Glockner G

References (11)

Title : The Chara Genome: Secondary Complexity and Implications for Plant Terrestrialization - Nishiyama_2018_Cell_174_448
Author(s) : Nishiyama T , Sakayama H , de Vries J , Buschmann H , Saint-Marcoux D , Ullrich KK , Haas FB , Vanderstraeten L , Becker D , Lang D , Vosolsobe S , Rombauts S , Wilhelmsson PKI , Janitza P , Kern R , Heyl A , Rumpler F , Villalobos L , Clay JM , Skokan R , Toyoda A , Suzuki Y , Kagoshima H , Schijlen E , Tajeshwar N , Catarino B , Hetherington AJ , Saltykova A , Bonnot C , Breuninger H , Symeonidi A , Radhakrishnan GV , Van Nieuwerburgh F , Deforce D , Chang C , Karol KG , Hedrich R , Ulvskov P , Glockner G , Delwiche CF , Petrasek J , Van de Peer Y , Friml J , Beilby M , Dolan L , Kohara Y , Sugano S , Fujiyama A , Delaux PM , Quint M , Theissen G , Hagemann M , Harholt J , Dunand C , Zachgo S , Langdale J , Maumus F , Van Der Straeten D , Gould SB , Rensing SA
Ref : Cell , 174 :448 , 2018
Abstract : Land plants evolved from charophytic algae, among which Charophyceae possess the most complex body plans. We present the genome of Chara braunii; comparison of the genome to those of land plants identified evolutionary novelties for plant terrestrialization and land plant heritage genes. C. braunii employs unique xylan synthases for cell wall biosynthesis, a phragmoplast (cell separation) mechanism similar to that of land plants, and many phytohormones. C. braunii plastids are controlled via land-plant-like retrograde signaling, and transcriptional regulation is more elaborate than in other algae. The morphological complexity of this organism may result from expanded gene families, with three cases of particular note: genes effecting tolerance to reactive oxygen species (ROS), LysM receptor-like kinases, and transcription factors (TFs). Transcriptomic analysis of sexual reproductive structures reveals intricate control by TFs, activity of the ROS gene network, and the ancestral use of plant-like storage and stress protection proteins in the zygote.
ESTHER : Nishiyama_2018_Cell_174_448
PubMedSearch : Nishiyama_2018_Cell_174_448
PubMedID: 30007417
Gene_locus related to this paper: chabu-a0a388kgf1 , chabu-a0a388jwy2

Title : Multiple Roots of Fruiting Body Formation in Amoebozoa - Hillmann_2018_Genome.Biol.Evol_10_591
Author(s) : Hillmann F , Forbes G , Novohradska S , Ferling I , Riege K , Groth M , Westermann M , Marz M , Spaller T , Winckler T , Schaap P , Glockner G
Ref : Genome Biol Evol , 10 :591 , 2018
Abstract : Establishment of multicellularity represents a major transition in eukaryote evolution. A subgroup of Amoebozoa, the dictyosteliids, has evolved a relatively simple aggregative multicellular stage resulting in a fruiting body supported by a stalk. Protosteloid amoeba, which are scattered throughout the amoebozoan tree, differ by producing only one or few single stalked spores. Thus, one obvious difference in the developmental cycle of protosteliids and dictyosteliids seems to be the establishment of multicellularity. To separate spore development from multicellular interactions, we compared the genome and transcriptome of a Protostelium species (Protostelium aurantium var. fungivorum) with those of social and solitary members of the Amoebozoa. During fruiting body formation nearly 4,000 genes, corresponding to specific pathways required for differentiation processes, are upregulated. A comparison with genes involved in the development of dictyosteliids revealed conservation of >500 genes, but most of them are also present in Acanthamoeba castellanii for which fruiting bodies have not been documented. Moreover, expression regulation of those genes differs between P. aurantium and Dictyostelium discoideum. Within Amoebozoa differentiation to fruiting bodies is common, but our current genome analysis suggests that protosteliids and dictyosteliids used different routes to achieve this. Most remarkable is both the large repertoire and diversity between species in genes that mediate environmental sensing and signal processing. This likely reflects an immense adaptability of the single cell stage to varying environmental conditions. We surmise that this signaling repertoire provided sufficient building blocks to accommodate the relatively simple demands for cell-cell communication in the early multicellular forms.
