Du Z

References (25)

Title : Evaluation of the inhibitory effects of antigout drugs on human carboxylesterases in vitro - Liang_2024_Toxicol.In.Vitro_98_105833
Author(s) : Liang JH , Yi XL , Gong JM , Du Z
Ref : Toxicol In Vitro , 98 :105833 , 2024
Abstract : Gout is an immune-metabolic disease that frequently coexists with multiple comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, therefore, it is often treated in combination with these complications. The present study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of antigout drugs (allopurinol, febuxostat, topiroxostat, benzbromarone, lesinurad and probenecid) on the activity of the crucial phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes, carboxylesterases (CESs). 2-(2-benzoyl-3-methoxyphenyl) benzothiazole (BMBT) and fluorescein diacetate (FD) were utilized as the probe reactions to determine the activity of CES1 and CES2, respectively, through in vitro culturing with human liver microsomes. Benzbromarone and lesinurad exhibited strong inhibition towards CESs with Ki values of 2.16 and 5.15 microM for benzbromarone towards CES1 and CES2, respectively, and 2.94 microM for lesinurad towards CES2. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) indicated that benzbromarone and lesinurad might disturb the metabolic hydrolysis of clinical drugs in vivo by inhibiting CESs. In silico docking showed that hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions contributed to the intermolecular interactions of antigout drugs on CESs. Therefore, vigilant monitoring of potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is imperative when co-administering antigout drugs in clinical practice.
ESTHER : Liang_2024_Toxicol.In.Vitro_98_105833
PubMedSearch : Liang_2024_Toxicol.In.Vitro_98_105833
PubMedID: 38670244

Title : In vivo visualization of enantioselective targeting of amyloid and improvement of cognitive function by clickable chiral metallohelices - Du_2023_Chem.Sci_14_506
Author(s) : Du Z , Liu C , Liu Z , Song H , Scott P , Du X , Ren J , Qu X
Ref : Chem Sci , 14 :506 , 2023
Abstract : The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is closely related to several contributing factors, especially amyloid-beta (Abeta) aggregation. Bioorthogonal reactions provide a general, facile, and robust route for the localization and derivatization of Abeta-targeted agents. Herein, a pair of chiral alkyne-containing metallohelices (A and deltaA) were demonstrated to enantioselectively target and modulate Abeta aggregation, which has been monitored in triple-transgenic AD model mice and proved to improve cognitive function. Compared with its enantiomer deltaA, A performed better in blocking Abeta fibrillation, relieving Abeta-triggered toxicity, and recovering memory deficits in vivo. Moreover, clickable A could act as a functional module for subsequent visualization and versatile modification of amyloid via bioorthogonal reaction. As a proof-of-concept, thioflavin T, tacrine, and magnetic nanoparticles were conjugated with A to realize Abeta photo-oxygenation, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, and Abeta clearance, respectively. This proof-of-principle work provided new insights into the biolabeling and bioconjugation of multifunctional metallosupramolecules through click reactions for AD therapy.
ESTHER : Du_2023_Chem.Sci_14_506
PubMedSearch : Du_2023_Chem.Sci_14_506
PubMedID: 36741518

Title : Inhibitory effects of phthalate esters (PAEs) and phthalate monoesters towards human carboxylesterases (CESs) - Gong_2023_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_482_116785
Author(s) : Gong JM , Yi XL , Liang JH , Liu ZZ , Du Z
Ref : Toxicol Appl Pharmacol , 482 :116785 , 2023
Abstract : Phthalate esters (PAEs), accompanied by phthalate monoesters as hydrolysis metabolites in humans, have been widely used as plasticizers and exhibited disruptive effects on the endocrine and metabolic systems. The present study aims to investigate the inhibition behavior of PAEs and phthalate monoesters on the activity of the important hydrolytic enzymes, carboxylesterases (CESs), to elucidate the toxicity mechanism from a new perspective. The results showed significant inhibition on CES1 and CES2 by most PAEs, but not by phthalate monoesters, above which the activity of CES1 was strongly inhibited by DCHP, DEHP, DiOP, DiPP, DNP, DPP and BBZP, with inhibition ratios exceeding 80%. Kinetic analyses and in vitro-in vivo extrapolation were conducted, revealing that PAEs have the potential to disrupt the metabolism of endogenous substances catalyzed by CES1 in vivo. Molecular docking results revealed that hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts formed by ester bonds contributed to the interaction of PAEs towards CES1. These findings will be beneficial for understanding the adverse effect of PAEs and phthalate monoesters.
ESTHER : Gong_2023_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_482_116785
PubMedSearch : Gong_2023_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_482_116785
PubMedID: 38070751

Title : Discovery of benzamide derivatives containing urea moiety as soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors - Tian_2022_Bioorg.Chem_127_105898
Author(s) : Tian Y , Li S , Dong K , Su X , Fu S , Lv X , Duan M , Yang T , Han Y , Hu G , Liu J , Sun Y , Yue H , Zhang H , Du Z , Miao Z , Tong M , Liu Y , Qin M , Gong P , Hou Y , Gao Z , Zhao Y
Ref : Bioorg Chem , 127 :105898 , 2022
Abstract : The elevation of epoxy-fatty acids through inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is efficient for the treatment of inflammatory and pain-related diseases. Herein, we reported the discovery of a series of benzamide derivatives containing urea moiety as sEH inhibitors. Intensive structural modifications led to the identification of compound A34 as a potent sEH inhibitor with good physicochemical properties. Molecular docking revealed an additional hydrogen-bonding interaction between the unique amide scaffold and Phe497, contributing to sEH inhibition potency enhancement. Compound A34 exhibited outstanding inhibitory activity against human sEH, with an IC(50) value of 0.04 +/- 0.01 nM and a K(i) value of 0.2 +/- 0.1 nM. It also showed moderate systemic drug exposure and oral bioavailability in vivo metabolism studies. In carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain rat model, compound A34 exhibited a better therapeutic effect compared to t-AUCB and Celecoxib. Metabolism studies in vivo together with an inflammatory pain evaluation suggest that A34 may be a viable lead compound for the development of highly potent sEH inhibitors.
ESTHER : Tian_2022_Bioorg.Chem_127_105898
PubMedSearch : Tian_2022_Bioorg.Chem_127_105898
PubMedID: 35792317

