White B

References (10)

Title : Widespread divergence between incipient Anopheles gambiae species revealed by whole genome sequences - Lawniczak_2010_Science_330_512
Author(s) : Lawniczak MK , Emrich SJ , Holloway AK , Regier AP , Olson M , White B , Redmond S , Fulton L , Appelbaum E , Godfrey J , Farmer C , Chinwalla A , Yang SP , Minx P , Nelson J , Kyung K , Walenz BP , Garcia-Hernandez E , Aguiar M , Viswanathan LD , Rogers YH , Strausberg RL , Saski CA , Lawson D , Collins FH , Kafatos FC , Christophides GK , Clifton SW , Kirkness EF , Besansky NJ
Ref : Science , 330 :512 , 2010
Abstract : The Afrotropical mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, a major vector of malaria, is currently undergoing speciation into the M and S molecular forms. These forms have diverged in larval ecology and reproductive behavior through unknown genetic mechanisms, despite considerable levels of hybridization. Previous genome-wide scans using gene-based microarrays uncovered divergence between M and S that was largely confined to gene-poor pericentromeric regions, prompting a speciation-with-ongoing-gene-flow model that implicated only about 3% of the genome near centromeres in the speciation process. Here, based on the complete M and S genome sequences, we report widespread and heterogeneous genomic divergence inconsistent with appreciable levels of interform gene flow, suggesting a more advanced speciation process and greater challenges to identify genes critical to initiating that process.
ESTHER : Lawniczak_2010_Science_330_512
PubMedSearch : Lawniczak_2010_Science_330_512
PubMedID: 20966253
Gene_locus related to this paper: anoga-Q7PVF9 , anoga-q7q837 , 9dipt-a0a182ksz6 , anost-a0a182xxz0 , anost-a0a182xzf1 , anoga-q7q887

Title : Independent evolution of the core and accessory gene sets in the genus Neisseria: insights gained from the genome of Neisseria lactamica isolate 020-06 - Bennett_2010_BMC.Genomics_11_652
Author(s) : Bennett JS , Bentley SD , Vernikos GS , Quail MA , Cherevach I , White B , Parkhill J , Maiden MC
Ref : BMC Genomics , 11 :652 , 2010
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The genus Neisseria contains two important yet very different pathogens, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae, in addition to non-pathogenic species, of which N. lactamica is the best characterized. Genomic comparisons of these three bacteria will provide insights into the mechanisms and evolution of pathogenesis in this group of organisms, which are applicable to understanding these processes more generally.
RESULTS: Non-pathogenic N. lactamica exhibits very similar population structure and levels of diversity to the meningococcus, whilst gonococci are essentially recent descendents of a single clone. All three species share a common core gene set estimated to comprise around 1190 CDSs, corresponding to about 60% of the genome. However, some of the nucleotide sequence diversity within this core genome is particular to each group, indicating that cross-species recombination is rare in this shared core gene set. Other than the meningococcal cps region, which encodes the polysaccharide capsule, relatively few members of the large accessory gene pool are exclusive to one species group, and cross-species recombination within this accessory genome is frequent. CONCLUSION: The three Neisseria species groups represent coherent biological and genetic groupings which appear to be maintained by low rates of inter-species horizontal genetic exchange within the core genome. There is extensive evidence for exchange among positively selected genes and the accessory genome and some evidence of hitch-hiking of housekeeping genes with other loci. It is not possible to define a 'pathogenome' for this group of organisms and the disease causing phenotypes are therefore likely to be complex, polygenic, and different among the various disease-associated phenotypes observed.
ESTHER : Bennett_2010_BMC.Genomics_11_652
PubMedSearch : Bennett_2010_BMC.Genomics_11_652
PubMedID: 21092259
Gene_locus related to this paper: neigo-pip , neil0-e4zan3 , neima-metx , neime-NMB0276 , neime-NMB1877

Title : Pseudogene accumulation in the evolutionary histories of Salmonella enterica serovars Paratyphi A and Typhi - Holt_2009_BMC.Genomics_10_36
Author(s) : Holt KE , Thomson NR , Wain J , Langridge GC , Hasan R , Bhutta ZA , Quail MA , Norbertczak H , Walker D , Simmonds M , White B , Bason N , Mungall K , Dougan G , Parkhill J
Ref : BMC Genomics , 10 :36 , 2009
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Of the > 2000 serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies I, most cause self-limiting gastrointestinal disease in a wide range of mammalian hosts. However, S. enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are restricted to the human host and cause the similar systemic diseases typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Genome sequence similarity between Paratyphi A and Typhi has been attributed to convergent evolution via relatively recent recombination of a quarter of their genomes. The accumulation of pseudogenes is a key feature of these and other host-adapted pathogens, and overlapping pseudogene complements are evident in Paratyphi A and Typhi.