ESTHER : Hillmann_2018_Genome.Biol.Evol_10_591
PubMedSearch : Hillmann_2018_Genome.Biol.Evol_10_591
PubMedID: 29378020
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9myce-a0a2p6mnh7 , 9myce-a0a2p6myi8 , 9myce-a0a2p6n3r6 , 9myce-a0a2p6n5x6 , 9myce-a0a2p6n6f1 , 9myce-a0a2p6n6w0 , 9myce-a0a2p6nhs0 , 9myce-a0a2p6nvj6 , 9myce-a0a2p6nvr1 , 9myce-a0a2p6p090 , 9myce-a0a2p6p0e3

Title : The genome of the foraminiferan Reticulomyxa filosa - Glockner_2014_Curr.Biol_24_11
Author(s) : Glockner G , Hulsmann N , Schleicher M , Noegel AA , Eichinger L , Gallinger C , Pawlowski J , Sierra R , Euteneuer U , Pillet L , Moustafa A , Platzer M , Groth M , Szafranski K , Schliwa M
Ref : Current Biology , 24 :11 , 2014
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Rhizaria are a major branch of eukaryote evolution with an extensive microfossil record, but only scarce molecular data are available. The rhizarian species Reticulomyxa filosa, belonging to the Foraminifera, is free-living in freshwater environments. In culture, it thrives only as a plasmodium with thousands of haploid nuclei in one cell. The R. filosa genome is the first foraminiferal genome to be deciphered.
RESULTS: The genome is extremely repetitive, and the large amounts of identical sequences hint at frequent amplifications and homologous recombination events. Presumably, these mechanisms are employed to provide more gene copies for higher transcriptional activity and to build up a reservoir of gene diversification in certain gene families, such as the kinesin family. The gene repertoire indicates that it is able to switch to a single-celled, flagellated sexual state never observed in culture. Comparison to another rhizarian, the chlorarachniophyte alga Bigelowiella natans, reveals that proteins involved in signaling were likely drivers in establishing the Rhizaria lineage. Compared to some other protists, horizontal gene transfer is limited, but we found evidence of bacterial-to-eukaryote and eukaryote-to-eukaryote transfer events.
CONCLUSIONS: The R. filosa genome exhibits a unique architecture with extensive repeat homogenization and gene amplification, which highlights its potential for diverse life-cycle stages. The ability of R. filosa to rapidly transport matter from the pseudopodia to the cell body may be supported by the high diversification of actin and kinesin gene family members.
ESTHER : Glockner_2014_Curr.Biol_24_11
PubMedSearch : Glockner_2014_Curr.Biol_24_11
PubMedID: 24332546
Gene_locus related to this paper: retfi-x6m7c7 , retfi-x6nwc0

Title : Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution - Read_2013_Nature_499_209
Author(s) : Read BA , Kegel J , Klute MJ , Kuo A , Lefebvre SC , Maumus F , Mayer C , Miller J , Monier A , Salamov A , Young J , Aguilar M , Claverie JM , Frickenhaus S , Gonzalez K , Herman EK , Lin YC , Napier J , Ogata H , Sarno AF , Shmutz J , Schroeder D , de Vargas C , Verret F , von Dassow P , Valentin K , Van de Peer Y , Wheeler G , Dacks JB , Delwiche CF , Dyhrman ST , Glockner G , John U , Richards T , Worden AZ , Zhang X , Grigoriev IV
Ref : Nature , 499 :209 , 2013
Abstract : Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20 per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering them visible from space. Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate that E. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions.
