Johnston M

References (13)

Title : Pyridostigmine in chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction - a systematic review - Wilkie_2023_ANZ.J.Surg__
Author(s) : Wilkie BD , Noori J , Johnston M , Woods R , Keck JO , Behrenbruch C
Ref : ANZ J Surg , : , 2023
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) may be a primary or secondary phenomenon and is often multifactorial. Treatment is largely directed at improving colonic motility. The use of cholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine has been hypothesized to increase acetylcholine in the bowel, improving symptoms and transit times. METHODS: A systematic review of the use of pyridostigmine in CIPO was conducted using scientific and commercial search engines identifying scientific studies enrolling adult human subjects, published from 2000 to 2022 in the English language. RESULTS: Four studies were identified including two randomized controlled trials (RCT) and two observational studies. The studies had heterogenous inclusion criteria, dosing regimens and reported outcomes. Two studies were identified as being at high risk of bias. All studies reported improved patient outcomes with use of pyridostigmine, and low rates (4.3%) of mild cholinergic side effects. No major side effects were reported. CONCLUSION: The use of pyridostigmine in management of CIPO is biologically plausible due to its ability to increase colonic motility, and early studies on its role are uniformly suggestive of benefit with low side-effect profile. Four clinical studies have been conducted to date, with small sample sizes, heterogeneity and high risk of bias. Further high-quality studies are required to enable assessment of pyridostigmine's utility as an effective management strategy in CIPO.
ESTHER : Wilkie_2023_ANZ.J.Surg__
PubMedSearch : Wilkie_2023_ANZ.J.Surg__
PubMedID: 37132128

Title : Assay and inhibition of diacylglycerol lipase activity - Johnston_2012_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_22_4585
Author(s) : Johnston M , Bhatt SR , Sikka S , Mercier RW , West JM , Makriyannis A , Gatley SJ , Duclos RI, Jr.
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 22 :4585 , 2012
Abstract : A series of N-formyl-alpha-amino acid esters of beta-lactone derivatives structurally related to tetrahydrolipstatin (THL) and O-3841 were synthesized that inhibit human and murine diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) activities. New ether lipid reporter compounds were developed for an in vitro assay to efficiently screen inhibitors of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol hydrolysis and related lipase activities using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). A standardized thin layer chromatography (TLC) radioassay of diacylglycerol lipase activity utilizing the labeled endogenous substrate [1''-(14)C]1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol with phosphorimaging detection was used to quantify inhibition by following formation of the initial product [1''-(14)C]2-arachidonoylglycerol and further hydrolysis under the assay conditions to [1-(14)C]arachidonic acid.
ESTHER : Johnston_2012_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_22_4585
PubMedSearch : Johnston_2012_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_22_4585
PubMedID: 22738638

Title : The Awesome Power of Yeast Evolutionary Genetics: New Genome Sequences and Strain Resources for the Saccharomyces sensu stricto Genus - Scannell_2011_G3.(Bethesda)_1_11
Author(s) : Scannell DR , Zill OA , Rokas A , Payen C , Dunham MJ , Eisen MB , Rine J , Johnston M , Hittinger CT
Ref : G3 (Bethesda) , 1 :11 , 2011
Abstract : High-quality, well-annotated genome sequences and standardized laboratory strains fuel experimental and evolutionary research. We present improved genome sequences of three species of Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts: S. bayanus var. uvarum (CBS 7001), S. kudriavzevii (IFO 1802(T) and ZP 591), and S. mikatae (IFO 1815(T)), and describe their comparison to the genomes of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. The new sequences, derived by assembling millions of short DNA sequence reads together with previously published Sanger shotgun reads, have vastly greater long-range continuity and far fewer gaps than the previously available genome sequences. New gene predictions defined a set of 5261 protein-coding orthologs across the five most commonly studied Saccharomyces yeasts, enabling a re-examination of the tempo and mode of yeast gene evolution and improved inferences of species-specific gains and losses. To facilitate experimental investigations, we generated genetically marked, stable haploid strains for all three of these Saccharomyces species. These nearly complete genome sequences and the collection of genetically marked strains provide a valuable toolset for comparative studies of gene function, metabolism, and evolution, and render Saccharomyces sensu stricto the most experimentally tractable model genus. These resources are freely available and accessible through
ESTHER : Scannell_2011_G3.(Bethesda)_1_11
PubMedSearch : Scannell_2011_G3.(Bethesda)_1_11
PubMedID: 22384314
Gene_locus related to this paper: sack1-j5ri36

