Cooper J

References (10)

Title : Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution - Varga_2019_Nat.Ecol.Evol_3_668
Author(s) : Varga T , Krizsan K , Foldi C , Dima B , Sanchez-Garcia M , Sanchez-Ramirez S , Szollosi GJ , Szarkandi JG , Papp V , Albert L , Andreopoulos W , Angelini C , Antonin V , Barry KW , Bougher NL , Buchanan P , Buyck B , Bense V , Catcheside P , Chovatia M , Cooper J , Damon W , Desjardin D , Finy P , Geml J , Haridas S , Hughes K , Justo A , Karasinski D , Kautmanova I , Kiss B , Kocsube S , Kotiranta H , LaButti KM , Lechner BE , Liimatainen K , Lipzen A , Lukacs Z , Mihaltcheva S , Morgado LN , Niskanen T , Noordeloos ME , Ohm RA , Ortiz-Santana B , Ovrebo C , Racz N , Riley R , Savchenko A , Shiryaev A , Soop K , Spirin V , Szebenyi C , Tomsovsky M , Tulloss RE , Uehling J , Grigoriev IV , Vagvolgyi C , Papp T , Martin FM , Miettinen O , Hibbett DS , Nagy LG
Ref : Nat Ecol Evol , 3 :668 , 2019
Abstract : Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfil diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree and infer ages and broad patterns of speciation/extinction and morphological innovation in mushroom-forming fungi. Agaricomycetes started a rapid class-wide radiation in the Jurassic, coinciding with the spread of (sub)tropical coniferous forests and a warming climate. A possible mass extinction, several clade-specific adaptive radiations and morphological diversification of fruiting bodies followed during the Cretaceous and the Paleogene, convergently giving rise to the classic toadstool morphology, with a cap, stalk and gills (pileate-stipitate morphology). This morphology is associated with increased rates of lineage diversification, suggesting it represents a key innovation in the evolution of mushroom-forming fungi. The increase in mushroom diversity started during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic radiation event, an era of humid climate when terrestrial communities dominated by gymnosperms and reptiles were also expanding.
ESTHER : Varga_2019_Nat.Ecol.Evol_3_668
PubMedSearch : Varga_2019_Nat.Ecol.Evol_3_668
PubMedID: 30886374
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9aphy-a0a5c3ppg9 , 9aphy-a0a371d1b5 , 9agam-a0a5c3ngv5 , 9aphy-a0a5c3nsu3 , 9agar-a0a4s8mrh7 , 9agar-a0a4s8mil0