RESULTS: We report the 4.5 Mbp genome of a clinical isolate of Paratyphi A, strain AKU_12601, completely sequenced using capillary techniques and subsequently checked using Illumina/Solexa resequencing. Comparison with the published genome of Paratyphi A ATCC9150 revealed the two are collinear and highly similar, with 188 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 39 insertions/deletions. A comparative analysis of pseudogene complements of these and two finished Typhi genomes (CT18, Ty2) identified several pseudogenes that had been overlooked in prior genome annotations of one or both serovars, and identified 66 pseudogenes shared between serovars. By determining whether each shared and serovar-specific pseudogene had been recombined between Paratyphi A and Typhi, we found evidence that most pseudogenes have accumulated after the recombination between serovars. We also divided pseudogenes into relative-time groups: ancestral pseudogenes inherited from a common ancestor, pseudogenes recombined between serovars which likely arose between initial divergence and later recombination, serovar-specific pseudogenes arising after recombination but prior to the last evolutionary bottlenecks in each population, and more recent strain-specific pseudogenes. CONCLUSION: Recombination and pseudogene-formation have been important mechanisms of genetic convergence between Paratyphi A and Typhi, with most pseudogenes arising independently after extensive recombination between the serovars. The recombination events, along with divergence of and within each serovar, provide a relative time scale for pseudogene-forming mutations, affording rare insights into the progression of functional gene loss associated with host adaptation in Salmonella.
ESTHER : Holt_2009_BMC.Genomics_10_36
PubMedSearch : Holt_2009_BMC.Genomics_10_36
PubMedID: 19159446

Title : The genome of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315, an epidemic pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients - Holden_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_261
Author(s) : Holden MT , Seth-Smith HM , Crossman LC , Sebaihia M , Bentley SD , Cerdeno-Tarraga AM , Thomson NR , Bason N , Quail MA , Sharp S , Cherevach I , Churcher C , Goodhead I , Hauser H , Holroyd N , Mungall K , Scott P , Walker D , White B , Rose H , Iversen P , Mil-Homens D , Rocha EP , Fialho AM , Baldwin A , Dowson C , Barrell BG , Govan JR , Vandamme P , Hart CA , Mahenthiralingam E , Parkhill J
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 191 :261 , 2009
Abstract : Bacterial infections of the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients cause major complications in the treatment of this common genetic disease. Burkholderia cenocepacia infection is particularly problematic since this organism has high levels of antibiotic resistance, making it difficult to eradicate; the resulting chronic infections are associated with severe declines in lung function and increased mortality rates. B. cenocepacia strain J2315 was isolated from a CF patient and is a member of the epidemic ET12 lineage that originated in Canada or the United Kingdom and spread to Europe. The 8.06-Mb genome of this highly transmissible pathogen comprises three circular chromosomes and a plasmid and encodes a broad array of functions typical of this metabolically versatile genus, as well as numerous virulence and drug resistance functions. Although B. cenocepacia strains can be isolated from soil and can be pathogenic to both plants and man, J2315 is representative of a lineage of B. cenocepacia rarely isolated from the environment and which spreads between CF patients. Comparative analysis revealed that ca. 21% of the genome is unique in comparison to other strains of B. cenocepacia, highlighting the genomic plasticity of this species. Pseudogenes in virulence determinants suggest that the pathogenic response of J2315 may have been recently selected to promote persistence in the CF lung. The J2315 genome contains evidence that its unique and highly adapted genetic content has played a significant role in its success as an epidemic CF pathogen.