Title : Synthesis and biological evaluation of new series of benzamide derivatives containing urea moiety as sEH inhibitors - Tian_2022_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_70_128805
Author(s) : Tian Y , Li S , Yang P , Su X , Liu J , Lv X , Dong K , Yang T , Duan M , Hu G , Yue H , Sun Y , Zhang H , Du Z , Miao Z , Tong M , Hou Y , Gao Z , Zhao Y
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 70 :128805 , 2022
Abstract : The pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) was shown to reduce inflammation and pain. Herein, we described a series of newly synthesized sEH inhibitors with the trident-shaped skeleton. Intensive structural modifications led to the identification of compound B15 as a potent sEH inhibitor with an IC(50) value of 0.03 +/- 0.01 nM. Furthermore, compound B15 showed satisfactory metabolic stability in human liver microsomes with a half-time of 197 min. In carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain rat model, compound B15 exhibited a better therapeutic effect compared to t-AUCB and Celecoxib, which demonstrated the proof of potential as anti-inflammatory agents for pain relief.
ESTHER : Tian_2022_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_70_128805
PubMedSearch : Tian_2022_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_70_128805
PubMedID: 35598794

Title : Mechanistic Insight into the Design of Chemical Tools to Control Multiple Pathogenic Features in Alzheimer's Disease - Han_2021_Acc.Chem.Res__
Author(s) : Han J , Du Z , Lim MH
Ref : Acc Chem Res , : , 2021
Abstract : ConspectusAlzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline. Approximately 50 million people worldwide are suffering from AD and related dementias. Very recently, the first new drug targeting amyloid-beta (Abeta) aggregates has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, but its efficacy against AD is still debatable. Other available treatments temporarily relieve the symptoms of AD. The difficulty in discovering effective therapeutics for AD originates from its complicated nature, which results from the interrelated pathogenic pathways led by multiple factors. Therefore, to develop potent disease-modifying drugs, multiple pathological features found in AD should be fully elucidated.Our laboratory has been designing small molecules as chemical tools to investigate the individual and interrelated pathologies triggered by four pathogenic elements found in the AD-affected brain: metal-free Abeta, metal-bound Abeta, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Abeta peptides are partially folded and aggregate into oligomers, protofibrils, and fibrils. Abeta aggregates are considered to be neurotoxic, causing membrane disruption, aberrant cellular signaling, and organelle dysfunction. In addition, highly concentrated metal ions accumulate in senile plaques mainly composed of Abeta aggregates, which indicates that metal ions can directly interact with Abeta. Metal binding to Abeta affects the aggregation and conformation of the peptide. Moreover, the impaired homeostasis of redox-active Fe(II/III) and Cu(I/II) induces the overproduction of ROS through Fenton chemistry and Fenton-like reactions, respectively. Dysregulated ROS prompt oxidative-stress-damaging biological components such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids and, consequently, lead to neuronal death. Finally, the loss of cholinergic transmission mediated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to cognitive deficits observed in AD.In this Account, we illustrate the design principles for small-molecule-based chemical tools with reactivities against metal-free Abeta, metal-bound Abeta, ROS, and AChE. More importantly, mechanistic details at the molecular level are highlighted with some examples of chemical tools that were developed by our group. The aggregation of metal-free Abeta can be modulated by modifying amino acid residues responsible for self-assembling Abeta or disassembling preformed fibrils. To alter the aggregation and cytotoxicity profiles of metal-bound Abeta, ternary complexation, metal chelation, and modifications onto metal-binding residues can be effective tactics. The presence and production of ROS are able to be controlled by small molecules with antioxidant and metal-binding properties. Finally, inhibiting substrate access or substrate binding at the active site of AChE can diminish its activity, which restores the levels of ACh. Overall, our rational approaches demonstrate the feasibility of developing small molecules as chemical tools that can target and modulate multiple pathological factors associated with AD and can be useful for gaining a greater understanding of the multifaceted pathology of the disease.
ESTHER : Han_2021_Acc.Chem.Res__
PubMedSearch : Han_2021_Acc.Chem.Res__
PubMedID: 34606227

Title : The role of N-cadherin\/c-Jun\/NDRG1 axis in the progression of prostate cancer - Quan_2021_Int.J.Biol.Sci_17_3288
Author(s) : Quan Y , Zhang X , Butler W , Du Z , Wang M , Liu Y , Ping H
Ref : Int J Biol Sci , 17 :3288 , 2021
Abstract : The dysregulation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling is a critical event in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) and hormone therapy consisting of androgen deprivation (ADT) or AR inhibition is therefore used to treat advanced cases. It is known that N-cadherin becomes upregulated following ADT and can directly induce PCa transformation to the castration-resistant stage (CRPC). However, the relationship between AR and N-cadherin is unclear and may promote better understanding of CRPC pathogenesis and progression. Here, we demonstrate a new axis of N-cadherin/c-Jun/N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) that N-cadherin promotes c-Jun expression and suppresses NDRG1 to promote invasion and migration of PCa cells through epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Targeting N-cadherin in combination with enzalutamide (ENZ) treatment synergistically suppressed PC3 cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. Further studies showed that compared to lower Gleason score (GS) (GS < 7) cases, high GS (GS > 7) cases exhibited elevated N-cadherin expression and reduced NDRG1 expression, corroborating our in vitro observations. We further demonstrate that c-Jun, AR, and DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1) form a complex in the 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) response elements (TREs) region of the NDRG1 promoter, which suppresses NDRG1 transcription through DNA hypermethylation. In conclusion, we demonstrate an underlying mechanism for how N-cadherin collaborates with AR and NDRG1 to promote CRPC progression. Controlling N-cadherin/c-Jun/NDRG1 axis may help to overcome resistance to commonly used hormone therapy to improve long-term patient outcomes.
ESTHER : Quan_2021_Int.J.Biol.Sci_17_3288
PubMedSearch : Quan_2021_Int.J.Biol.Sci_17_3288
PubMedID: 34512147