Title : The zebrafish reference genome sequence and its relationship to the human genome - Howe_2013_Nature_496_498
Author(s) : Howe K , Clark MD , Torroja CF , Torrance J , Berthelot C , Muffato M , Collins JE , Humphray S , McLaren K , Matthews L , Mclaren S , Sealy I , Caccamo M , Churcher C , Scott C , Barrett JC , Koch R , Rauch GJ , White S , Chow W , Kilian B , Quintais LT , Guerra-Assuncao JA , Zhou Y , Gu Y , Yen J , Vogel JH , Eyre T , Redmond S , Banerjee R , Chi J , Fu B , Langley E , Maguire SF , Laird GK , Lloyd D , Kenyon E , Donaldson S , Sehra H , Almeida-King J , Loveland J , Trevanion S , Jones M , Quail M , Willey D , Hunt A , Burton J , Sims S , McLay K , Plumb B , Davis J , Clee C , Oliver K , Clark R , Riddle C , Elliot D , Threadgold G , Harden G , Ware D , Begum S , Mortimore B , Kerry G , Heath P , Phillimore B , Tracey A , Corby N , Dunn M , Johnson C , Wood J , Clark S , Pelan S , Griffiths G , Smith M , Glithero R , Howden P , Barker N , Lloyd C , Stevens C , Harley J , Holt K , Panagiotidis G , Lovell J , Beasley H , Henderson C , Gordon D , Auger K , Wright D , Collins J , Raisen C , Dyer L , Leung K , Robertson L , Ambridge K , Leongamornlert D , McGuire S , Gilderthorp R , Griffiths C , Manthravadi D , Nichol S , Barker G , Whitehead S , Kay M , Brown J , Murnane C , Gray E , Humphries M , Sycamore N , Barker D , Saunders D , Wallis J , Babbage A , Hammond S , Mashreghi-Mohammadi M , Barr L , Martin S , Wray P , Ellington A , Matthews N , Ellwood M , Woodmansey R , Clark G , Cooper J , Tromans A , Grafham D , Skuce C , Pandian R , Andrews R , Harrison E , Kimberley A , Garnett J , Fosker N , Hall R , Garner P , Kelly D , Bird C , Palmer S , Gehring I , Berger A , Dooley CM , Ersan-Urun Z , Eser C , Geiger H , Geisler M , Karotki L , Kirn A , Konantz J , Konantz M , Oberlander M , Rudolph-Geiger S , Teucke M , Lanz C , Raddatz G , Osoegawa K , Zhu B , Rapp A , Widaa S , Langford C , Yang F , Schuster SC , Carter NP , Harrow J , Ning Z , Herrero J , Searle SM , Enright A , Geisler R , Plasterk RH , Lee C , Westerfield M , de Jong PJ , Zon LI , Postlethwait JH , Nusslein-Volhard C , Hubbard TJ , Roest Crollius H , Rogers J , Stemple DL
Ref : Nature , 496 :498 , 2013
Abstract : Zebrafish have become a popular organism for the study of vertebrate gene function. The virtually transparent embryos of this species, and the ability to accelerate genetic studies by gene knockdown or overexpression, have led to the widespread use of zebrafish in the detailed investigation of vertebrate gene function and increasingly, the study of human genetic disease. However, for effective modelling of human genetic disease it is important to understand the extent to which zebrafish genes and gene structures are related to orthologous human genes. To examine this, we generated a high-quality sequence assembly of the zebrafish genome, made up of an overlapping set of completely sequenced large-insert clones that were ordered and oriented using a high-resolution high-density meiotic map. Detailed automatic and manual annotation provides evidence of more than 26,000 protein-coding genes, the largest gene set of any vertebrate so far sequenced. Comparison to the human reference genome shows that approximately 70% of human genes have at least one obvious zebrafish orthologue. In addition, the high quality of this genome assembly provides a clearer understanding of key genomic features such as a unique repeat content, a scarcity of pseudogenes, an enrichment of zebrafish-specific genes on chromosome 4 and chromosomal regions that influence sex determination.
ESTHER : Howe_2013_Nature_496_498
PubMedSearch : Howe_2013_Nature_496_498
PubMedID: 23594743
Gene_locus related to this paper: danre-1neur , danre-ABHD10b , danre-a9jrf7 , danre-d2x2g3 , danre-e7ezq9 , danre-e7ff77 , danre-ndr3 , danre-nlgn4a , danre-q1mti5 , danre-q6nyz4 , danre-q6p2u2 , danre-q7t359 , danre-q08c93 , danre-A2BGU9 , danre-f1q676 , danre-e7f0z8 , danre-e7ez27 , danre-e7f2w1 , danre-f1qid7 , danre-a0a0g2kru2 , danre-f1qla7 , danre-a9jr90 , danre-e7f070 , danre-f172a , danre-e7fb35 , danre-a7mbu9 , danre-f1qtr2