ESTHER : Holden_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_261
PubMedSearch : Holden_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_261
PubMedID: 18931103
Gene_locus related to this paper: burcj-b4e794 , 9burk-a0u8m3 , burcj-b4ek59 , burcj-b4ehl7 , burca-q1bk56 , burce-a0a088tsj6 , burcj-b4ecv6

Title : The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi - Pain_2008_Nature_455_799
Author(s) : Pain A , Bohme U , Berry AE , Mungall K , Finn RD , Jackson AP , Mourier T , Mistry J , Pasini EM , Aslett MA , Balasubrammaniam S , Borgwardt K , Brooks K , Carret C , Carver TJ , Cherevach I , Chillingworth T , Clark TG , Galinski MR , Hall N , Harper D , Harris D , Hauser H , Ivens A , Janssen CS , Keane T , Larke N , Lapp S , Marti M , Moule S , Meyer IM , Ormond D , Peters N , Sanders M , Sanders S , Sargeant TJ , Simmonds M , Smith F , Squares R , Thurston S , Tivey AR , Walker D , White B , Zuiderwijk E , Churcher C , Quail MA , Cowman AF , Turner CM , Rajandream MA , Kocken CH , Thomas AW , Newbold CI , Barrell BG , Berriman M
Ref : Nature , 455 :799 , 2008
Abstract : Plasmodium knowlesi is an intracellular malaria parasite whose natural vertebrate host is Macaca fascicularis (the 'kra' monkey); however, it is now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in southeast Asia. Plasmodium knowlesi was the first malaria parasite species in which antigenic variation was demonstrated, and it has a close phylogenetic relationship to Plasmodium vivax, the second most important species of human malaria parasite (reviewed in ref. 4). Despite their relatedness, there are important phenotypic differences between them, such as host blood cell preference, absence of a dormant liver stage or 'hypnozoite' in P. knowlesi, and length of the asexual cycle (reviewed in ref. 4). Here we present an analysis of the P. knowlesi (H strain, Pk1(A+) clone) nuclear genome sequence. This is the first monkey malaria parasite genome to be described, and it provides an opportunity for comparison with the recently completed P. vivax genome and other sequenced Plasmodium genomes. In contrast to other Plasmodium genomes, putative variant antigen families are dispersed throughout the genome and are associated with intrachromosomal telomere repeats. One of these families, the KIRs, contains sequences that collectively match over one-half of the host CD99 extracellular domain, which may represent an unusual form of molecular mimicry.
ESTHER : Pain_2008_Nature_455_799
PubMedSearch : Pain_2008_Nature_455_799
PubMedID: 18843368
Gene_locus related to this paper: plakh-b3kz42 , plakh-b3kz45 , plakh-b3l0y4 , plakh-b3l1r3 , plakh-b3l8u5 , plakh-b3l336 , plakh-b3l571 , plakh-b3la01 , plakh-b3lb44

Title : Insights from the complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium marinum on the evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Stinear_2008_Genome.Res_18_729
Author(s) : Stinear TP , Seemann T , Harrison PF , Jenkin GA , Davies JK , Johnson PD , Abdellah Z , Arrowsmith C , Chillingworth T , Churcher C , Clarke K , Cronin A , Davis P , Goodhead I , Holroyd N , Jagels K , Lord A , Moule S , Mungall K , Norbertczak H , Quail MA , Rabbinowitsch E , Walker D , White B , Whitehead S , Small PL , Brosch R , Ramakrishnan L , Fischbach MA , Parkhill J , Cole ST
Ref : Genome Res , 18 :729 , 2008
Abstract : Mycobacterium marinum, a ubiquitous pathogen of fish and amphibia, is a near relative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis in humans. The genome of the M strain of M. marinum comprises a 6,636,827-bp circular chromosome with 5424 CDS, 10 prophages, and a 23-kb mercury-resistance plasmid. Prominent features are the very large number of genes (57) encoding polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) and the most extensive repertoire yet reported of the mycobacteria-restricted PE and PPE proteins, and related-ESX secretion systems. Some of the NRPS genes comprise a novel family and seem to have been acquired horizontally. M. marinum is used widely as a model organism to study M. tuberculosis pathogenesis, and genome comparisons confirmed the close genetic relationship between these two species, as they share 3000 orthologs with an average amino acid identity of 85%. Comparisons with the more distantly related Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis reveal how an ancestral generalist mycobacterium evolved into M. tuberculosis and M. marinum. M. tuberculosis has undergone genome downsizing and extensive lateral gene transfer to become a specialized pathogen of humans and other primates without retaining an environmental niche. M. marinum has maintained a large genome so as to retain the capacity for environmental survival while becoming a broad host range pathogen that produces disease strikingly similar to M. tuberculosis. The work described herein provides a foundation for using M. marinum to better understand the determinants of pathogenesis of tuberculosis.
