Heil J

References (6)

Title : African Under-Utilized Medicinal Leafy Vegetables Studied by Microtiter Plate Assays and High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography-Planar Assays - Oresanya_2024_Molecules_29_
Author(s) : Oresanya IO , Orhan IE , Heil J , Morlock GE
Ref : Molecules , 29 : , 2024
Abstract : