG , ecoli-YFBB , ecoli-yghX , ecoli-yhet , ecoli-yiel , ecoli-yjfp , ecoli-YNBC , ecoli-ypfh , ecoli-ypt1 , ecoli-yqia , ecoli-Z1341 , ecoli-Z1930 , ecoli-Z2445 , ecoli-YfhR , yerpe-YBTT

Title : Comparative genomic analyses of Streptococcus mutans provide insights into chromosomal shuffling and species-specific content - Maruyama_2009_BMC.Genomics_10_358
Author(s) : Maruyama F , Kobata M , Kurokawa K , Nishida K , Sakurai A , Nakano K , Nomura R , Kawabata S , Ooshima T , Nakai K , Hattori M , Hamada S , Nakagawa I
Ref : BMC Genomics , 10 :358 , 2009
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries, and it occasionally causes infective endocarditis. While the pathogenicity of this species is distinct from other human pathogenic streptococci, the species-specific evolution of the genus Streptococcus and its genomic diversity are poorly understood. RESULTS: We have sequenced the complete genome of S. mutans serotype c strain NN2025, and compared it with the genome of UA159. The NN2025 genome is composed of 2,013,587 bp, and the two strains show highly conserved core-genome. However, comparison of the two S. mutans strains showed a large genomic inversion across the replication axis producing an X-shaped symmetrical DNA dot plot. This phenomenon was also observed between other streptococcal species, indicating that streptococcal genetic rearrangements across the replication axis play an important role in Streptococcus genetic shuffling. We further confirmed the genomic diversity among 95 clinical isolates using long-PCR analysis. Genomic diversity in S. mutans appears to occur frequently between insertion sequence (IS) elements and transposons, and these diversity regions consist of restriction/modification systems, antimicrobial peptide synthesis systems, and transporters. S. mutans may preferentially reject the phage infection by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). In particular, the CRISPR-2 region, which is highly divergent between strains, in NN2025 has long repeated spacer sequences corresponding to the streptococcal phage genome. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that S. mutans strains evolve through chromosomal shuffling and that phage infection is not needed for gene acquisition. In contrast, S. pyogenes tolerates phage infection for acquisition of virulence determinants for niche adaptation.
ESTHER : Maruyama_2009_BMC.Genomics_10_358
PubMedSearch : Maruyama_2009_BMC.Genomics_10_358
PubMedID: 19656368
Gene_locus related to this paper: strmn-c6spx6 , strmu-BGLB , strmu-SMU.118C , strmu-SMU.643 , strmu-SMU.1314 , strmu-SMU.1443C , strmu-SMU.1678

Title : Complete genome sequence and comparative genome analysis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O127:H6 strain E2348\/69 - Iguchi_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_347
Author(s) : Iguchi A , Thomson NR , Ogura Y , Saunders D , Ooka T , Henderson IR , Harris D , Asadulghani M , Kurokawa K , Dean P , Kenny B , Quail MA , Thurston S , Dougan G , Hayashi T , Parkhill J , Frankel G
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 191 :347 , 2009
Abstract : Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was the first pathovar of E. coli to be implicated in human disease; however, no EPEC strain has been fully sequenced until now. Strain E2348/69 (serotype O127:H6 belonging to E. coli phylogroup B2) has been used worldwide as a prototype strain to study EPEC biology, genetics, and virulence. Studies of E2348/69 led to the discovery of the locus of enterocyte effacement-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS) and its cognate effectors, which play a vital role in attaching and effacing lesion formation on gut epithelial cells. In this study, we determined the complete genomic sequence of E2348/69 and performed genomic comparisons with other important E. coli strains. We identified 424 E2348/69-specific genes, most of which are carried on mobile genetic elements, and a number of genetic traits specifically conserved in phylogroup B2 strains irrespective of their pathotypes, including the absence of the ETT2-related T3SS, which is present in E. coli strains belonging to all other phylogroups. The genome analysis revealed the entire gene repertoire related to E2348/69 virulence. Interestingly, E2348/69 contains only 21 intact T3SS effector genes, all of which are carried on prophages and integrative elements, compared to over 50 effector genes in enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157. As E2348/69 is the most-studied pathogenic E. coli strain, this study provides a genomic context for the vast amount of existing experimental data. The unexpected simplicity of the E2348/69 T3SS provides the first opportunity to fully dissect the entire virulence strategy of attaching and effacing pathogens in the genomic context.
ESTHER : Iguchi_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_347
PubMedSearch : Iguchi_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_347
PubMedID: 18952797
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-Aes , ecoli-rutD , ecoli-bioh , ecoli-C0410 , ecoli-C4836 , ecoli-dlhh , ecoli-entf , ecoli-fes , ecoli-pldb , ecoli-ptrb , ecoli-yafa , ecoli-yaim , ecoli-ybff , ecoli-ycfp , ecoli-ycjy , ecoli-yeiG , ecoli-YFBB , ecoli-yghX , ecoli-yhet , ecoli-yiel , ecoli-yjfp , ecoli-ypfh , ecoli-ypt1 , ecoli-yqia , ecoli-YfhR