ESTHER : Stinear_2008_Genome.Res_18_729
PubMedSearch : Stinear_2008_Genome.Res_18_729
PubMedID: 18403782
Gene_locus related to this paper: mycmm-b2hds9 , mycmm-b2hed7 , mycmm-b2hg81 , mycmm-b2hgg2 , mycmm-b2hgg7 , mycmm-b2hhi7 , mycmm-b2hhu3 , mycmm-b2hiu3 , mycmm-b2hiu5 , mycmm-b2hiw7 , mycmm-b2hiy0 , mycmm-b2hj55 , mycmm-b2hjb4 , mycmm-b2hju3 , mycmm-b2hku1 , mycmm-b2hkw0 , mycmm-b2hlr0 , mycmm-b2hlt7 , mycmm-b2hlt8 , mycmm-b2hlt9 , mycmm-b2hlu0 , mycmm-b2hlv0 , mycmm-b2hlv1 , mycmm-b2hlv2 , mycmm-b2hlx2 , mycmm-b2hm55 , mycmm-b2hnr9 , mycmm-b2hnz5 , mycmm-b2hp80 , mycmm-b2hpp0 , mycmm-b2hq96 , mycmm-b2hr10 , mycmm-b2hsm6 , mycmm-b2hsm8 , mycmm-b2hsy0 , mycmm-b2ht06 , mycmm-b2ht20 , mycmm-b2ht49 , mycmm-dhma , mycmm-metx , mycmr-q5sdq4 , myctu-RV1683 , mycmm-b2h1k1 , mycua-a0pku2 , mycua-a0pl47 , mycua-a0plr3 , mycua-a0pm12 , mycua-a0pm14 , mycua-a0pmv0 , mycua-a0pmx9 , mycua-a0pn71 , mycua-a0ppm6 , mycua-a0pqm2 , mycua-a0pqs2 , mycua-a0prq2 , mycua-a0psb1 , mycua-a0psb4 , mycua-a0psi2 , mycua-a0pth6 , mycua-a0ptq0 , mycua-a0pu55 , mycua-a0pum4 , mycua-a0pv11 , mycua-a0pva4 , mycua-a0pwi8 , mycua-a0pwr6 , mycua-a0pwz5 , mycul-a85a , mycmm-b2hcy1 , mycua-a0pvg7 , mycmm-b2hnj4 , mycmm-b2he93 , mycua-a0pwz4 , mycmm-b2hqy3 , mycua-a0pmc3 , mycmm-b2hnn7 , mycmm-b2he68 , mycmm-b2hqm3 , mycmm-tesa

Title : Genome sequence of a proteolytic (Group I) Clostridium botulinum strain Hall A and comparative analysis of the clostridial genomes - Sebaihia_2007_Genome.Res_17_1082
Author(s) : Sebaihia M , Peck MW , Minton NP , Thomson NR , Holden MT , Mitchell WJ , Carter AT , Bentley SD , Mason DR , Crossman L , Paul CJ , Ivens A , Wells-Bennik MH , Davis IJ , Cerdeno-Tarraga AM , Churcher C , Quail MA , Chillingworth T , Feltwell T , Fraser A , Goodhead I , Hance Z , Jagels K , Larke N , Maddison M , Moule S , Mungall K , Norbertczak H , Rabbinowitsch E , Sanders M , Simmonds M , White B , Whithead S , Parkhill J
Ref : Genome Res , 17 :1082 , 2007
Abstract : Clostridium botulinum is a heterogeneous Gram-positive species that comprises four genetically and physiologically distinct groups of bacteria that share the ability to produce botulinum neurotoxin, the most poisonous toxin known to man, and the causative agent of botulism, a severe disease of humans and animals. We report here the complete genome sequence of a representative of Group I (proteolytic) C. botulinum (strain Hall A, ATCC 3502). The genome consists of a chromosome (3,886,916 bp) and a plasmid (16,344 bp), which carry 3650 and 19 predicted genes, respectively. Consistent with the proteolytic phenotype of this strain, the genome harbors a large number of genes encoding secreted proteases and enzymes involved in uptake and metabolism of amino acids. The genome also reveals a hitherto unknown ability of C. botulinum to degrade chitin. There is a significant lack of recently acquired DNA, indicating a stable genomic content, in strong contrast to the fluid genome of Clostridium difficile, which can form longer-term relationships with its host. Overall, the genome indicates that C. botulinum is adapted to a saprophytic lifestyle both in soil and aquatic environments. This pathogen relies on its toxin to rapidly kill a wide range of prey species, and to gain access to nutrient sources, it releases a large number of extracellular enzymes to soften and destroy rotting or decayed tissues.