Title : MicroRNA31-NDRG3 regulation axes are essential for hepatocellular carcinoma survival and drug resistance - Du_2017_Cancer.Biomark_19_221
Author(s) : Du Z , Niu S , Xu X , Xu Q
Ref : Cancer Biomark , 19 :221 , 2017
Abstract : BACKGROUNDS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an epithelial cancer that originates from hepatocytes and it is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Till now the prognosis of HCC patients is generally poor. The molecular mechanism giving rise to HCC development and recurrence is still largely unknown. MicroRNA-31 (miR-31) is among the most commonly altered microRNAs in human cancers, and alternations of miR-31 expression were reported to play pivotal roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. METHODS: In this work, the primary biological function of miR-31 in HCC tumorigenesis was investigated. RESULTS: Our data showed that overexpression of miR-31 induced markedly inhibition of HCC cell proliferation, migration in vitro and inhibited xenograft tumor growth in vivo. One target gene of miR-31, NDRG3, was also demonstrated indispensable for HCC cell survival. Furthermore, miR-31 and NDRG3 were both essential for HCC cell drug resistance in adriamycin. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that miR-31 is a crucial regulator in hepatocellular carcinoma, miR-31 and its target gene NDRG3 may be potential therapeutic targets for HCC treatment in the future.
ESTHER : Du_2017_Cancer.Biomark_19_221
PubMedSearch : Du_2017_Cancer.Biomark_19_221
PubMedID: 28269758

Title : In vivo metabolism of organophosphate flame retardants and distribution of their main metabolites in adult zebrafish - Wang_2017_Sci.Total.Environ_590-591_50
Author(s) : Wang G , Chen H , Du Z , Li J , Wang Z , Gao S
Ref : Sci Total Environ , 590-591 :50 , 2017
Abstract : Understanding the metabolism of chemicals as well as the distribution and depuration of their main metabolites in tissues are essential for evaluating their fate and potential toxicity in vivo. Herein, we investigated the metabolism of six typical organophosphate (OP) flame retardants (tripropyl phosphate (TPRP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and tri-p-cresyl phosphate (p-TCP)) in adult zebrafish in laboratory at three levels (0, 1/150 LC50 (environmentally relevant level), and 1/30 LC50 per OP analog). Twenty main metabolites were detected in the liver of OPs-exposed zebrafish using high resolution mass spectrometry (Q-TOF). The reaction pathways involving scission of the ester bond (hydrolysis), cleavage of the ether bond, oxidative hydroxylation, dechlorination, and coupling with glucuronic acid were proposed, and were further confirmed by the frontier electron density and point charge calculations. Tissue distribution of the twenty metabolites revealed that liver and intestine with the highest levels of metabolites were the most active organs for OPs biotransformation among the studied tissues of intestine, liver, roe, brain, muscle, and gill, which showed the importance of hepatobiliary system (liver-bile-intestine) in the metabolism and excretion of OPs in zebrafish. Fast depuration of metabolites from tissues indicated that the formed metabolites might be not persistent in fish, and easily released into water. This study provides comprehensive information on the metabolism of OPs in the tissue of zebrafish, which might give some hints for the exploration of their toxic mechanism in aquatic life.
ESTHER : Wang_2017_Sci.Total.Environ_590-591_50
PubMedSearch : Wang_2017_Sci.Total.Environ_590-591_50
PubMedID: 28292737

Title : Bioaccumulation mechanism of organophosphate esters in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) - Wang_2017_Environ.Pollut_229_177
Author(s) : Wang G , Shi H , Du Z , Chen H , Peng J , Gao S
Ref : Environ Pollut , 229 :177 , 2017
Abstract : Although organophosphate esters (OPEs) have been detected with growing frequency in water ecosystems, the underlying accumulation mechanisms of these compounds in fish are still unknown. Here, we investigated the tissue-specific accumulation and depuration of seven OPEs in adult zebrafish at three levels (0, 1/150 LC50 (environmentally relevant level), and 1/30 LC50 per OPE congener) in laboratory after 19 days exposure and 3 days depuration. The bioaccumulation of OPEs varied among tissues. Muscle contained the lowest level of OPEs and liver had the highest level of two (TPP and TCEP) of the seven OPEs at steady state. The high levels and slow depuration rates of TDCIPP, TPHP, and TCP observed in roe indicated that the accumulated OPEs were potentially stored in roe and transferred to the next generation. After examination of the major metabolites (organophosphate diesters) in selected tissues, a physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model used in fish was adopted to explore the key factors affecting the bioaccumulation of OPEs in zebrafish. Biotransformation of OPEs with polychlorinated alkyl moieties (i.e. TDCIPP) and aryl moieties (i.e. TPHP and TCP) has more significant impacts on the accumulation than those of OPEs with alkyl or short chain chlorinated alkyl moieties. Furthermore, the partition process between tissues and blood was also investigated, and was demonstrated to be the dominant process for OPEs accumulation in zebrafish. This study provides critical information on the bioaccumulation, tissue distribution, and metabolization of OPEs in relation with OPE structures in fish, as well as the underlying bioaccumulation mechanisms/pathways of OPEs in aquatic life.
ESTHER : Wang_2017_Environ.Pollut_229_177
PubMedSearch : Wang_2017_Environ.Pollut_229_177
PubMedID: 28599202

Title : Organelle-Specific Nitric Oxide Detection in Living Cells via HaloTag Protein Labeling - Wang_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0123986
Author(s) : Wang J , Zhao Y , Wang C , Zhu Q , Du Z , Hu A , Yang Y
Ref : PLoS ONE , 10 :e0123986 , 2015
Abstract : Nitric oxide (NO) is a membrane-permeable signaling molecule that is constantly produced, transferred, and consumed in vivo. NO participates and plays important roles in multiple biological processes. However, spatiotemporal imaging of NO in living cells is challenging. To fill the gap in currently used techniques, we exploited the versatility of HaloTag technology and synthesized a novel organelle-targetable fluorescent probe called HTDAF-2DA. We demonstrate the utility of the probe by monitoring subcellular NO dynamics. The developed strategy enables precise determination of local NO function.
ESTHER : Wang_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0123986
PubMedSearch : Wang_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0123986
PubMedID: 25923693