Title : Comparative genomics of protoploid Saccharomycetaceae - Souciet_2009_Genome.Res_19_1696
Author(s) : Souciet JL , Dujon B , Gaillardin C , Johnston M , Baret PV , Cliften P , Sherman DJ , Weissenbach J , Westhof E , Wincker P , Jubin C , Poulain J , Barbe V , Segurens B , Artiguenave F , Anthouard V , Vacherie B , Val ME , Fulton RS , Minx P , Wilson R , Durrens P , Jean G , Marck C , Martin T , Nikolski M , Rolland T , Seret ML , Casaregola S , Despons L , Fairhead C , Fischer G , Lafontaine I , Leh V , Lemaire M , De Montigny J , Neuveglise C , Thierry A , Blanc-Lenfle I , Bleykasten C , Diffels J , Fritsch E , Frangeul L , Goeffon A , Jauniaux N , Kachouri-Lafond R , Payen C , Potier S , Pribylova L , Ozanne C , Richard GF , Sacerdot C , Straub ML , Talla E
Ref : Genome Res , 19 :1696 , 2009
Abstract : Our knowledge of yeast genomes remains largely dominated by the extensive studies on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the consequences of its ancestral duplication, leaving the evolution of the entire class of hemiascomycetes only partly explored. We concentrate here on five species of Saccharomycetaceae, a large subdivision of hemiascomycetes, that we call "protoploid" because they diverged from the S. cerevisiae lineage prior to its genome duplication. We determined the complete genome sequences of three of these species: Kluyveromyces (Lachancea) thermotolerans and Saccharomyces (Lachancea) kluyveri (two members of the newly described Lachancea clade), and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. We included in our comparisons the previously available sequences of Kluyveromyces lactis and Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii. Despite their broad evolutionary range and significant individual variations in each lineage, the five protoploid Saccharomycetaceae share a core repertoire of approximately 3300 protein families and a high degree of conserved synteny. Synteny blocks were used to define gene orthology and to infer ancestors. Far from representing minimal genomes without redundancy, the five protoploid yeasts contain numerous copies of paralogous genes, either dispersed or in tandem arrays, that, altogether, constitute a third of each genome. Ancient, conserved paralogs as well as novel, lineage-specific paralogs were identified.
ESTHER : Souciet_2009_Genome.Res_19_1696
PubMedSearch : Souciet_2009_Genome.Res_19_1696
PubMedID: 19525356
Gene_locus related to this paper: lactc-c5dci9 , lactc-c5ddi5 , lactc-c5dew5 , lactc-c5dez1 , lactc-c5df11 , lactc-c5dfh7 , lactc-c5dgd1 , lactc-c5dif7 , lactc-c5din7 , lactc-c5dja0 , lactc-c5dm95 , lactc-c5dn06 , lactc-c5dnn9 , lactc-c5e2g8 , lactc-c5e3n5 , lactc-c5e375 , zygrc-c5drr0 , zygrc-c5dvh0 , zygrc-c5dvl2 , zygrc-c5dvx0 , zygrc-c5dvz8 , zygrc-c5dx83 , zygrc-c5dxn5 , zygrc-c5dxq9 , zygrc-c5e0w1 , zygrc-c5e1e4 , zygrc-c5e1h2 , zygro-a0a1q2zt01 , 9sach-a0a0p1kuu1 , lactc-kex1 , zygrc-kex1