ESTHER : Sebaihia_2007_Genome.Res_17_1082
PubMedSearch : Sebaihia_2007_Genome.Res_17_1082
PubMedID: 17519437
Gene_locus related to this paper: clobh-A5I3I2 , clobh-A51055 , clob1-a7fqm2 , clob1-a7fv94 , clobl-a7gbn0 , clobh-pip , clobh-a5i3m0

Title : Comparative genomic analysis of three Leishmania species that cause diverse human disease - Peacock_2007_Nat.Genet_39_839
Author(s) : Peacock CS , Seeger K , Harris D , Murphy L , Ruiz JC , Quail MA , Peters N , Adlem E , Tivey A , Aslett M , Kerhornou A , Ivens A , Fraser A , Rajandream MA , Carver T , Norbertczak H , Chillingworth T , Hance Z , Jagels K , Moule S , Ormond D , Rutter S , Squares R , Whitehead S , Rabbinowitsch E , Arrowsmith C , White B , Thurston S , Bringaud F , Baldauf SL , Faulconbridge A , Jeffares D , Depledge DP , Oyola SO , Hilley JD , Brito LO , Tosi LR , Barrell B , Cruz AK , Mottram JC , Smith DF , Berriman M
Ref : Nat Genet , 39 :839 , 2007
Abstract : Leishmania parasites cause a broad spectrum of clinical disease. Here we report the sequencing of the genomes of two species of Leishmania: Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. The comparison of these sequences with the published genome of Leishmania major reveals marked conservation of synteny and identifies only approximately 200 genes with a differential distribution between the three species. L. braziliensis, contrary to Leishmania species examined so far, possesses components of a putative RNA-mediated interference pathway, telomere-associated transposable elements and spliced leader-associated SLACS retrotransposons. We show that pseudogene formation and gene loss are the principal forces shaping the different genomes. Genes that are differentially distributed between the species encode proteins implicated in host-pathogen interactions and parasite survival in the macrophage.
ESTHER : Peacock_2007_Nat.Genet_39_839
PubMedSearch : Peacock_2007_Nat.Genet_39_839
PubMedID: 17572675
Gene_locus related to this paper: leibr-a4h6l0 , leibr-a4h6l1 , leibr-a4h9b6 , leibr-a4h908 , leibr-a4h956 , leibr-a4h959 , leibr-a4h960 , leibr-a4hen1 , leibr-a4hf07 , leibr-a4hgl0 , leibr-a4hhu6 , leibr-a4hj94 , leibr-a4hk72 , leibr-a4hpa8 , leibr-a4hpz5 , leiin-a4huz4 , leiin-a4hxe0 , leiin-a4hxh8 , leiin-a4hxi1 , leiin-a4hxn7 , leiin-a4hyv9 , leiin-a4i1v9 , leiin-a4i4z6 , leiin-a4i6n9 , leiin-a4i7q7 , leiin-a4idl6 , leima-e9ady6 , leima-OPB , leima-q4q0t5 , leima-q4q8a8 , leima-q4q398 , leima-q4q942 , leima-q4qe85 , leima-q4qe86 , leima-q4qj45

Title : The genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum - Eichinger_2005_Nature_435_43
Author(s) : Eichinger L , Pachebat JA , Glockner G , Rajandream MA , Sucgang R , Berriman M , Song J , Olsen R , Szafranski K , Xu Q , Tunggal B , Kummerfeld S , Madera M , Konfortov BA , Rivero F , Bankier AT , Lehmann R , Hamlin N , Davies R , Gaudet P , Fey P , Pilcher K , Chen G , Saunders D , Sodergren E , Davis P , Kerhornou A , Nie X , Hall N , Anjard C , Hemphill L , Bason N , Farbrother P , Desany B , Just E , Morio T , Rost R , Churcher C , Cooper J , Haydock S , van Driessche N , Cronin A , Goodhead I , Muzny D , Mourier T , Pain A , Lu M , Harper D , Lindsay R , Hauser H , James K , Quiles M , Madan Babu M , Saito T , Buchrieser C , Wardroper A , Felder M , Thangavelu M , Johnson D , Knights A , Loulseged H , Mungall K , Oliver K , Price C , Quail MA , Urushihara H , Hernandez J , Rabbinowitsch E , Steffen D , Sanders M , Ma J , Kohara Y , Sharp S , Simmonds M , Spiegler S , Tivey A , Sugano S , White B , Walker D , Woodward J , Winckler T , Tanaka Y , Shaulsky G , Schleicher M , Weinstock G , Rosenthal A , Cox EC , Chisholm RL , Gibbs R , Loomis WF , Platzer M , Kay RR , Williams J , Dear PH , Noegel AA , Barrell B , Kuspa A