Title : Increased nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein underlies chronic nicotine-induced up-regulation of nicotinic agonist binding sites in mouse brain - Marks_2011_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_337_187
Author(s) : Marks MJ , McClure-Begley TD , Whiteaker P , Salminen O , Brown RW , Cooper J , Collins AC , Lindstrom JM
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 337 :187 , 2011
Abstract : Chronic nicotine treatment elicits a brain region-selective increase in the number of high-affinity agonist binding sites, a phenomenon termed up-regulation. Nicotine-induced up-regulation of alpha4beta2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in cell cultures results from increased assembly and/or decreased degradation of nAChRs, leading to increased nAChR protein levels. To evaluate whether the increased binding in mouse brain results from an increase in nAChR subunit proteins, C57BL/6 mice were treated with nicotine by chronic intravenous infusion. Tissue sections were prepared, and binding of [(125)I]3-((2S)-azetidinylmethoxy)-5-iodo-pyridine (A85380) to beta2*-nAChR sites, [(125)I]monoclonal antibody (mAb) 299 to alpha4 nAChR subunits, and [(125)I]mAb 270 to beta2 nAChR subunits was determined by quantitative autoradiography. Chronic nicotine treatment dose-dependently increased binding of all three ligands. In regions that express alpha4beta2-nAChR almost exclusively, binding of all three ligands increased coordinately. However, in brain regions containing significant beta2*-nAChR without alpha4 subunits, relatively less increase in mAb 270 binding to beta2 subunits was observed. Signal intensity measured with the mAbs was lower than that with [(125)I]A85380, perhaps because the small ligand penetrated deeply into the sections, whereas the much larger mAbs encountered permeability barriers. Immunoprecipitation of [(125)I]epibatidine binding sites with mAb 270 in select regions of nicotine-treated mice was nearly quantitative, although somewhat less so with mAb 299, confirming that the mAbs effectively recognize their targets. The patterns of change measured using immunoprecipitation were comparable with those determined autoradiographically. Thus, increases in alpha4beta2*-nAChR binding sites after chronic nicotine treatment reflect increased nAChR protein.
ESTHER : Marks_2011_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_337_187
PubMedSearch : Marks_2011_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_337_187
PubMedID: 21228066

Title : The genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum - Eichinger_2005_Nature_435_43
Author(s) : Eichinger L , Pachebat JA , Glockner G , Rajandream MA , Sucgang R , Berriman M , Song J , Olsen R , Szafranski K , Xu Q , Tunggal B , Kummerfeld S , Madera M , Konfortov BA , Rivero F , Bankier AT , Lehmann R , Hamlin N , Davies R , Gaudet P , Fey P , Pilcher K , Chen G , Saunders D , Sodergren E , Davis P , Kerhornou A , Nie X , Hall N , Anjard C , Hemphill L , Bason N , Farbrother P , Desany B , Just E , Morio T , Rost R , Churcher C , Cooper J , Haydock S , van Driessche N , Cronin A , Goodhead I , Muzny D , Mourier T , Pain A , Lu M , Harper D , Lindsay R , Hauser H , James K , Quiles M , Madan Babu M , Saito T , Buchrieser C , Wardroper A , Felder M , Thangavelu M , Johnson D , Knights A , Loulseged H , Mungall K , Oliver K , Price C , Quail MA , Urushihara H , Hernandez J , Rabbinowitsch E , Steffen D , Sanders M , Ma J , Kohara Y , Sharp S , Simmonds M , Spiegler S , Tivey A , Sugano S , White B , Walker D , Woodward J , Winckler T , Tanaka Y , Shaulsky G , Schleicher M , Weinstock G , Rosenthal A , Cox EC , Chisholm RL , Gibbs R , Loomis WF , Platzer M , Kay RR , Williams J , Dear PH , Noegel AA , Barrell B , Kuspa A
Ref : Nature , 435 :43 , 2005
Abstract : The social amoebae are exceptional in their ability to alternate between unicellular and multicellular forms. Here we describe the genome of the best-studied member of this group, Dictyostelium discoideum. The gene-dense chromosomes of this organism encode approximately 12,500 predicted proteins, a high proportion of which have long, repetitive amino acid tracts. There are many genes for polyketide synthases and ABC transporters, suggesting an extensive secondary metabolism for producing and exporting small molecules. The genome is rich in complex repeats, one class of which is clustered and may serve as centromeres. Partial copies of the extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) element are found at the ends of each chromosome, suggesting a novel telomere structure and the use of a common mechanism to maintain both the rDNA and chromosomal termini. A proteome-based phylogeny shows that the amoebozoa diverged from the animal-fungal lineage after the plant-animal split, but Dictyostelium seems to have retained more of the diversity of the ancestral genome than have plants, animals or fungi.
ESTHER : Eichinger_2005_Nature_435_43
PubMedSearch : Eichinger_2005_Nature_435_43
PubMedID: 15875012
Gene_locus related to this paper: dicdi-abhd , dicdi-ACHE , dicdi-apra , dicdi-cinbp , dicdi-CMBL , dicdi-crysp , dicdi-DPOA , dicdi-P90528 , dicdi-ppme1 , dicdi-Q8MYE7 , dicdi-q54cf7 , dicdi-q54cl7 , dicdi-q54cm0 , dicdi-q54ct5 , dicdi-q54cu1 , dicdi-q54d54 , dicdi-q54d66 , dicdi-q54dj5 , dicdi-q54dy7 , dicdi-q54ek1 , dicdi-q54eq6 , dicdi-q54et1 , dicdi-q54et7 , dicdi-q54f01 , dicdi-q54g24 , dicdi-q54g47 , dicdi-q54gi7 , dicdi-q54gw5 , dicdi-q54gx3 , dicdi-q54h23 , dicdi-q54h73 , dicdi-q54i38 , dicdi-q54ie5 , dicdi-q54in4 , dicdi-q54kz1 , dicdi-q54l36 , dicdi-q54li1 , dicdi-q54m29 , dicdi-q54n21 , dicdi-q54n35 , dicdi-q54n85 , dicdi-q54qe7 , dicdi-q54qi3 , dicdi-q54qk2 , dicdi-q54rl3 , dicdi-q54rl8 , dicdi-q54sy6 , dicdi-q54sz3 , dicdi-q54t49 , dicdi-q54t91 , dicdi-q54th2 , dicdi-q54u01 , dicdi-q54vc2 , dicdi-q54vw1 , dicdi-q54xe3 , dicdi-q54xl3 , dicdi-q54xu1 , dicdi-q54xu2 , dicdi-q54y48 , dicdi-q54yd0 , dicdi-q54ye0 , dicdi-q54yl1 , dicdi-q54yr8 , dicdi-q54z90 , dicdi-q55bx3 , dicdi-q55d01 , dicdi-q55d81 , dicdi-q55du6 , dicdi-q55eu1 , dicdi-q55eu8 , dicdi-q55fk4 , dicdi-q55gk7 , dicdi-Q54ZA6 , dicdi-q86h82 , dicdi-Q86HC9 , dicdi-Q86HM5 , dicdi-Q86HM6 , dicdi-q86iz7 , dicdi-q86jb6 , dicdi-Q86KU7 , dicdi-q550s3 , dicdi-q552c0 , dicdi-q553t5 , dicdi-q555e5 , dicdi-q555h0 , dicdi-q555h1 , dicdi-q557k5 , dicdi-q558u2 , dicdi-Q869Q8 , dicdi-u554 , dicdi-y9086 , dicdi-q54r44 , dicdi-f172a