Title : Covalent inhibitors of human monoacylglycerol lipase: ligand-assisted characterization of the catalytic site by mass spectrometry and mutational analysis - Zvonok_2008_Chem.Biol_15_854
Author(s) : Zvonok N , Pandarinathan L , Williams J , Johnston M , Karageorgos I , Janero DR , Krishnan SC , Makriyannis A
Ref : Chemical Biology , 15 :854 , 2008
Abstract : The active site of recombinant hexa-histidine-tagged human monoacylglycerol lipase (hMGL) is characterized by mass spectrometry using the inhibitors 5-((biphenyl-4-yl)methyl)-N,N-dimethyl-2H-tetrazole-2-carboxamide (AM6701), and N-arachidonylmaleimide (NAM) as probes. Carbamylation of Ser(129) by AM6701 in the putative hMGL catalytic triad demonstrates this residue's essential role in catalysis. Partial NAM alkylation of hMGL cysteine residues 215 and/or 249 was sufficient to achieve approximately 80% enzyme inhibition. Although Cys(215) and/or Cys(249) mutations to alanine(s) did not affect hMGL hydrolytic activity as compared with nonmutated hMGL, the C215A displayed heightened NAM sensitivity, whereas the C249A evidenced reduced NAM sensitivity. These data conclusively demonstrate a sulfhydryl-based mechanism for NAM inhibition of hMGL in which Cys(249) is of paramount importance. Identification of amino acids critical to the catalytic activity and pharmacological modulation of hMGL informs the design of selective MGL inhibitors as potential drugs.
ESTHER : Zvonok_2008_Chem.Biol_15_854
PubMedSearch : Zvonok_2008_Chem.Biol_15_854
PubMedID: 18721756

Title : Full mass spectrometric characterization of human monoacylglycerol lipase generated by large-scale expression and single-step purification - Zvonok_2008_J.Proteome.Res_7_2158
Author(s) : Zvonok N , Williams J , Johnston M , Pandarinathan L , Janero DR , Li J , Krishnan SC , Makriyannis A
Ref : J Proteome Res , 7 :2158 , 2008
Abstract : The serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) modulates endocannabinoid signaling in vivo by inactivating 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), the main endogenous agonist for central CB1 and peripheral CB2 cannabinoid receptors. To characterize this key endocannabinoid enzyme by mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we first overexpressed recombinant hexa-histidine-tagged human MGL (hMGL) in Escherichia coli and purified it in a single chromatographic step with high yield (approximately 30 mg/L). With 2-AG as substrate, hMGL displayed an apparent V max of 25 micromol/(microg min) and K m of 19.7 microM, an affinity for 2-AG similar to that of native rat-brain MGL (rMGL) (Km=33.6 microM). hMGL also demonstrated a comparable affinity (Km approximately 8-9 microM) for the novel fluorogenic substrate, arachidonoyl, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methylcoumarin ester (AHMMCE), in a sensitive, high-throughput fluorometric MGL assay. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) unequivocably demonstrated the mass (34,126 Da) and purity of this hMGL preparation. After in-solution tryptic digestion, hMGL full proteomic characterization was carried out, which showed (1) an absence of intramolecular disulfide bridges in the functional, recombinant enzyme and (2) the post-translational removal of the enzyme's N-terminal methionine. Availability of sufficient quantities of pure, well-characterized hMGL will enable further molecular and structural profiling of this key endocannabinoid-system enzyme.
ESTHER : Zvonok_2008_J.Proteome.Res_7_2158
PubMedSearch : Zvonok_2008_J.Proteome.Res_7_2158
PubMedID: 18452279

Title : Finding functional features in Saccharomyces genomes by phylogenetic footprinting - Cliften_2003_Science_301_71
Author(s) : Cliften P , Sudarsanam P , Desikan A , Fulton L , Fulton B , Majors J , Waterston R , Cohen BA , Johnston M
Ref : Science , 301 :71 , 2003
Abstract : The sifting and winnowing of DNA sequence that occur during evolution cause nonfunctional sequences to diverge, leaving phylogenetic footprints of functional sequence elements in comparisons of genome sequences. We searched for such footprints among the genome sequences of six Saccharomyces species and identified potentially functional sequences. Comparison of these sequences allowed us to revise the catalog of yeast genes and identify sequence motifs that may be targets of transcriptional regulatory proteins. Some of these conserved sequence motifs reside upstream of genes with similar functional annotations or similar expression patterns or those bound by the same transcription factor and are thus good candidates for functional regulatory sequences.
ESTHER : Cliften_2003_Science_301_71
PubMedSearch : Cliften_2003_Science_301_71
PubMedID: 12775844
Gene_locus related to this paper: sack1-j5ri36