Title : Genome sequence and transcriptome analyses of the thermophilic zygomycete fungus Rhizomucor miehei - Zhou_2014_BMC.Genomics_15_294
Author(s) : Zhou P , Zhang G , Chen S , Jiang Z , Tang Y , Henrissat B , Yan Q , Yang S , Chen CF , Zhang B , Du Z
Ref : BMC Genomics , 15 :294 , 2014
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The zygomycete fungi like Rhizomucor miehei have been extensively exploited for the production of various enzymes. As a thermophilic fungus, R. miehei is capable of growing at temperatures that approach the upper limits for all eukaryotes. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, Zygomycetes have been rarely investigated both genetically and genomically.
RESULTS: Here, we report the genome of R. miehei CAU432 to explore the thermostable enzymatic repertoire of this fungus. The assembled genome size is 27.6-million-base (Mb) with 10,345 predicted protein-coding genes. Even being thermophilic, the G + C contents of fungal whole genome (43.8%) and coding genes (47.4%) are less than 50%. Phylogenetically, R. miehei is more closerly related to Phycomyces blakesleeanus than to Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The genome of R. miehei harbors a large number of genes encoding secreted proteases, which is consistent with the characteristics of R. miehei being a rich producer of proteases. The transcriptome profile of R. miehei showed that the genes responsible for degrading starch, glucan, protein and lipid were highly expressed.
CONCLUSIONS: The genome information of R. miehei will facilitate future studies to better understand the mechanisms of fungal thermophilic adaptation and the exploring of the potential of R. miehei in industrial-scale production of thermostable enzymes. Based on the existence of a large repertoire of amylolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic genes in the genome, R. miehei has potential in the production of a variety of such enzymes.
ESTHER : Zhou_2014_BMC.Genomics_15_294
PubMedSearch : Zhou_2014_BMC.Genomics_15_294
PubMedID: 24746234

Title : Comparative genomic analysis of N2-fixing and non-N2-fixing Paenibacillus spp.: organization, evolution and expression of the nitrogen fixation genes - Xie_2014_PLoS.Genet_10_e1004231
Author(s) : Xie JB , Du Z , Bai L , Tian C , Zhang Y , Xie JY , Wang T , Liu X , Chen X , Cheng Q , Chen S , Li J
Ref : PLoS Genet , 10 :e1004231 , 2014
Abstract : We provide here a comparative genome analysis of 31 strains within the genus Paenibacillus including 11 new genomic sequences of N2-fixing strains. The heterogeneity of the 31 genomes (15 N2-fixing and 16 non-N2-fixing Paenibacillus strains) was reflected in the large size of the shell genome, which makes up approximately 65.2% of the genes in pan genome. Large numbers of transposable elements might be related to the heterogeneity. We discovered that a minimal and compact nif cluster comprising nine genes nifB, nifH, nifD, nifK, nifE, nifN, nifX, hesA and nifV encoding Mo-nitrogenase is conserved in the 15 N2-fixing strains. The nif cluster is under control of a sigma(70)-depedent promoter and possesses a GlnR/TnrA-binding site in the promoter. Suf system encoding [Fe-S] cluster is highly conserved in N2-fixing and non-N2-fixing strains. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the nif cluster enabled Escherichia coli JM109 to fix nitrogen. Phylogeny of the concatenated NifHDK sequences indicates that Paenibacillus and Frankia are sister groups. Phylogeny of the concatenated 275 single-copy core genes suggests that the ancestral Paenibacillus did not fix nitrogen. The N2-fixing Paenibacillus strains were generated by acquiring the nif cluster via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from a source related to Frankia. During the history of evolution, the nif cluster was lost, producing some non-N2-fixing strains, and vnf encoding V-nitrogenase or anf encoding Fe-nitrogenase was acquired, causing further diversification of some strains. In addition, some N2-fixing strains have additional nif and nif-like genes which may result from gene duplications. The evolution of nitrogen fixation in Paenibacillus involves a mix of gain, loss, HGT and duplication of nif/anf/vnf genes. This study not only reveals the organization and distribution of nitrogen fixation genes in Paenibacillus, but also provides insight into the complex evolutionary history of nitrogen fixation.
ESTHER : Xie_2014_PLoS.Genet_10_e1004231
PubMedSearch : Xie_2014_PLoS.Genet_10_e1004231
PubMedID: 24651173
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9bacl-x4zf35 , 9bacl-x4zxj9 , 9bacl-x5a3k6 , 9bacl-x4zet8

Title : A novel series of tacrine-selegiline hybrids with cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase inhibition activities for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease - Lu_2013_Eur.J.Med.Chem_62C_745
Author(s) : Lu C , Zhou Q , Yan J , Du Z , Huang L , Li X
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 62C :745 , 2013
Abstract : A novel series of tacrine-selegiline hybrids was synthesised and evaluated for application as inhibitors of cholinesterase (AChE/BCHE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO-A/B). The results demonstrate that most of the synthesised compounds exhibit high inhibitory activity. Among these compounds, compound 8g provided a good balance of activity towards all targets (with IC50 values of 22.6 nM, 9.37 nM, 0.3724 muM, and 0.1810 muM for AChE, BCHE, MAO-A and MAO-B, respectively). These results indicated that 8g has the potential to be a multi-functional candidate for Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Lu_2013_Eur.J.Med.Chem_62C_745
PubMedSearch : Lu_2013_Eur.J.Med.Chem_62C_745
PubMedID: 23454517