Title : Systematic identification and sequence analysis of the genomic islands of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain B171-8 by the combined use of whole-genome PCR scanning and fosmid mapping - Ogura_2008_J.Bacteriol_190_6948
Author(s) : Ogura Y , Abe H , Katsura K , Kurokawa K , Asadulghani M , Iguchi A , Ooka T , Nakayama K , Yamashita A , Hattori M , Tobe T , Hayashi T
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 190 :6948 , 2008
Abstract : Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are diarrheagenic pathogens that colonize the intestinal tract through the formation of attaching and effacing lesions, induced by effectors translocated via a type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). In EHEC O157, numerous virulence factors, including around 40 T3SS effectors, have been identified. Most of them are encoded on genomic islands (GEIs) such as prophages and integrative elements. For EPEC, however, no systematic search of GEIs and virulence-related genes carried therein has been done, and only a limited number of virulence factors have been identified so far. In this study, we performed a systemic and genome-wide survey of the GEIs in strain B171-8, one of the prototype strains of EPEC, by the combined use of whole-genome PCR scanning and fosmid mapping and identified 22 large GEIs, including nine lambda-like prophages, three P2-like prophages, the LEE, and three additional integrative elements. On these prophages and integrative elements, we found genes for a set of T3SS proteins, a total of 33 T3SS effectors or effector homologues, and 12 other virulence factors which include five nonfimbrial adhesins. Most of the T3SS effector families identified are also present in EHEC O157, but B171-8 possesses a significantly smaller number of effectors. Not only the presence or absence of Shiga toxin genes but also the difference in the T3SS effector repertoire should be considered in analyzing the pathogenicity of EPEC and EHEC strains.
ESTHER : Ogura_2008_J.Bacteriol_190_6948
PubMedSearch : Ogura_2008_J.Bacteriol_190_6948
PubMedID: 18757547
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-Z1930

Title : Complete DNA sequence and analysis of the transferable multiple-drug resistance plasmids (R Plasmids) from Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida isolates collected in Japan and the United States - Kim_2008_Antimicrob.Agents.Chemother_52_606
Author(s) : Kim MJ , Hirono I , Kurokawa K , Maki T , Hawke J , Kondo H , Santos MD , Aoki T
Ref : Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy , 52 :606 , 2008
Abstract : Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida is a bacterial fish pathogen that causes a disease known as pasteurellosis. Two transferable multiple-drug resistance (R) plasmids, pP99-018 (carrying resistance to kanamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and sulfonamide) and pP91278 (carrying resistance to tetracycline, trimethoprim, and sulfonamide), isolated from P. damselae subsp. piscicida strains from Japan (P99-018) and the United States (P91278), respectively, were completely sequenced and analyzed, along with the multiple-drug resistance regions of three other R plasmids also from P. damselae subsp. piscicida strains from Japan. The sequence structures of pP99-018 (150,057 bp) and pP91278 (131,520 bp) were highly conserved, with differences due to variation in the drug resistance and conjugative transfer regions. These plasmids, shown to be closely related to the IncJ element R391 (a conjugative, self-transmitting, integrating element, or constin), were divided into the conjugative transfer, replication, partition, and multiple-drug resistance regions. Each of the five multiple-drug resistance regions sequenced exhibited unique drug resistance marker composition and arrangement.
ESTHER : Kim_2008_Antimicrob.Agents.Chemother_52_606
PubMedSearch : Kim_2008_Antimicrob.Agents.Chemother_52_606
PubMedID: 18070959