Title : Functional profiling of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome - Giaever_2002_Nature_418_387
Author(s) : Giaever G , Chu AM , Ni L , Connelly C , Riles L , Veronneau S , Dow S , Lucau-Danila A , Anderson K , Andre B , Arkin AP , Astromoff A , El-Bakkoury M , Bangham R , Benito R , Brachat S , Campanaro S , Curtiss M , Davis K , Deutschbauer A , Entian KD , Flaherty P , Foury F , Garfinkel DJ , Gerstein M , Gotte D , Guldener U , Hegemann JH , Hempel S , Herman Z , Jaramillo DF , Kelly DE , Kelly SL , Kotter P , LaBonte D , Lamb DC , Lan N , Liang H , Liao H , Liu L , Luo C , Lussier M , Mao R , Menard P , Ooi SL , Revuelta JL , Roberts CJ , Rose M , Ross-Macdonald P , Scherens B , Schimmack G , Shafer B , Shoemaker DD , Sookhai-Mahadeo S , Storms RK , Strathern JN , Valle G , Voet M , Volckaert G , Wang CY , Ward TR , Wilhelmy J , Winzeler EA , Yang Y , Yen G , Youngman E , Yu K , Bussey H , Boeke JD , Snyder M , Philippsen P , Davis RW , Johnston M
Ref : Nature , 418 :387 , 2002
Abstract : Determining the effect of gene deletion is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function. Conventional genetic screens exhibit biases, and genes contributing to a phenotype are often missed. We systematically constructed a nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames, or ORFs) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA sequences dubbed 'molecular bar codes' uniquely identify each strain, enabling their growth to be analysed in parallel and the fitness contribution of each gene to be quantitatively assessed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We show that previously known and new genes are necessary for optimal growth under six well-studied conditions: high salt, sorbitol, galactose, pH 8, minimal medium and nystatin treatment. Less than 7% of genes that exhibit a significant increase in messenger RNA expression are also required for optimal growth in four of the tested conditions. Our results validate the yeast gene-deletion collection as a valuable resource for functional genomics.
ESTHER : Giaever_2002_Nature_418_387
PubMedSearch : Giaever_2002_Nature_418_387
PubMedID: 12140549