Title : State-dependent block of CNG channels by dequalinium - Rosenbaum_2004_J.Gen.Physiol_123_295
Author(s) : Rosenbaum T , Gordon-Shaag A , Islas LD , Cooper J , Munari M , Gordon SE
Ref : Journal of General Physiology , 123 :295 , 2004
Abstract : Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels are nonselective cation channels with a high permeability for Ca(2+). Not surprisingly, they are blocked by a number of Ca(2+) channel blockers including tetracaine, pimozide, and diltiazem. We studied the effects of dequalinium, an extracellular blocker of the small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel. We previously noted that dequalinium is a high-affinity blocker of CNGA1 channels from the intracellular side, with little or no state dependence at 0 mV. Here we examined block by dequalinium at a broad range of voltages in both CNGA1 and CNGA2 channels. We found that dequalinium block was mildly state dependent for both channels, with the affinity for closed channels 3-5 times higher than that for open channels. Mutations in the S4-S5 linker did not alter the affinity of open channels for dequalinium, but increased the affinity of closed channels by 10-20-fold. The state-specific effect of these mutations raises the question of whether/how the S4-S5 linker alters the binding of a blocker within the ion permeation pathway.
ESTHER : Rosenbaum_2004_J.Gen.Physiol_123_295
PubMedSearch : Rosenbaum_2004_J.Gen.Physiol_123_295
PubMedID: 14981138