Title : The Whole-genome sequencing of the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi revealed massive gene amplification during reductive genome evolution - Nakayama_2008_DNA.Res_15_185
Author(s) : Nakayama K , Yamashita A , Kurokawa K , Morimoto T , Ogawa M , Fukuhara M , Urakami H , Ohnishi M , Uchiyama I , Ogura Y , Ooka T , Oshima K , Tamura A , Hattori M , Hayashi T
Ref : DNA Research , 15 :185 , 2008
Abstract : Scrub typhus ('Tsutsugamushi' disease in Japanese) is a mite-borne infectious disease. The causative agent is Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular bacterium belonging to the family Rickettsiaceae of the subdivision alpha-Proteobacteria. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of O. tsutsugamushi strain Ikeda, which comprises a single chromosome of 2 008 987 bp and contains 1967 protein coding sequences (CDSs). The chromosome is much larger than those of other members of Rickettsiaceae, and 46.7% of the sequence was occupied by repetitive sequences derived from an integrative and conjugative element, 10 types of transposable elements, and seven types of short repeats of unknown origins. The massive amplification and degradation of these elements have generated a huge number of repeated genes (1196 CDSs, categorized into 85 families), many of which are pseudogenes (766 CDSs), and also induced intensive genome shuffling. By comparing the gene content with those of other family members of Rickettsiacea, we identified the core gene set of the family Rickettsiaceae and found that, while much more extensive gene loss has taken place among the housekeeping genes of Orientia than those of Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi has acquired a large number of foreign genes. The O. tsutsugamushi genome sequence is thus a prominent example of the high plasticity of bacterial genomes, and provides the genetic basis for a better understanding of the biology of O. tsutsugamushi and the pathogenesis of 'Tsutsugamushi' disease.
ESTHER : Nakayama_2008_DNA.Res_15_185
PubMedSearch : Nakayama_2008_DNA.Res_15_185
PubMedID: 18508905
Gene_locus related to this paper: oriti-b3cqy7

Title : Genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a pathogenic mechanism distinct from that of V cholerae - Makino_2003_Lancet_361_743
Author(s) : Makino K , Oshima K , Kurokawa K , Yokoyama K , Uda T , Tagomori K , Iijima Y , Najima M , Nakano M , Yamashita A , Kubota Y , Kimura S , Yasunaga T , Honda T , Shinagawa H , Hattori M , Iida T
Ref : Lancet , 361 :743 , 2003
Abstract : Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a gram-negative marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of food-borne gastroenteritis. V parahaemolyticus strains of a few specific serotypes, probably derived from a common clonal ancestor, have lately caused a pandemic of gastroenteritis. The organism is phylogenetically close to V cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. METHODS: The whole genome sequence of a clinical V parahaemolyticus strain RIMD2210633 was established by shotgun sequencing. The coding sequences were identified by use of Gambler and Glimmer programs. Comparative analysis with the V cholerae genome was undertaken with MUMmer. FINDINGS: The genome consisted of two circular chromosomes of 3288558 bp and 1877212 bp; it contained 4832 genes. Comparison of the V parahaemolyticus genome with that of V cholerae showed many rearrangements within and between the two chromosomes. Genes for the type III secretion system (TTSS) were identified in the genome of V parahaemolyticus; V cholerae does not have these genes. INTERPRETATION: The TTSS is a central virulence factor of diarrhoea-causing bacteria such as shigella, salmonella, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, which cause gastroenteritis by invading or intimately interacting with intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest that V parahaemolyticus and V cholerae use distinct mechanisms to establish infection. This finding explains clinical features of V parahaemolyticus infections, which commonly include inflammatory diarrhoea and in some cases systemic manifestations such as septicaemia, distinct from those of V cholerae infections, which are generally associated with non-inflammatory diarrhoea.
ESTHER : Makino_2003_Lancet_361_743
PubMedSearch : Makino_2003_Lancet_361_743
PubMedID: 12620739
Gene_locus related to this paper: vibpa-PHAC , vibpa-VP0148 , vibpa-VP0409 , vibpa-VP0429 , vibpa-VP0626 , vibpa-VP0693 , vibpa-VP0837 , vibpa-VP0869 , vibpa-VP0930 , vibpa-VP1025 , vibpa-VP1181 , vibpa-VP1677 , vibpa-VP1678 , vibpa-VP2790 , vibpa-VP2974 , vibpa-VPA0054 , vibpa-VPA0070 , vibpa-VPA0081 , vibpa-VPA0167 , vibpa-VPA0468 , vibpa-VPA0859 , vibpa-VPA0997 , vibpa-VPA1061 , vibpa-VPA1249 , vibpa-VPA1467 , vibpa-VPA1496 , vibpa-VPA1595 , vibpa-y674 , vibpa-y969