Ref : Nature , 435 :43 , 2005
Abstract : The social amoebae are exceptional in their ability to alternate between unicellular and multicellular forms. Here we describe the genome of the best-studied member of this group, Dictyostelium discoideum. The gene-dense chromosomes of this organism encode approximately 12,500 predicted proteins, a high proportion of which have long, repetitive amino acid tracts. There are many genes for polyketide synthases and ABC transporters, suggesting an extensive secondary metabolism for producing and exporting small molecules. The genome is rich in complex repeats, one class of which is clustered and may serve as centromeres. Partial copies of the extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) element are found at the ends of each chromosome, suggesting a novel telomere structure and the use of a common mechanism to maintain both the rDNA and chromosomal termini. A proteome-based phylogeny shows that the amoebozoa diverged from the animal-fungal lineage after the plant-animal split, but Dictyostelium seems to have retained more of the diversity of the ancestral genome than have plants, animals or fungi.
ESTHER : Eichinger_2005_Nature_435_43
PubMedSearch : Eichinger_2005_Nature_435_43
PubMedID: 15875012
Gene_locus related to this paper: dicdi-abhd , dicdi-ACHE , dicdi-apra , dicdi-cinbp , dicdi-CMBL , dicdi-crysp , dicdi-DPOA , dicdi-P90528 , dicdi-ppme1 , dicdi-Q8MYE7 , dicdi-q54cf7 , dicdi-q54cl7 , dicdi-q54cm0 , dicdi-q54ct5 , dicdi-q54cu1 , dicdi-q54d54 , dicdi-q54d66 , dicdi-q54dj5 , dicdi-q54dy7 , dicdi-q54ek1 , dicdi-q54eq6 , dicdi-q54et1 , dicdi-q54et7 , dicdi-q54f01 , dicdi-q54g24 , dicdi-q54g47 , dicdi-q54gi7 , dicdi-q54gw5 , dicdi-q54gx3 , dicdi-q54h23 , dicdi-q54h73 , dicdi-q54i38 , dicdi-q54ie5 , dicdi-q54in4 , dicdi-q54kz1 , dicdi-q54l36 , dicdi-q54li1 , dicdi-q54m29 , dicdi-q54n21 , dicdi-q54n35 , dicdi-q54n85 , dicdi-q54qe7 , dicdi-q54qi3 , dicdi-q54qk2 , dicdi-q54rl3 , dicdi-q54rl8 , dicdi-q54sy6 , dicdi-q54sz3 , dicdi-q54t49 , dicdi-q54t91 , dicdi-q54th2 , dicdi-q54u01 , dicdi-q54vc2 , dicdi-q54vw1 , dicdi-q54xe3 , dicdi-q54xl3 , dicdi-q54xu1 , dicdi-q54xu2 , dicdi-q54y48 , dicdi-q54yd0 , dicdi-q54ye0 , dicdi-q54yl1 , dicdi-q54yr8 , dicdi-q54z90 , dicdi-q55bx3 , dicdi-q55d01 , dicdi-q55d81 , dicdi-q55du6 , dicdi-q55eu1 , dicdi-q55eu8 , dicdi-q55fk4 , dicdi-q55gk7 , dicdi-Q54ZA6 , dicdi-q86h82 , dicdi-Q86HC9 , dicdi-Q86HM5 , dicdi-Q86HM6 , dicdi-q86iz7 , dicdi-q86jb6 , dicdi-Q86KU7 , dicdi-q550s3 , dicdi-q552c0 , dicdi-q553t5 , dicdi-q555e5 , dicdi-q555h0 , dicdi-q555h1 , dicdi-q557k5 , dicdi-q558u2 , dicdi-Q869Q8 , dicdi-u554 , dicdi-y9086 , dicdi-q54r44 , dicdi-f172a

Title : The genome of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei - Berriman_2005_Science_309_416