Title : The duck genome and transcriptome provide insight into an avian influenza virus reservoir species - Huang_2013_Nat.Genet_45_776
Author(s) : Huang Y , Li Y , Burt DW , Chen H , Zhang Y , Qian W , Kim H , Gan S , Zhao Y , Li J , Yi K , Feng H , Zhu P , Li B , Liu Q , Fairley S , Magor KE , Du Z , Hu X , Goodman L , Tafer H , Vignal A , Lee T , Kim KW , Sheng Z , An Y , Searle S , Herrero J , Groenen MA , Crooijmans RP , Faraut T , Cai Q , Webster RG , Aldridge JR , Warren WC , Bartschat S , Kehr S , Marz M , Stadler PF , Smith J , Kraus RH , Ren L , Fei J , Morisson M , Kaiser P , Griffin DK , Rao M , Pitel F , Wang J , Li N
Ref : Nat Genet , 45 :776 , 2013
Abstract : The duck (Anas platyrhynchos) is one of the principal natural hosts of influenza A viruses. We present the duck genome sequence and perform deep transcriptome analyses to investigate immune-related genes. Our data indicate that the duck possesses a contractive immune gene repertoire, as in chicken and zebra finch, and this repertoire has been shaped through lineage-specific duplications. We identify genes that are responsive to influenza A viruses using the lung transcriptomes of control ducks and ones that were infected with either a highly pathogenic (A/duck/Hubei/49/05) or a weakly pathogenic (A/goose/Hubei/65/05) H5N1 virus. Further, we show how the duck's defense mechanisms against influenza infection have been optimized through the diversification of its beta-defensin and butyrophilin-like repertoires. These analyses, in combination with the genomic and transcriptomic data, provide a resource for characterizing the interaction between host and influenza viruses.
ESTHER : Huang_2013_Nat.Genet_45_776
PubMedSearch : Huang_2013_Nat.Genet_45_776
PubMedID: 23749191
Gene_locus related to this paper: anapl-BCHE , anapl-r0lw36 , anapl-r0m5n4 , anapl-thioe , anapl-u3iqr9 , anapl-r0l4n7 , anapl-u3j4v8 , anapl-u3icy5 , anapl-u3ivv9 , anapl-u3j4g1 , anapl-u3j4i2 , anapl-u3j4v5 , anapl-r0kv25 , anapl-u3ild2 , anapl-u3imh5 , anapl-b6dzk9 , anapl-u3imp7 , anapl-u3i5h5 , anapl-u3id17 , anapl-r0m1y3 , anapl-r0lhc4 , anapl-r0ktn0 , anapl-r0l8l1 , anapl-r0lin6 , anapl-r0jhf3

Title : The entomopathogenic bacterial endosymbionts Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus: convergent lifestyles from divergent genomes - Chaston_2011_PLoS.One_6_e27909
Author(s) : Chaston JM , Suen G , Tucker SL , Andersen AW , Bhasin A , Bode E , Bode HB , Brachmann AO , Cowles CE , Cowles KN , Darby C , de Leon L , Drace K , Du Z , Givaudan A , Herbert Tran EE , Jewell KA , Knack JJ , Krasomil-Osterfeld KC , Kukor R , Lanois A , Latreille P , Leimgruber NK , Lipke CM , Liu R , Lu X , Martens EC , Marri PR , Medigue C , Menard ML , Miller NM , Morales-Soto N , Norton S , Ogier JC , Orchard SS , Park D , Park Y , Qurollo BA , Sugar DR , Richards GR , Rouy Z , Slominski B , Slominski K , Snyder H , Tjaden BC , van der Hoeven R , Welch RD , Wheeler C , Xiang B , Barbazuk B , Gaudriault S , Goodner B , Slater SC , Forst S , Goldman BS , Goodrich-Blair H
Ref : PLoS ONE , 6 :e27909 , 2011
Abstract : Members of the genus Xenorhabdus are entomopathogenic bacteria that associate with nematodes. The nematode-bacteria pair infects and kills insects, with both partners contributing to insect pathogenesis and the bacteria providing nutrition to the nematode from available insect-derived nutrients. The nematode provides the bacteria with protection from predators, access to nutrients, and a mechanism of dispersal. Members of the bacterial genus Photorhabdus also associate with nematodes to kill insects, and both genera of bacteria provide similar services to their different nematode hosts through unique physiological and metabolic mechanisms. We posited that these differences would be reflected in their respective genomes. To test this, we sequenced to completion the genomes of Xenorhabdus nematophila ATCC 19061 and Xenorhabdus bovienii SS-2004. As expected, both Xenorhabdus genomes encode many anti-insecticidal compounds, commensurate with their entomopathogenic lifestyle. Despite the similarities in lifestyle between Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus bacteria, a comparative analysis of the Xenorhabdus, Photorhabdus luminescens, and P. asymbiotica genomes suggests genomic divergence. These findings indicate that evolutionary changes shaped by symbiotic interactions can follow different routes to achieve similar end points.
ESTHER : Chaston_2011_PLoS.One_6_e27909
PubMedSearch : Chaston_2011_PLoS.One_6_e27909
PubMedID: 22125637
Gene_locus related to this paper: xenna-d3vdr8 , xenne-n1nl20 , xenbs-d3v2h2

Title : [Isolation of endophytic fungi from Huperzia serrata and their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity] - Wang_2011_Zhongguo.Zhong.Yao.Za.Zhi_36_734
Author(s) : Wang Y , Zeng Q , Zhang Z , Yan R , Wang L , Du Z
Ref : Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi , 36 :734 , 2011
Abstract : A total of 127 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from roots, branches and leaves of Huperzia serrata. These strains were identified into 19 genera based on morphological characters and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis, there into Penicillium, Aspergillus and Podospora were dominant populations in H. serrata. From analysis results we found some endophytic fungi showed a certain degree of tissue preference. The isolation rate and colonization rate of stems were both larger than those of leaf and roots. After testing the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of these endophytic fungi, a total of 39 endophytic fungi belonging to 15 genera showed AChE inhibition. Eleven endophytic fungi showed potent AChE inhibition, 7 of which were isolated from leaf. The research not only provided theoretical basis for developing and utilizing the resources of endophytic fungi in H. serrata but also showed a new path for searching medicines resource which has AChE inhibitory activity.
ESTHER : Wang_2011_Zhongguo.Zhong.Yao.Za.Zhi_36_734
PubMedSearch : Wang_2011_Zhongguo.Zhong.Yao.Za.Zhi_36_734
PubMedID: 21710741