ESTHER : Read_2013_Nature_499_209
PubMedSearch : Read_2013_Nature_499_209
PubMedID: 23760476

Title : Comparative and functional genomics provide insights into the pathogenicity of dermatophytic fungi - Burmester_2011_Genome.Biol_12_R7
Author(s) : Burmester A , Shelest E , Glockner G , Heddergott C , Schindler S , Staib P , Heidel A , Felder M , Petzold A , Szafranski K , Feuermann M , Pedruzzi I , Priebe S , Groth M , Winkler R , Li W , Kniemeyer O , Schroeckh V , Hertweck C , Hube B , White TC , Platzer M , Guthke R , Heitman J , Wostemeyer J , Zipfel PF , Monod M , Brakhage AA
Ref : Genome Biol , 12 :R7 , 2011
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Millions of humans and animals suffer from superficial infections caused by a group of highly specialized filamentous fungi, the dermatophytes, which exclusively infect keratinized host structures. To provide broad insights into the molecular basis of the pathogenicity-associated traits, we report the first genome sequences of two closely phylogenetically related dermatophytes, Arthroderma benhamiae and Trichophyton verrucosum, both of which induce highly inflammatory infections in humans.
RESULTS: 97% of the 22.5 megabase genome sequences of A. benhamiae and T. verrucosum are unambiguously alignable and collinear. To unravel dermatophyte-specific virulence-associated traits, we compared sets of potentially pathogenicity-associated proteins, such as secreted proteases and enzymes involved in secondary metabolite production, with those of closely related onygenales (Coccidioides species) and the mould Aspergillus fumigatus. The comparisons revealed expansion of several gene families in dermatophytes and disclosed the peculiarities of the dermatophyte secondary metabolite gene sets. Secretion of proteases and other hydrolytic enzymes by A. benhamiae was proven experimentally by a global secretome analysis during keratin degradation. Molecular insights into the interaction of A. benhamiae with human keratinocytes were obtained for the first time by global transcriptome profiling. Given that A. benhamiae is able to undergo mating, a detailed comparison of the genomes further unraveled the genetic basis of sexual reproduction in this species.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results enlighten the genetic basis of fundamental and putatively virulence-related traits of dermatophytes, advancing future research on these medically important pathogens.
ESTHER : Burmester_2011_Genome.Biol_12_R7
PubMedSearch : Burmester_2011_Genome.Biol_12_R7
PubMedID: 21247460
Gene_locus related to this paper: artbc-d4ajq5 , artbc-d4an28 , artbc-d4aqa7 , artbc-d4aqb6 , artbc-d4av38 , artbc-d4ax63 , artbc-d4b5r3 , artbc-d4b5t7 , artbc-d4b465 , artbc-dapb , triec-f2pwm2 , trirc-f2sy06 , triru-q52h54 , trit1-f2rna8 , trivh-d4d5w1 , trivh-d4d8k1 , trivh-d4d228 , trivh-d4d960 , trivh-d4dbj6 , trivh-d4dbr9 , trivh-d4dct3 , trivh-d4dfu4 , trivh-d4dk34 , trivh-d4dkr7 , trivh-d4dlf5 , artbc-d4avu9 , artbc-d4aun9 , trivh-d4dkk1 , trivh-d4d3f3 , triru-a0a178f289 , artbc-scpe , artbc-kex1 , artbc-a1751 , artbc-scpd , artbc-scpf , artbc-fae1 , artbc-a6907

Title : The smallest known genomes of multicellular and toxic cyanobacteria: comparison, minimal gene sets for linked traits and the evolutionary implications - Stucken_2010_PLoS.One_5_e9235
Author(s) : Stucken K , John U , Cembella A , Murillo AA , Soto-Liebe K , Fuentes-Valdes JJ , Friedel M , Plominsky AM , Vasquez M , Glockner G
Ref : PLoS ONE , 5 :e9235 , 2010