Title : Accommodative and vergence findings in ocular myasthenia: a case analysis - Cooper_2000_J.Neuroophthalmol_20_5
Author(s) : Cooper J , Pollak GJ , Ciuffreda KJ , Kruger P , Feldman J
Ref : J Neuroophthalmol , 20 :5 , 2000
Abstract : Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular disorder that affects skeletal muscles, in particular, the extraocular muscles. Response variability is a hallmark sign. Detailed findings are described in a patient with MG in which the presenting sign was accommodative insufficiency. Objective accommodative findings were recorded 3 years before the onset of myasthenia, soon after the initial diagnosis was made, and then after the treatment commenced with pyridostigmine. In addition, clinical measurements were obtained periodically at different times of the day for various binocular motor functions, including near point of convergence, phoria, fusional and accommodative amplitudes, and relative accommodation. The disease adversely affected all accommodative and vergence findings, with fatigue being the primary disturbance. The therapeutic administration of pyridostigmine improved static measurements of accommodation and vergence and reduced asthenopia. The objective dynamic measurements of accommodation, vergence, and versions were less affected. These findings provide a clear demonstration that both intrinsic and extrinsic ocular muscles may be affected in the prepresbyopic myasthenic patient.
ESTHER : Cooper_2000_J.Neuroophthalmol_20_5
PubMedSearch : Cooper_2000_J.Neuroophthalmol_20_5
PubMedID: 10770497

Title : 2.2 Mb of contiguous nucleotide sequence from chromosome III of C. elegans - Wilson_1994_Nature_368_32
Author(s) : Wilson R , Ainscough R , Anderson K , Baynes C , Berks M , Bonfield J , Burton J , Connell M , Copsey T , Cooper J , et al.
Ref : Nature , 368 :32 , 1994
Abstract : As part of our effort to sequence the 100-megabase (Mb) genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we have completed the nucleotide sequence of a contiguous 2,181,032 base pairs in the central gene cluster of chromosome III. Analysis of the finished sequence has indicated an average density of about one gene per five kilobases; comparison with the public sequence databases reveals similarities to previously known genes for about one gene in three. In addition, the genomic sequence contains several intriguing features, including putative gene duplications and a variety of other repeats with potential evolutionary implications.
ESTHER : Wilson_1994_Nature_368_32
PubMedSearch : Wilson_1994_Nature_368_32
PubMedID: 7906398
Gene_locus related to this paper: caeel-1llip , caeel-c01b10.4 , caeel-C04B4.3 , caeel-c08h9.1 , caeel-C09E8.2 , caeel-c17h12.4 , caeel-c23h4.2 , caeel-c23h4.3 , caeel-c23h4.4 , caeel-c23h4.7 , caeel-C26B9.5 , caeel-C27C12.7 , caeel-C31H5.1 , caeel-C31H5.6 , caeel-C37H5.2 , caeel-C37H5.3 , caeel-c42d4.2 , caeel-D1022.3 , caeel-D1022.4 , caeel-F01D5.7 , caeel-F01D5.8 , caeel-F01F1.5 , caeel-F01G10.7 , caeel-F10F2.3 , caeel-f13d12.6 , caeel-F14E5.5 , caeel-f15a8.6 , caeel-f16f9.4 , caeel-F19C7.2 , caeel-F19C7.4 , caeel-O02252.1 , caeel-O02252.2 , caeel-G5EFJ8.1 , caeel-G5EFJ8.2 , caeel-F25A2.1 , caeel-f27c8.6 , caeel-F28H7.3 , caeel-F31F6.7 , caeel-f32a5.3 , caeel-F32B4.6 , caeel-f41c3.5 , caeel-F44C4.5 , caeel-F45E6.4 , caeel-F46B6.8 , caeel-F54F3.3 , caeel-f56c11.6 , caeel-F58G1.5 , caeel-K01A2.5 , caeel-K02F2.1 , caeel-K03H6.2 , caeel-K04A8.5 , caeel-k07c11.4 , caeel-K08B12.1 , caeel-k10b2.2 , caeel-k11g9.1 , caeel-k11g9.2 , caeel-K12B6.3 , caeel-PCP5 , caeel-ppme1 , caeel-q336k8 , caeel-R05D7.4 , caeel-R11G11.14 , caeel-T01C3.4 , caeel-t02b5.1 , caeel-t02b5.3 , caeel-T05E7.1 , caeel-T07H6.1 , caeel-T08B1.4 , caeel-T12A7.4 , caeel-T19B10.8 , caeel-T21H3.1 , caeel-t22d1.11 , caeel-T23F4.3 , caeel-t28c12.4 , caeel-W01A11.1 , caeel-Y32F6A.5 , caeel-Y40D12A.2 , caeel-Y49E10.16 , caeel-Y49E10.18 , caeel-ym67 , caeel-yog1 , caeel-ZK262.2 , caeel-ZK262.3 , caeel-ZK617.2