Title : Genome sequences of three agrobacterium biovars help elucidate the evolution of multichromosome genomes in bacteria - Slater_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_2501
Author(s) : Slater SC , Goldman BS , Goodner B , Setubal JC , Farrand SK , Nester EW , Burr TJ , Banta L , Dickerman AW , Paulsen I , Otten L , Suen G , Welch R , Almeida NF , Arnold F , Burton OT , Du Z , Ewing A , Godsy E , Heisel S , Houmiel KL , Jhaveri J , Lu J , Miller NM , Norton S , Chen Q , Phoolcharoen W , Ohlin V , Ondrusek D , Pride N , Stricklin SL , Sun J , Wheeler C , Wilson L , Zhu H , Wood DW
Ref : J. Bacteriol , 191 :2501 , 2009
Abstract : The family Rhizobiaceae contains plant-associated bacteria with critical roles in ecology and agriculture. Within this family, many Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium strains are nitrogen-fixing plant mutualists, while many strains designated as Agrobacterium are plant pathogens. These contrasting lifestyles are primarily dependent on the transmissible plasmids each strain harbors. Members of the Rhizobiaceae also have diverse genome architectures that include single chromosomes, multiple chromosomes, and plasmids of various sizes. Agrobacterium strains have been divided into three biovars, based on physiological and biochemical properties. The genome of a biovar I strain, A. tumefaciens C58, has been previously sequenced. In this study, the genomes of the biovar II strain A. radiobacter K84, a commercially available biological control strain that inhibits certain pathogenic agrobacteria, and the biovar III strain A. vitis S4, a narrow-host-range strain that infects grapes and invokes a hypersensitive response on nonhost plants, were fully sequenced and annotated. Comparison with other sequenced members of the Alphaproteobacteria provides new data on the evolution of multipartite bacterial genomes. Primary chromosomes show extensive conservation of both gene content and order. In contrast, secondary chromosomes share smaller percentages of genes, and conserved gene order is restricted to short blocks. We propose that secondary chromosomes originated from an ancestral plasmid to which genes have been transferred from a progenitor primary chromosome. Similar patterns are observed in select Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria species. Together, these results define the evolution of chromosome architecture and gene content among the Rhizobiaceae and support a generalized mechanism for second-chromosome formation among bacteria.
ESTHER : Slater_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_2501
PubMedSearch : Slater_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_2501
PubMedID: 19251847
Gene_locus related to this paper: agrrk-b9j7k2 , agrrk-b9j8e4 , agrrk-b9j8g5 , agrrk-b9j9n4 , agrrk-b9j9p4 , agrrk-b9ja88 , agrrk-b9jbs5 , agrrk-b9jd67 , agrrk-b9jd85 , agrrk-b9jfh5 , agrrk-b9jfj6 , agrrk-b9jfu6 , agrrk-b9jfy6 , agrrk-b9jh78 , agrrk-b9ji04 , agrrk-b9jih5 , agrrk-b9jih7 , agrrk-b9jj14 , agrrk-b9jjt5 , agrrk-b9jjt6 , agrrk-b9jk42 , agrrk-b9jki6 , agrrk-b9jkt4 , agrrk-b9jla0 , agrrk-b9jlc3 , agrrk-b9jlj1 , agrrk-b9jlj2 , agrrk-b9jlr1 , agrrk-b9jmj9 , agrrk-b9jml0 , agrrk-b9jmn1 , agrrk-b9jnw6 , agrrk-b9jq01 , agrrk-b9jq11 , agrrk-b9jq35 , agrtu-DHAA , agrvs-b9jqv2 , agrvs-b9jr09 , agrvs-b9js24 , agrvs-b9js61 , agrvs-b9ju03 , agrvs-b9jw40 , agrvs-b9jx20 , agrvs-b9jy84 , agrvs-b9k1h8 , agrvs-b9k2m9 , agrvs-b9k3r6 , agrvs-b9k5p9 , agrvs-b9k093 , agrvs-b9k188 , agrvs-b9k312 , agrrk-b9jls9 , agrrk-b9jca1 , agrvs-b9jur1 , agrrk-rutd

Title : Genome sequence of Azotobacter vinelandii, an obligate aerobe specialized to support diverse anaerobic metabolic processes - Setubal_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_4534
Author(s) : Setubal JC , dos Santos P , Goldman BS , Ertesvag H , Espin G , Rubio LM , Valla S , Almeida NF , Balasubramanian D , Cromes L , Curatti L , Du Z , Godsy E , Goodner B , Hellner-Burris K , Hernandez JA , Houmiel K , Imperial J , Kennedy C , Larson TJ , Latreille P , Ligon LS , Lu J , Maerk M , Miller NM , Norton S , O'Carroll IP , Paulsen I , Raulfs EC , Roemer R , Rosser J , Segura D , Slater S , Stricklin SL , Studholme DJ , Sun J , Viana CJ , Wallin E , Wang B , Wheeler C , Zhu H , Dean DR , Dixon R , Wood D
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 191 :4534 , 2009
Abstract : Azotobacter vinelandii is a soil bacterium related to the Pseudomonas genus that fixes nitrogen under aerobic conditions while simultaneously protecting nitrogenase from oxygen damage. In response to carbon availability, this organism undergoes a simple differentiation process to form cysts that are resistant to drought and other physical and chemical agents. Here we report the complete genome sequence of A. vinelandii DJ, which has a single circular genome of 5,365,318 bp. In order to reconcile an obligate aerobic lifestyle with exquisitely oxygen-sensitive processes, A. vinelandii is specialized in terms of its complement of respiratory proteins. It is able to produce alginate, a polymer that further protects the organism from excess exogenous oxygen, and it has multiple duplications of alginate modification genes, which may alter alginate composition in response to oxygen availability. The genome analysis identified the chromosomal locations of the genes coding for the three known oxygen-sensitive nitrogenases, as well as genes coding for other oxygen-sensitive enzymes, such as carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase. These findings offer new prospects for the wider application of A. vinelandii as a host for the production and characterization of oxygen-sensitive proteins.
ESTHER : Setubal_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_4534
PubMedSearch : Setubal_2009_J.Bacteriol_191_4534
PubMedID: 19429624
Gene_locus related to this paper: azovd-c1dex6 , azovd-c1df21 , azovd-c1dfb5 , azovd-c1dg75 , azovd-c1dgm6 , azovd-c1dh91 , azovd-c1di03 , azovd-c1dib3 , azovd-c1dif2 , azovd-c1dIq5 , azovd-c1dir1 , azovd-c1dis2 , azovd-c1djq5 , azovd-c1djw3 , azovd-c1dk37 , azovd-c1dkb2 , azovd-c1dkj0 , azovd-c1dli6 , azovd-c1dng8 , azovd-c1dni5 , azovd-c1dpr0 , azovd-c1dqu3 , azovd-c1dri5 , azovd-c1drx0 , azovd-c1dsl7 , azovd-c1dsq7 , azovd-c1dss1 , azovd-metx , azovi-PHBC , azovd-c1dem4