Title : Genome sequence of an M3 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes reveals a large-scale genomic rearrangement in invasive strains and new insights into phage evolution - Nakagawa_2003_Genome.Res_13_1042
Author(s) : Nakagawa I , Kurokawa K , Yamashita A , Nakata M , Tomiyasu Y , Okahashi N , Kawabata S , Yamazaki K , Shiba T , Yasunaga T , Hayashi H , Hattori M , Hamada S
Ref : Genome Res , 13 :1042 , 2003
Abstract : Group Astreptococcus (GAS) is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen that causes various suppurative infections and nonsuppurative sequelae. Since the late 1980s, streptococcal toxic-shock like syndrome (STSS) and severe invasive GAS infections have been reported globally. Here we sequenced the genome of serotype M3 strain SSI-1, isolated from an STSS patient in Japan, and compared it with those of other GAS strains. The SSI-1 genome is composed of 1,884,275 bp, and 1.7 Mb of the sequence is highly conserved relative to strain SF370 (serotype M1) and MGAS8232 (serotype M18), and almost completely conserved relative to strain MGAS315 (serotype M3). However, a large genomic rearrangement has been shown to occur across the replication axis between the homologous rrn-comX1 regions and between two prophage-coding regions across the replication axis. Atotal of 1 Mb of chromosomal DNA is inverted across the replication axis. Interestingly, the recombinations between the prophage regions are within the phage genes, and the genes encoding superantigens and mitogenic factors are interchanged between two prophages. This genomic rearrangement occurs in 65% of clinical isolates (64/94) collected after 1990, whereas it is found in only 25% of clinical isolates (7/28) collected before 1985. These observations indicate that streptococcal phages represent important plasticity regions in the GAS chromosome where recombination between homologous phage genes can occur and result not only in new phage derivatives, but also in large chromosomal rearrangements.
ESTHER : Nakagawa_2003_Genome.Res_13_1042
PubMedSearch : Nakagawa_2003_Genome.Res_13_1042
PubMedID: 12799345
Gene_locus related to this paper: strpy-ESTA , strpy-PEPXP , strpy-SPY1308