Abstract : Cyanobacterial morphology is diverse, ranging from unicellular spheres or rods to multicellular structures such as colonies and filaments. Multicellular species represent an evolutionary strategy to differentiate and compartmentalize certain metabolic functions for reproduction and nitrogen (N(2)) fixation into specialized cell types (e.g. akinetes, heterocysts and diazocytes). Only a few filamentous, differentiated cyanobacterial species, with genome sizes over 5 Mb, have been sequenced. We sequenced the genomes of two strains of closely related filamentous cyanobacterial species to yield further insights into the molecular basis of the traits of N(2) fixation, filament formation and cell differentiation. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii CS-505 is a cylindrospermopsin-producing strain from Australia, whereas Raphidiopsis brookii D9 from Brazil synthesizes neurotoxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Despite their different morphology, toxin composition and disjunct geographical distribution, these strains form a monophyletic group. With genome sizes of approximately 3.9 (CS-505) and 3.2 (D9) Mb, these are the smallest genomes described for free-living filamentous cyanobacteria. We observed remarkable gene order conservation (synteny) between these genomes despite the difference in repetitive element content, which accounts for most of the genome size difference between them. We show here that the strains share a specific set of 2539 genes with >90% average nucleotide identity. The fact that the CS-505 and D9 genomes are small and streamlined compared to those of other filamentous cyanobacterial species and the lack of the ability for heterocyst formation in strain D9 allowed us to define a core set of genes responsible for each trait in filamentous species. We presume that in strain D9 the ability to form proper heterocysts was secondarily lost together with N(2) fixation capacity. Further comparisons to all available cyanobacterial genomes covering almost the entire evolutionary branch revealed a common minimal gene set for each of these cyanobacterial traits.
ESTHER : Stucken_2010_PLoS.One_5_e9235
PubMedSearch : Stucken_2010_PLoS.One_5_e9235
PubMedID: 20169071
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9nost-d4tg47 , 9nost-d4thk4 , 9nost-d4tkw4 , 9nost-d4tma2 , 9nost-d4tr37

Title : Chromatophore genome sequence of Paulinella sheds light on acquisition of photosynthesis by eukaryotes - Nowack_2008_Curr.Biol_18_410
Author(s) : Nowack EC , Melkonian M , Glockner G
Ref : Current Biology , 18 :410 , 2008
Abstract : BACKGROUND: It is commonly accepted that a single primary endosymbiosis gave rise to the photosynthetic organelles of plants, the plastids. Recently, we presented evidence that photosynthetic inclusions, termed "chromatophores," present in the filose thecamoeba Paulinella chromatophora originated from an independent, more recent primary endosymbiotic event. To clarify metabolic capabilities of the chromatophore and its state of integration into the host, we present here the complete genome sequence of the chromatophore. RESULTS: Our data reveal a fundamental reduction of the chromatophore genome. The single, circular chromosome of 1.02 Mb encodes 867 protein-coding genes and is, therewith, the smallest cyanobacterial genome reported to date. Compared to Synechococcus WH5701, a free-living relative of the chromatophore, only 26% of the genes were retained. Eleven putative pseudogenes were identified, indicating that reductive genome evolution is ongoing. Although the chromatophore genome contains a complete set of photosynthesis genes, it lacks not only genes thought to be dispensable for an intracellular lifestyle but also genes of essential pathways for amino acid and cofactor synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data characterize the chromatophore as a photosynthetic entity that is absolutely dependent on its host for growth and survival. Thus, the chromatophores of P. chromatophora are the only known cyanobacterial descendants besides plastids with a significantly reduced genome that confer photosynthesis to their eukaryotic host. Their comparison with plastids and bacterial endosymbionts of invertebrates sheds light on early steps of the integration of a photosynthetic prokaryote into a eukaryotic cell.