Title : Effect of molecular sieves on lipase-catalyzed esterification of rutin with stearic acid - Duan_2006_J.Agric.Food.Chem_54_6219
Author(s) : Duan Y , Du Z , Yao Y , Li R , Wu D
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 54 :6219 , 2006
Abstract : Rutin was acylated with stearic acid in the esterification reaction catalyzed by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) in tert-amyl alcohol with and without molecular sieves. The lipophilic rutin stearate was synthesized by this method, which had a potential use in food, cosmetics, and pharmacy. The structure of rutin stearate was characterized by spectral methods of 1H NMR and 13C NMR, Fourier transform infrared, and UV-vis. The results suggested that the regioselectivity of the lipase-catalyzed esterification of rutin was specific at the C(4''')-position of the rhamnose moiety. It was found that the addition of molecular sieves increased both the reaction rate and the yield. The time effect of adding molecular sieves in the reaction system on the conversion of rutin stearate was further examined. Instead of adding molecular sieves at the beginning of the reaction, the addition of molecular sieves at 5, 18, 24, 31, and 44 h after the beginning of the reaction was also applied. The final conversion for the case to add molecular sieves at 24 h after the beginning of reaction was the highest, with the conversion yield about 46%.
ESTHER : Duan_2006_J.Agric.Food.Chem_54_6219
PubMedSearch : Duan_2006_J.Agric.Food.Chem_54_6219
PubMedID: 16910711

Title : Complete genome sequence of Yersinia pestis strain 91001, an isolate avirulent to humans - Song_2004_DNA.Res_11_179
Author(s) : Song Y , Tong Z , Wang J , Wang L , Guo Z , Han Y , Zhang J , Pei D , Zhou D , Qin H , Pang X , Zhai J , Li M , Cui B , Qi Z , Jin L , Dai R , Chen F , Li S , Ye C , Du Z , Lin W , Yu J , Yang H , Huang P , Yang R
Ref : DNA Research , 11 :179 , 2004
Abstract : Genomics provides an unprecedented opportunity to probe in minute detail into the genomes of the world's most deadly pathogenic bacteria- Yersinia pestis. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Y. pestis strain 91001, a human-avirulent strain isolated from the rodent Brandt's vole-Microtus brandti. The genome of strain 91001 consists of one chromosome and four plasmids (pPCP1, pCD1, pMT1 and pCRY). The 9609-bp pPCP1 plasmid of strain 91001 is almost identical to the counterparts from reference strains (CO92 and KIM). There are 98 genes in the 70,159-bp range of plasmid pCD1. The 106,642-bp plasmid pMT1 has slightly different architecture compared with the reference ones. pCRY is a novel plasmid discovered in this work. It is 21,742 bp long and harbors a cryptic type IV secretory system. The chromosome of 91001 is 4,595,065 bp in length. Among the 4037 predicted genes, 141 are possible pseudo-genes. Due to the rearrangements mediated by insertion elements, the structure of the 91001 chromosome shows dramatic differences compared with CO92 and KIM. Based on the analysis of plasmids and chromosome architectures, pseudogene distribution, nitrate reduction negative mechanism and gene comparison, we conclude that strain 91001 and other strains isolated from M. brandti might have evolved from ancestral Y. pestis in a different lineage. The large genome fragment deletions in the 91001 chromosome and some pseudogenes may contribute to its unique nonpathogenicity to humans and host-specificity.
ESTHER : Song_2004_DNA.Res_11_179
PubMedSearch : Song_2004_DNA.Res_11_179
PubMedID: 15368893
Gene_locus related to this paper: yerpe-BIOH , yerpe-IRP1 , yerpe-PIP , yerpe-PLDB , yerpe-PTRB , yerpe-q8zey9 , yerpe-Y0644 , yerpe-y1616 , yerpe-y3224 , yerpe-YPLA , yerpe-YPO0180 , yerpe-YPO0667 , yerpe-YPO0773 , yerpe-YPO0776 , yerpe-YPO0986 , yerpe-YPO1501 , yerpe-YPO1997 , yerpe-YPO2002 , yerpe-YPO2336 , yerpe-YPO2526 , yerpe-YPO2638 , yerpe-YPO2814

Title : Genetics of metabolic variations between Yersinia pestis biovars and the proposal of a new biovar, microtus - Zhou_2004_J.Bacteriol_186_5147
Author(s) : Zhou D , Tong Z , Song Y , Han Y , Pei D , Pang X , Zhai J , Li M , Cui B , Qi Z , Jin L , Dai R , Du Z , Wang J , Guo Z , Huang P , Yang R
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 186 :5147 , 2004
Abstract : Yersinia pestis has been historically divided into three biovars: antiqua, mediaevalis, and orientalis. On the basis of this study, strains from Microtus-related plague foci are proposed to constitute a new biovar, microtus. Based on the ability to ferment glycerol and arabinose and to reduce nitrate, Y. pestis strains can be assigned to one of four biovars: antiqua (glycerol positive, arabinose positive, and nitrate positive), mediaevalis (glycerol positive, arabinose positive, and nitrate negative), orientalis (glycerol negative, arabinose positive, and nitrate positive), and microtus (glycerol positive, arabinose negative, and nitrate negative). A 93-bp in-frame deletion in glpD gene results in the glycerol-negative characteristic of biovar orientalis strains. Two kinds of point mutations in the napA gene may cause the nitrate reduction-negative characteristic in biovars mediaevalis and microtus, respectively. A 122-bp frameshift deletion in the araC gene may lead to the arabinose-negative phenotype of biovar microtus strains. Biovar microtus strains have a unique genomic profile of gene loss and pseudogene distribution, which most likely accounts for the human attenuation of this new biovar. Focused, hypothesis-based investigations on these specific genes will help delineate the determinants that enable this deadly pathogen to be virulent to humans and give insight into the evolution of Y. pestis and plague pathogenesis. Moreover, there may be the implications for development of biovar microtus strains as a potential vaccine.
ESTHER : Zhou_2004_J.Bacteriol_186_5147
PubMedSearch : Zhou_2004_J.Bacteriol_186_5147
PubMedID: 15262951
Gene_locus related to this paper: yerpe-YPLA