Title : The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome IV - Jacq_1997_Nature_387_75
Author(s) : Jacq C , Alt-Morbe J , Andre B , Arnold W , Bahr A , Ballesta JP , Bargues M , Baron L , Becker A , Biteau N , Blocker H , Blugeon C , Boskovic J , Brandt P , Bruckner M , Buitrago MJ , Coster F , Delaveau T , del Rey F , Dujon B , Eide LG , Garcia-Cantalejo JM , Goffeau A , Gomez-Peris AC , Granotier C , Hanemann V , Hankeln T , Hoheisel JD , Jager W , Jimenez A , Jonniaux JL , Kramer C , Kuster H , Laamanen P , Legros Y , Louis E , Muller-Rieker S , Monnet A , Moro M , Muller-Auer S , Nussbaumer B , Paricio N , Paulin L , Perea J , Perez-Alonso M , Perez-Ortin JE , Pohl TM , Prydz H , Purnelle B , Rasmussen SW , Remacha M , Revuelta JL , Rieger M , Salom D , Saluz HP , Saiz JE , Saren AM , Schafer M , Scharfe M , Schmidt ER , Schneider C , Scholler P , Schwarz S , Soler-Mira A , Urrestarazu LA , Verhasselt P , Vissers S , Voet M , Volckaert G , Wagner G , Wambutt R , Wedler E , Wedler H , Wolfl S , Harris DE , Bowman S , Brown D , Churcher CM , Connor R , Dedman K , Gentles S , Hamlin N , Hunt S , Jones L , McDonald S , Murphy L , Niblett D , Odell C , Oliver K , Rajandream MA , Richards C , Shore L , Walsh SV , Barrell BG , Dietrich FS , Mulligan J , Allen E , Araujo R , Aviles E , Berno A , Carpenter J , Chen E , Cherry JM , Chung E , Duncan M , Hunicke-Smith S , Hyman R , Komp C , Lashkari D , Lew H , Lin D , Mosedale D , Nakahara K , Namath A , Oefner P , Oh C , Petel FX , Roberts D , Schramm S , Schroeder M , Shogren T , Shroff N , Winant A , Yelton M , Botstein D , Davis RW , Johnston M , Hillier L , Riles L , Albermann K , Hani J , Heumann K , Kleine K , Mewes HW , Zollner A , Zaccaria P
Ref : Nature , 387 :75 , 1997
Abstract : The complete DNA sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome IV has been determined. Apart from chromosome XII, which contains the 1-2 Mb rDNA cluster, chromosome IV is the longest S. cerevisiae chromosome. It was split into three parts, which were sequenced by a consortium from the European Community, the Sanger Centre, and groups from St Louis and Stanford in the United States. The sequence of 1,531,974 base pairs contains 796 predicted or known genes, 318 (39.9%) of which have been previously identified. Of the 478 new genes, 225 (28.3%) are homologous to previously identified genes and 253 (32%) have unknown functions or correspond to spurious open reading frames (ORFs). On average there is one gene approximately every two kilobases. Superimposed on alternating regional variations in G+C composition, there is a large central domain with a lower G+C content that contains all the yeast transposon (Ty) elements and most of the tRNA genes. Chromosome IV shares with chromosomes II, V, XII, XIII and XV some long clustered duplications which partly explain its origin.
ESTHER : Jacq_1997_Nature_387_75
PubMedSearch : Jacq_1997_Nature_387_75
PubMedID: 9169867
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-dlhh , yeast-ECM18 , yeast-YDL109C , yeast-YDR428C , yeast-YDR444W

Title : The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XII - Johnston_1997_Nature_387_87
Author(s) : Johnston M , Hillier L , Riles L , Albermann K , Andre B , Ansorge W , Benes V , Bruckner M , Delius H , Dubois E , Dusterhoft A , Entian KD , Floeth M , Goffeau A , Hebling U , Heumann K , Heuss-Neitzel D , Hilbert H , Hilger F , Kleine K , Kotter P , Louis EJ , Messenguy F , Mewes HW , Miosga T , Mostl D , Muller-Auer S , Nentwich U , Obermaier B , Piravandi E , Pohl TM , Portetelle D , Purnelle B , Rechmann S , Rieger M , Rinke M , Rose M , Scharfe M , Scherens B , Scholler P , Schwager C , Schwarz S , Underwood AP , Urrestarazu LA , Vandenbol M , Verhasselt P , Vierendeels F , Voet M , Volckaert G , Voss H , Wambutt , Wedler E , Wedler H , Zimmermann FK , Zollner A , Hani J , Hoheisel JD
Ref : Nature , 387 :87 , 1997
Abstract : The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the pre-eminent organism for the study of basic functions of eukaryotic cells. All of the genes of this simple eukaryotic cell have recently been revealed by an international collaborative effort to determine the complete DNA sequence of its nuclear genome. Here we describe some of the features of chromosome XII.
ESTHER : Johnston_1997_Nature_387_87
PubMedSearch : Johnston_1997_Nature_387_87
PubMedID: 9169871
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-ict1 , yeast-YLR118c