ESTHER : Nowack_2008_Curr.Biol_18_410
PubMedSearch : Nowack_2008_Curr.Biol_18_410
PubMedID: 18356055
Gene_locus related to this paper: pauch-b1x403

Title : DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 8 - Nusbaum_2006_Nature_439_331
Author(s) : Nusbaum C , Mikkelsen TS , Zody MC , Asakawa S , Taudien S , Garber M , Kodira CD , Schueler MG , Shimizu A , Whittaker CA , Chang JL , Cuomo CA , Dewar K , Fitzgerald MG , Yang X , Allen NR , Anderson S , Asakawa T , Blechschmidt K , Bloom T , Borowsky ML , Butler J , Cook A , Corum B , DeArellano K , Decaprio D , Dooley KT , Dorris L, 3rd , Engels R , Glockner G , Hafez N , Hagopian DS , Hall JL , Ishikawa SK , Jaffe DB , Kamat A , Kudoh J , Lehmann R , Lokitsang T , Macdonald P , Major JE , Matthews CD , Mauceli E , Menzel U , Mihalev AH , Minoshima S , Murayama Y , Naylor JW , Nicol R , Nguyen C , O'Leary SB , O'Neill K , Parker SC , Polley A , Raymond CK , Reichwald K , Rodriguez J , Sasaki T , Schilhabel M , Siddiqui R , Smith CL , Sneddon TP , Talamas JA , Tenzin P , Topham K , Venkataraman V , Wen G , Yamazaki S , Young SK , Zeng Q , Zimmer AR , Rosenthal A , Birren BW , Platzer M , Shimizu N , Lander ES
Ref : Nature , 439 :331 , 2006
Abstract : The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (IHGSC) recently completed a sequence of the human genome. As part of this project, we have focused on chromosome 8. Although some chromosomes exhibit extreme characteristics in terms of length, gene content, repeat content and fraction segmentally duplicated, chromosome 8 is distinctly typical in character, being very close to the genome median in each of these aspects. This work describes a finished sequence and gene catalogue for the chromosome, which represents just over 5% of the euchromatic human genome. A unique feature of the chromosome is a vast region of approximately 15 megabases on distal 8p that appears to have a strikingly high mutation rate, which has accelerated in the hominids relative to other sequenced mammals. This fast-evolving region contains a number of genes related to innate immunity and the nervous system, including loci that appear to be under positive selection--these include the major defensin (DEF) gene cluster and MCPH1, a gene that may have contributed to the evolution of expanded brain size in the great apes. The data from chromosome 8 should allow a better understanding of both normal and disease biology and genome evolution.
ESTHER : Nusbaum_2006_Nature_439_331
PubMedSearch : Nusbaum_2006_Nature_439_331
PubMedID: 16421571
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-TG

Title : The genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum - Eichinger_2005_Nature_435_43
Author(s) : Eichinger L , Pachebat JA , Glockner G , Rajandream MA , Sucgang R , Berriman M , Song J , Olsen R , Szafranski K , Xu Q , Tunggal B , Kummerfeld S , Madera M , Konfortov BA , Rivero F , Bankier AT , Lehmann R , Hamlin N , Davies R , Gaudet P , Fey P , Pilcher K , Chen G , Saunders D , Sodergren E , Davis P , Kerhornou A , Nie X , Hall N , Anjard C , Hemphill L , Bason N , Farbrother P , Desany B , Just E , Morio T , Rost R , Churcher C , Cooper J , Haydock S , van