Author(s) : Berriman M , Ghedin E , Hertz-Fowler C , Blandin G , Renauld H , Bartholomeu DC , Lennard NJ , Caler E , Hamlin NE , Haas B , Bohme U , Hannick L , Aslett MA , Shallom J , Marcello L , Hou L , Wickstead B , Alsmark UC , Arrowsmith C , Atkin RJ , Barron AJ , Bringaud F , Brooks K , Carrington M , Cherevach I , Chillingworth TJ , Churcher C , Clark LN , Corton CH , Cronin A , Davies RM , Doggett J , Djikeng A , Feldblyum T , Field MC , Fraser A , Goodhead I , Hance Z , Harper D , Harris BR , Hauser H , Hostetler J , Ivens A , Jagels K , Johnson D , Johnson J , Jones K , Kerhornou AX , Koo H , Larke N , Landfear S , Larkin C , Leech V , Line A , Lord A , MacLeod A , Mooney PJ , Moule S , Martin DM , Morgan GW , Mungall K , Norbertczak H , Ormond D , Pai G , Peacock CS , Peterson J , Quail MA , Rabbinowitsch E , Rajandream MA , Reitter C , Salzberg SL , Sanders M , Schobel S , Sharp S , Simmonds M , Simpson AJ , Tallon L , Turner CM , Tait A , Tivey AR , Van Aken S , Walker D , Wanless D , Wang S , White B , White O , Whitehead S , Woodward J , Wortman J , Adams MD , Embley TM , Gull K , Ullu E , Barry JD , Fairlamb AH , Opperdoes F , Barrell BG , Donelson JE , Hall N , Fraser CM , Melville SE , El-Sayed NM
Ref : Science , 309 :416 , 2005
Abstract : African trypanosomes cause human sleeping sickness and livestock trypanosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. We present the sequence and analysis of the 11 megabase-sized chromosomes of Trypanosoma brucei. The 26-megabase genome contains 9068 predicted genes, including approximately 900 pseudogenes and approximately 1700 T. brucei-specific genes. Large subtelomeric arrays contain an archive of 806 variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes used by the parasite to evade the mammalian immune system. Most VSG genes are pseudogenes, which may be used to generate expressed mosaic genes by ectopic recombination. Comparisons of the cytoskeleton and endocytic trafficking systems with those of humans and other eukaryotic organisms reveal major differences. A comparison of metabolic pathways encoded by the genomes of T. brucei, T. cruzi, and Leishmania major reveals the least overall metabolic capability in T. brucei and the greatest in L. major. Horizontal transfer of genes of bacterial origin has contributed to some of the metabolic differences in these parasites, and a number of novel potential drug targets have been identified.
ESTHER : Berriman_2005_Science_309_416
PubMedSearch : Berriman_2005_Science_309_416
PubMedID: 16020726
Gene_locus related to this paper: tryb2-q6h9e3 , tryb2-q6ha27 , tryb2-q38cd5 , tryb2-q38cd6 , tryb2-q38cd7 , tryb2-q38dc1 , tryb2-q38de4 , tryb2-q38ds6 , tryb2-q38dx1 , tryb2-q380z6 , tryb2-q382c1 , tryb2-q382l4 , tryb2-q383a9 , tryb2-q386e3 , tryb2-q387r7 , tryb2-q388n1 , tryb2-q389w3 , trybr-PEPTB , trycr-q4cq28 , trycr-q4cq94 , trycr-q4cq95 , trycr-q4cq96 , trycr-q4csm0 , trycr-q4cwv3 , trycr-q4cx66 , trycr-q4cxr6 , trycr-q4cyc5 , trycr-q4cyf6 , trycr-q4d3a2 , trycr-q4d3x3 , trycr-q4d3y4 , trycr-q4d6h1 , trycr-q4d8h8 , trycr-q4d8h9 , trycr-q4d8i0 , trycr-q4d786 , trycr-q4d975 , trycr-q4da08 , trycr-q4dap6 , trycr-q4dbm2 , trycr-q4dbn1 , trycr-q4ddw7 , trycr-q4de42 , trycr-q4dhn8 , trycr-q4dkk8 , trycr-q4dkk9 , trycr-q4dm56 , trycr-q4dqa6 , trycr-q4dt91 , trycr-q4dvp2 , trycr-q4dw34 , trycr-q4dwm3 , trycr-q4dy49 , trycr-q4dy82 , trycr-q4dzp6 , trycr-q4e3m8 , trycr-q4e4t5 , trycr-q4e5d1 , trycr-q4e5z2