Title : The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XVI - Bussey_1997_Nature_387_103
Author(s) : Bussey H , Storms RK , Ahmed A , Albermann K , Allen E , Ansorge W , Araujo R , Aparicio A , Barrell B , Badcock K , Benes V , Botstein D , Bowman S , Bruckner M , Carpenter J , Cherry JM , Chung E , Churcher C , Coster F , Davis K , Davis RW , Dietrich FS , Delius H , DiPaolo T , Dubois E , Dusterhoft A , Duncan M , Floeth M , Fortin N , Friesen JD , Fritz C , Goffeau A , Hall J , Hebling U , Heumann K , Hilbert H , Hillier L , Hunicke-Smith S , Hyman R , Johnston M , Kalman S , Kleine K , Komp C , Kurdi O , Lashkari D , Lew H , Lin A , Lin D , Louis EJ , Marathe R , Messenguy F , Mewes HW , Mirtipati S , Moestl D , Muller-Auer S , Namath A , Nentwich U , Oefner P , Pearson D , Petel FX , Pohl TM , Purnelle B , Rajandream MA , Rechmann S , Rieger M , Riles L , Roberts D , Schafer M , Scharfe M , Scherens B , Schramm S , Schroder M , Sdicu AM , Tettelin H , Urrestarazu LA , Ushinsky S , Vierendeels F , Vissers S , Voss H , Walsh SV , Wambutt R , Wang Y , Wedler E , Wedler H , Winnett E , Zhong WW , Zollner A , Vo DH , Hani J
Ref : Nature , 387 :103 , 1997
Abstract : The nucleotide sequence of the 948,061 base pairs of chromosome XVI has been determined, completing the sequence of the yeast genome. Chromosome XVI was the last yeast chromosome identified, and some of the genes mapped early to it, such as GAL4, PEP4 and RAD1 (ref. 2) have played important roles in the development of yeast biology. The architecture of this final chromosome seems to be typical of the large yeast chromosomes, and shows large duplications with other yeast chromosomes. Chromosome XVI contains 487 potential protein-encoding genes, 17 tRNA genes and two small nuclear RNA genes; 27% of the genes have significant similarities to human gene products, and 48% are new and of unknown biological function. Systematic efforts to explore gene function have begun.
ESTHER : Bussey_1997_Nature_387_103
PubMedSearch : Bussey_1997_Nature_387_103
PubMedID: 9169875
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-MCFS1 , yeast-YPR147C

Title : Life with 6000 genes - Goffeau_1996_Science_274_563
Author(s) : Goffeau A , Barrell BG , Bussey H , Davis RW , Dujon B , Feldmann H , Galibert F , Hoheisel JD , Jacq C , Johnston M , Louis EJ , Mewes HW , Murakami Y , Philippsen P , Tettelin H , Oliver SG
Ref : Science , 274 :546 , 1996
Abstract : The genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been completely sequenced through a worldwide collaboration. The sequence of 12,068 kilobases defines 5885 potential protein-encoding genes, approximately 140 genes specifying ribosomal RNA, 40 genes for small nuclear RNA molecules, and 275 transfer RNA genes. In addition, the complete sequence provides information about the higher order organization of yeast's 16 chromosomes and allows some insight into their evolutionary history. The genome shows a considerable amount of apparent genetic redundancy, and one of the major problems to be tackled during the next stage of the yeast genome project is to elucidate the biological functions of all of these genes.
ESTHER : Goffeau_1996_Science_274_563
PubMedSearch : Goffeau_1996_Science_274_563
PubMedID: 8849441
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-ATG15 , yeast-SAY1

Title : Complete nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII - Johnston_1994_Science_265_2077
Author(s) : Johnston M , Andrews S , Brinkman R , Cooper J , Ding H , Dover J , Du Z , Favello A , Fulton L , Gattung S , et al.
Ref : Science , 265 :2077 , 1994
Abstract : The complete nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII reveals that it contains 269 predicted or known genes (300 base pairs or larger). Fifty-nine of these genes (22 percent) were previously identified. Of the 210 novel genes, 65 are predicted to encode proteins that are similar to other proteins of known or predicted function. Sixteen genes appear to be relatively recently duplicated. On average, there is one gene approximately every 2 kilobases. Although the coding density and base composition across the chromosome are not uniform, no regular pattern of variation is apparent.
ESTHER : Johnston_1994_Science_265_2077
PubMedSearch : Johnston_1994_Science_265_2077
PubMedID: 8091229
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-FSH1 , yeast-ppme1