Title : The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22 - Dunham_1999_Nature_402_489
Author(s) : Dunham I , Hunt AR , Collins JE , Bruskiewich R , Beare DM , Clamp M , Smink LJ , Ainscough R , Almeida JP , Babbage AK , Bagguley C , Bailey J , Barlow KF , Bates KN , Beasley OP , Bird CP , Blakey SE , Bridgeman AM , Buck D , Burgess J , Burrill WD , Burton J , Carder C , Carter NP , Chen Y , Clark G , Clegg SM , Cobley VE , Cole CG , Collier RE , Connor R , Conroy D , Corby NR , Coville GJ , Cox AV , Davis J , Dawson E , Dhami PD , Dockree C , Dodsworth SJ , Durbin RM , Ellington AG , Evans KL , Fey JM , Fleming K , French L , Garner AA , Gilbert JGR , Goward ME , Grafham DV , Griffiths MND , Hall C , Hall RE , Hall-Tamlyn G , Heathcott RW , Ho S , Holmes S , Hunt SE , Jones MC , Kershaw J , Kimberley AM , King A , Laird GK , Langford CF , Leversha MA , Lloyd C , Lloyd DM , Martyn ID , Mashreghi-Mohammadi M , Matthews LH , Mccann OT , Mcclay J , Mclaren S , McMurray AA , Milne SA , Mortimore BJ , Odell CN , Pavitt R , Pearce AV , Pearson D , Phillimore BJCT , Phillips SH , Plumb RW , Ramsay H , Ramsey Y , Rogers L , Ross MT , Scott CE , Sehra HK , Skuce CD , Smalley S , Smith ML , Soderlund C , Spragon L , Steward CA , Sulston JE , Swann RM , Vaudin M , Wall M , Wallis JM , Whiteley MN , Willey DL , Williams L , Williams SA , Williamson H , Wilmer TE , Wilming L , Wright CL , Hubbard T , Bentley DR , Beck S , Rogers J , Shimizu N , Minoshima S , Kawasaki K , Sasaki T , Asakawa S , Kudoh J , Shintani A , Shibuya K , Yoshizaki Y , Aoki N , Mitsuyama S , Roe BA , Chen F , Chu L , Crabtree J , Deschamps S , Do A , Do T , Dorman A , Fang F , Fu Y , Hu P , Hua A , Kenton S , Lai H , Lao HI , Lewis J , Lewis S , Lin S-P , Loh P , Malaj E , Nguyen T , Pan H , Phan S , Qi S , Qian Y , Ray L , Ren Q , Shaull S , Sloan D , Song L , Wang Q , Wang Y , Wang Z , White J , Willingham D , Wu H , Yao Z , Zhan M , Zhang G , Chissoe S , Murray J , Miller N , Minx P , Fulton R , Johnson D , Bemis G , Bentley D , Bradshaw H , Bourne S , Cordes M , Du Z , Fulton L , Goela D , Graves T , Hawkins J , Hinds K , Kemp K , Latreille P , Layman D , Ozersky P , Rohlfing T , Scheet P , Walker C , Wamsley A , Wohldmann P , Pepin K , Nelson J , Korf I , Bedell JA , Hillier L , Mardis E , Waterston R , Wilson R , Emanuel BS , Shaikh T , Kurahashi H , Saitta S , Budarf ML , McDermid HE , Johnson A , Wong ACC , Morrow BE , Edelmann L , Kim UJ , Shizuya H , Simon MI , Dumanski JP , Peyrard M , Kedra D , Seroussi E , Fransson I , Tapia I , Bruder CE , O'Brien KP
Ref : Nature , 402 :489 , 1999
Abstract : Knowledge of the complete genomic DNA sequence of an organism allows a systematic approach to defining its genetic components. The genomic sequence provides access to the complete structures of all genes, including those without known function, their control elements, and, by inference, the proteins they encode, as well as all other biologically important sequences. Furthermore, the sequence is a rich and permanent source of information for the design of further biological studies of the organism and for the study of evolution through cross-species sequence comparison. The power of this approach has been amply demonstrated by the determination of the sequences of a number of microbial and model organisms. The next step is to obtain the complete sequence of the entire human genome. Here we report the sequence of the euchromatic part of human chromosome 22. The sequence obtained consists of 12 contiguous segments spanning 33.4 megabases, contains at least 545 genes and 134 pseudogenes, and provides the first view of the complex chromosomal landscapes that will be found in the rest of the genome.
ESTHER : Dunham_1999_Nature_402_489
PubMedSearch : Dunham_1999_Nature_402_489
PubMedID: 10591208
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES5A , human-SERHL2

Title : Complete nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII - Johnston_1994_Science_265_2077
Author(s) : Johnston M , Andrews S , Brinkman R , Cooper J , Ding H , Dover J , Du Z , Favello A , Fulton L , Gattung S , et al.
Ref : Science , 265 :2077 , 1994
Abstract : The complete nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome VIII reveals that it contains 269 predicted or known genes (300 base pairs or larger). Fifty-nine of these genes (22 percent) were previously identified. Of the 210 novel genes, 65 are predicted to encode proteins that are similar to other proteins of known or predicted function. Sixteen genes appear to be relatively recently duplicated. On average, there is one gene approximately every 2 kilobases. Although the coding density and base composition across the chromosome are not uniform, no regular pattern of variation is apparent.
ESTHER : Johnston_1994_Science_265_2077
PubMedSearch : Johnston_1994_Science_265_2077
PubMedID: 8091229
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-FSH1 , yeast-ppme1

Title : The C.elegans genome sequencing project: A beginning - Sulston_1992_Nature_356_37
Author(s) : Sulston J , Du Z , Thomas K , Wilson R , Hillier L , Staden R
Ref : Nature , 356 :37 , 1992
Abstract : The long-term goal of this project is the elucidation of the complete sequence of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome. During the first year methods have been developed and a strategy implemented that is amenable to large-scale sequencing. The three cosmids sequenced in this initial phase are surprisingly rich in genes, many of which have mammalian homologues.
ESTHER : Sulston_1992_Nature_356_37
PubMedSearch : Sulston_1992_Nature_356_37
PubMedID: 1538779
Gene_locus related to this paper: caeel-f44b9.1