Driessche N , Cronin A , Goodhead I , Muzny D , Mourier T , Pain A , Lu M , Harper D , Lindsay R , Hauser H , James K , Quiles M , Madan Babu M , Saito T , Buchrieser C , Wardroper A , Felder M , Thangavelu M , Johnson D , Knights A , Loulseged H , Mungall K , Oliver K , Price C , Quail MA , Urushihara H , Hernandez J , Rabbinowitsch E , Steffen D , Sanders M , Ma J , Kohara Y , Sharp S , Simmonds M , Spiegler S , Tivey A , Sugano S , White B , Walker D , Woodward J , Winckler T , Tanaka Y , Shaulsky G , Schleicher M , Weinstock G , Rosenthal A , Cox EC , Chisholm RL , Gibbs R , Loomis WF , Platzer M , Kay RR , Williams J , Dear PH , Noegel AA , Barrell B , Kuspa A
Ref : Nature , 435 :43 , 2005
Abstract : The social amoebae are exceptional in their ability to alternate between unicellular and multicellular forms. Here we describe the genome of the best-studied member of this group, Dictyostelium discoideum. The gene-dense chromosomes of this organism encode approximately 12,500 predicted proteins, a high proportion of which have long, repetitive amino acid tracts. There are many genes for polyketide synthases and ABC transporters, suggesting an extensive secondary metabolism for producing and exporting small molecules. The genome is rich in complex repeats, one class of which is clustered and may serve as centromeres. Partial copies of the extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) element are found at the ends of each chromosome, suggesting a novel telomere structure and the use of a common mechanism to maintain both the rDNA and chromosomal termini. A proteome-based phylogeny shows that the amoebozoa diverged from the animal-fungal lineage after the plant-animal split, but Dictyostelium seems to have retained more of the diversity of the ancestral genome than have plants, animals or fungi.
ESTHER : Eichinger_2005_Nature_435_43
PubMedSearch : Eichinger_2005_Nature_435_43
PubMedID: 15875012
Gene_locus related to this paper: dicdi-abhd , dicdi-ACHE , dicdi-apra , dicdi-cinbp , dicdi-CMBL , dicdi-crysp , dicdi-DPOA , dicdi-P90528 , dicdi-ppme1 , dicdi-Q8MYE7 , dicdi-q54cf7 , dicdi-q54cl7 , dicdi-q54cm0 , dicdi-q54ct5 , dicdi-q54cu1 , dicdi-q54d54 , dicdi-q54d66 , dicdi-q54dj5 , dicdi-q54dy7 , dicdi-q54ek1 , dicdi-q54eq6 , dicdi-q54et1 , dicdi-q54et7 , dicdi-q54f01 , dicdi-q54g24 , dicdi-q54g47 , dicdi-q54gi7 , dicdi-q54gw5 , dicdi-q54gx3 , dicdi-q54h23 , dicdi-q54h73 , dicdi-q54i38 , dicdi-q54ie5 , dicdi-q54in4 , dicdi-q54kz1 , dicdi-q54l36 , dicdi-q54li1 , dicdi-q54m29 , dicdi-q54n21 , dicdi-q54n35 , dicdi-q54n85 , dicdi-q54qe7 , dicdi-q54qi3 , dicdi-q54qk2 , dicdi-q54rl3 , dicdi-q54rl8 , dicdi-q54sy6 , dicdi-q54sz3 , dicdi-q54t49 , dicdi-q54t91 , dicdi-q54th2 , dicdi-q54u01 , dicdi-q54vc2 , dicdi-q54vw1 , dicdi-q54xe3 , dicdi-q54xl3 , dicdi-q54xu1 , dicdi-q54xu2 , dicdi-q54y48 , dicdi-q54yd0 , dicdi-q54ye0 , dicdi-q54yl1 , dicdi-q54yr8 , dicdi-q54z90 , dicdi-q55bx3 , dicdi-q55d01 , dicdi-q55d81 , dicdi-q55du6 , dicdi-q55eu1 , dicdi-q55eu8 , dicdi-q55fk4 , dicdi-q55gk7 , dicdi-Q54ZA6 , dicdi-q86h82 , dicdi-Q86HC9 , dicdi-Q86HM5 , dicdi-Q86HM6 , dicdi-q86iz7 , dicdi-q86jb6 , dicdi-Q86KU7 , dicdi-q550s3 , dicdi-q552c0 , dicdi-q553t5 , dicdi-q555e5 , dicdi-q555h0 , dicdi-q555h1 , dicdi-q557k5 , dicdi-q558u2 , dicdi-Q869Q8 , dicdi-u554 , dicdi-y9086 , dicdi-q54r44 , dicdi-f172a