Title : Complete nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII - Johnston_1994_Science_265_2077
Author(s) : Johnston M , Andrews S , Brinkman R , Cooper J , Ding H , Dover J , Du Z , Favello A , Fulton L , Gattung S , et al.
Ref : Science , 265 :2077 , 1994
Abstract : The complete nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII reveals that it contains 269 predicted or known genes (300 base pairs or larger). Fifty-nine of these genes (22 percent) were previously identified. Of the 210 novel genes, 65 are predicted to encode proteins that are similar to other proteins of known or predicted function. Sixteen genes appear to be relatively recently duplicated. On average, there is one gene approximately every 2 kilobases. Although the coding density and base composition across the chromosome are not uniform, no regular pattern of variation is apparent.
ESTHER : Johnston_1994_Science_265_2077
PubMedSearch : Johnston_1994_Science_265_2077
PubMedID: 8091229
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-FSH1 , yeast-ppme1

Title : Antibodies in sera from patients with myasthenia gravis do not bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from human brain - Whiting_1987_J.Neuroimmunol_16_205
Author(s) : Whiting PJ , Cooper J , Lindstrom JM
Ref : Journal of Neuroimmunology , 16 :205 , 1987
Abstract : Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) from brains of chickens and rats have recently been purified and characterized (Whiting and Lindstrom, Biochemistry, 25 (1986) 2082-2093; J. Neurosci., 6 (1986) 3061-3069; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 84 (1987) 595-599). Using both antisera and monoclonal antibodies prepared to AChRs from rat brain, we have demonstrated the existence of a homologous AChR in human brain. Here we report that antibodies to muscle AChRs in the sera of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) do not bind to AChRs from human brain. Similarly, there was no binding of sera from patients with Guillain-Barre, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, or Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Additionally, no binding of any of these sera to the alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Bgt) binding protein from human brain could be detected. This data is consistent with other data using antibodies to AChRs from muscle and nerve in demonstrating that the AChR in brain is antigenically distinct from the AChR in skeletal muscle AChR, and, together with the lack of central neurological symptoms in MG, suggests that the low concentrations of anti-AChR antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid of MG patients do not bind to AChRs in brain.
ESTHER : Whiting_1987_J.Neuroimmunol_16_205
PubMedSearch : Whiting_1987_J.Neuroimmunol_16_205
PubMedID: 3624454

Title : Acetylcholine receptors from Torpedo and Electrophorus have similar subunit structures - Lindstrom_1980_Biochemistry_19_1454
Author(s) : Lindstrom JM , Cooper J , Tzartos SJ
Ref : Biochemistry , 19 :1454 , 1980
Abstract : Previously, acetylcholine receptor purified from the electric organs of electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) and electric rays (Torpedo californica) (torpedo) had appeared to differ in subunit structure. Receptor from torpedo has the subunit structure alpha 2 beta gamma delta, but subunits corresponding only to alpha, beta, and gamma had been observed in receptor from eel. Here we report that if membrane fragments of eel electric organ are prepared and detergent extracted in the presence of iodoacetamide, then receptor purified from the extract contains a fourth subunit. Using monoclonal antibodies as well as conventional antisera, we show that the newly recognized subunit of receptor from eel corresponds to the delta subunit of torpedo. A monoclonal antibody to the delta subunit of torpedo cross-reacts with the gamma subunit and shows a similar cross-reaction between the delta' and gamma' subunits of receptor from eel, indicating the presence of an unexpected structural similarity. Although the function of the beta, gamma, and delta subunits remains unknown, these results support the concept that receptors from the electric organs of several species and probably also from muscle share a similarly complex subunit structure.
ESTHER : Lindstrom_1980_Biochemistry_19_1454
PubMedSearch : Lindstrom_1980_Biochemistry_19_1454
PubMedID: 7388004