Title : Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12 - Hayashi_2001_DNA.Res_8_11
Author(s) : Hayashi T , Makino K , Ohnishi M , Kurokawa K , Ishii K , Yokoyama K , Han CG , Ohtsubo E , Nakayama K , Murata T , Tanaka M , Tobe T , Iida T , Takami H , Honda T , Sasakawa C , Ogasawara N , Yasunaga T , Kuhara S , Shiba T , Hattori M , Shinagawa H
Ref : DNA Research , 8 :11 , 2001
Abstract : Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major food-borne infectious pathogen that causes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Here we report the complete chromosome sequence of an O157:H7 strain isolated from the Sakai outbreak, and the results of genomic comparison with a benign laboratory strain, K-12 MG1655. The chromosome is 5.5 Mb in size, 859 Kb larger than that of K-12. We identified a 4.1-Mb sequence highly conserved between the two strains, which may represent the fundamental backbone of the E. coli chromosome. The remaining 1.4-Mb sequence comprises of O157:H7-specific sequences, most of which are horizontally transferred foreign DNAs. The predominant roles of bacteriophages in the emergence of O157:H7 is evident by the presence of 24 prophages and prophage-like elements that occupy more than half of the O157:H7-specific sequences. The O157:H7 chromosome encodes 1632 proteins and 20 tRNAs that are not present in K-12. Among these, at least 131 proteins are assumed to have virulence-related functions. Genome-wide codon usage analysis suggested that the O157:H7-specific tRNAs are involved in the efficient expression of the strain-specific genes. A complete set of the genes specific to O157:H7 presented here sheds new insight into the pathogenicity and the physiology of O157:H7, and will open a way to fully understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the O157:H7 infection.
ESTHER : Hayashi_2001_DNA.Res_8_11
PubMedSearch : Hayashi_2001_DNA.Res_8_11
PubMedID: 11258796
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-rutD , ecoli-bioh , ecoli-C0410 , ecoli-entf , ecoli-fes , ecoli-MCMK , ecoli-mhpc , ecoli-pldb , ecoli-ptrb , ecoli-yafa , ecoli-yaim , ecoli-ybff , ecoli-ycfp , ecoli-ycjy , ecoli-YFBB , ecoli-yghX , ecoli-yhet , ecoli-yjfp , ecoli-YNBC , ecoli-ypfh , ecoli-yqia , ecoli-Z0347 , ecoli-Z1341 , ecoli-Z1930 , ecoli-Z2445 , ecoli-YfhR

Title : Comparative analysis of the whole set of rRNA operons between an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai strain and an Escherichia coli K-12 strain MG1655 - Ohnishi_2000_Syst.Appl.Microbiol_23_315
Author(s) : Ohnishi M , Murata T , Nakayama K , Kuhara S , Hattori M , Kurokawa K , Yasunaga T , Yokoyama K , Makino K , Shinagawa H , Hayashi T
Ref : Syst Appl Microbiol , 23 :315 , 2000
Abstract : Two primer sets for direct sequence determination of all seven rRNA operons (rrn) of Escherichia coli have been developed; one is for specific-amplification of each rrn operon and the other is for direct sequencing of the amplified operons. Using these primer sets, we determined the nucleotide sequences of seven rrn operons, including promoter and terminator regions, of an enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7 Sakai strain. To elucidate the intercistronic or intraspecific variation of rrn operons, their sequences were compared with those for the K-12 rrn operons. The rrn genes and the internal transcribed spacer regions showed a higher similarity to each other in each strain than between the corresponding operons of the two strains. However, the degree of intercistronic homogeneity was much higher in the EHEC strain than in K-12. In contrast, promoter and terminator regions in each operons were conserved between the corresponding operons of the two strains, which exceeded intercistronic similarity.
ESTHER : Ohnishi_2000_Syst.Appl.Microbiol_23_315
PubMedSearch : Ohnishi_2000_Syst.Appl.Microbiol_23_315
PubMedID: 11108008

Title : The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of porcine liver proline- beta-naphthylamidase. Evidence for the identity with carboxylesterase - Matsushima_1991_FEBS.Lett_293_37
Author(s) : Matsushima M , Inoue H , Ichinose M , Tsukada S , Miki K , Kurokawa K , Takahashi T , Takahashi K
Ref : FEBS Letters , 293 :37 , 1991
Abstract : A cDNA clone for porcine liver proline-beta-naphthylamidase was isolated and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of 567 residues was highly homologous with those of carboxylesterases (EC 3.1.1.1) previously reported for other species. In addition, proline-beta-naphthylamidase purified from porcine liver was shown to have strong activity towards p-nitrophenylacetate, a representative substrate for carboxylesterases. These results suggest that proline-beta-naphthylamidase is identical with carboxylesterase.
ESTHER : Matsushima_1991_FEBS.Lett_293_37
PubMedSearch : Matsushima_1991_FEBS.Lett_293_37
PubMedID: 1959668
Gene_locus related to this paper: pig-EST1