Title : The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome - Ross_2005_Nature_434_325
Author(s) : Ross MT , Grafham DV , Coffey AJ , Scherer S , McLay K , Muzny D , Platzer M , Howell GR , Burrows C , Bird CP , Frankish A , Lovell FL , Howe KL , Ashurst JL , Fulton RS , Sudbrak R , Wen G , Jones MC , Hurles ME , Andrews TD , Scott CE , Searle S , Ramser J , Whittaker A , Deadman R , Carter NP , Hunt SE , Chen R , Cree A , Gunaratne P , Havlak P , Hodgson A , Metzker ML , Richards S , Scott G , Steffen D , Sodergren E , Wheeler DA , Worley KC , Ainscough R , Ambrose KD , Ansari-Lari MA , Aradhya S , Ashwell RI , Babbage AK , Bagguley CL , Ballabio A , Banerjee R , Barker GE , Barlow KF , Barrett IP , Bates KN , Beare DM , Beasley H , Beasley O , Beck A , Bethel G , Blechschmidt K , Brady N , Bray-Allen S , Bridgeman AM , Brown AJ , Brown MJ , Bonnin D , Bruford EA , Buhay C , Burch P , Burford D , Burgess J , Burrill W , Burton J , Bye JM , Carder C , Carrel L , Chako J , Chapman JC , Chavez D , Chen E , Chen G , Chen Y , Chen Z , Chinault C , Ciccodicola A , Clark SY , Clarke G , Clee CM , Clegg S , Clerc-Blankenburg K , Clifford K , Cobley V , Cole CG , Conquer JS , Corby N , Connor RE , David R , Davies J , Davis C , Davis J , Delgado O , Deshazo D , Dhami P , Ding Y , Dinh H , Dodsworth S , Draper H , Dugan-Rocha S , Dunham A , Dunn M , Durbin KJ , Dutta I , Eades T , Ellwood M , Emery-Cohen A , Errington H , Evans KL , Faulkner L , Francis F , Frankland J , Fraser AE , Galgoczy P , Gilbert J , Gill R , Glockner G , Gregory SG , Gribble S , Griffiths C , Grocock R , Gu Y , Gwilliam R , Hamilton C , Hart EA , Hawes A , Heath PD , Heitmann K , Hennig S , Hernandez J , Hinzmann B , Ho S , Hoffs M , Howden PJ , Huckle EJ , Hume J , Hunt PJ , Hunt AR , Isherwood J , Jacob L , Johnson D , Jones S , de Jong PJ , Joseph SS , Keenan S , Kelly S , Kershaw JK , Khan Z , Kioschis P , Klages S , Knights AJ , Kosiura A , Kovar-Smith C , Laird GK , Langford C , Lawlor S , Leversha M , Lewis L , Liu W , Lloyd C , Lloyd DM , Loulseged H , Loveland JE , Lovell JD , Lozado R , Lu J , Lyne R , Ma J , Maheshwari M , Matthews LH , McDowall J , Mclaren S , McMurray A , Meidl P , Meitinger T , Milne S , Miner G , Mistry SL , Morgan M , Morris S , Muller I , Mullikin JC , Nguyen N , Nordsiek G , Nyakatura G , O'Dell CN , Okwuonu G , Palmer S , Pandian R , Parker D , Parrish J , Pasternak S , Patel D , Pearce AV , Pearson DM , Pelan SE , Perez L , Porter KM , Ramsey Y , Reichwald K , Rhodes S , Ridler KA , Schlessinger D , Schueler MG , Sehra HK , Shaw-Smith C , Shen H , Sheridan EM , Shownkeen R , Skuce CD , Smith ML , Sotheran EC , Steingruber HE , Steward CA , Storey R , Swann RM , Swarbreck D , Tabor PE , Taudien S , Taylor T , Teague B , Thomas K , Thorpe A , Timms K , Tracey A , Trevanion S , Tromans AC , d'Urso M , Verduzco D , Villasana D , Waldron L , Wall M , Wang Q , Warren J , Warry GL , Wei X , West A , Whitehead SL , Whiteley MN , Wilkinson JE , Willey DL , Williams G , Williams L , Williamson A , Williamson H , Wilming L , Woodmansey RL , Wray PW , Yen J , Zhang J , Zhou J , Zoghbi H , Zorilla S , Buck D , Reinhardt R , Poustka A , Rosenthal A , Lehrach H , Meindl A , Minx PJ , Hillier LW , Willard HF , Wilson RK , Waterston RH , Rice CM , Vaudin M , Coulson A , Nelson DL , Weinstock G , Sulston JE , Durbin R , Hubbard T , Gibbs RA , Beck S , Rogers J , Bentley DR
Ref : Nature , 434 :325 , 2005
Abstract : The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination between X and Y, and the extent of subsequent degradation of the Y chromosome. LINE1 repeat elements cover one-third of the X chromosome, with a distribution that is consistent with their proposed role as way stations in the process of X-chromosome inactivation. We found 1,098 genes in the sequence, of which 99 encode proteins expressed in testis and in various tumour types. A disproportionately high number of mendelian diseases are documented for the X chromosome. Of this number, 168 have been explained by mutations in 113 X-linked genes, which in many cases were characterized with the aid of the DNA sequence.
ESTHER : Ross_2005_Nature_434_325
PubMedSearch : Ross_2005_Nature_434_325
PubMedID: 15772651
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-NLGN3 , human-NLGN4X

Title : Sequence and analysis of chromosome 2 of Dictyostelium discoideum - Glockner_2002_Nature_418_79
Author(s) : Glockner G , Eichinger L , Szafranski K , Pachebat JA , Bankier AT , Dear PH , Lehmann R , Baumgart C , Parra G , Abril JF , Guigo R , Kumpf K , Tunggal B , Cox E , Quail MA , Platzer M , Rosenthal A , Noegel AA
Ref : Nature , 418 :79 , 2002
Abstract : The genome of the lower eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum comprises six chromosomes. Here we report the sequence of the largest, chromosome 2, which at 8 megabases (Mb) represents about 25% of the genome. Despite an A + T content of nearly 80%, the chromosome codes for 2,799 predicted protein coding genes and 73 transfer RNA genes. This gene density, about 1 gene per 2.6 kilobases (kb), is surpassed only by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (one per 2 kb) and is similar to that of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (one per 2.5 kb). If we assume that the other chromosomes have a similar gene density, we can expect around 11,000 genes in the D. discoideum genome. A significant number of the genes show higher similarities to genes of vertebrates than to those of other fully sequenced eukaryotes. This analysis strengthens the view that the evolutionary position of D. discoideum is located before the branching of metazoa and fungi but after the divergence of the plant kingdom, placing it close to the base of metazoan evolution.
ESTHER : Glockner_2002_Nature_418_79
PubMedSearch : Glockner_2002_Nature_418_79
PubMedID: 12097910
Gene_locus related to this paper: dicdi-crd2p , dicdi-DPOA , dicdi-P90528 , dicdi-Q8MMX8 , dicdi-Q8MYE7 , dicdi-q54z90 , dicdi-Q75JJ5 , dicdi-Q54ZA6 , dicdi-q86h82 , dicdi-Q86HC9 , dicdi-Q86HM5 , dicdi-Q86HM6 , dicdi-Q86I88 , dicdi-q86iz7 , dicdi-Q86KU7 , dicdi-q552c0 , dicdi-q553t5 , dicdi-q555h0 , dicdi-q555h1 , dicdi-q557k5 , dicdi-Q869Q8 , dicdi-f172a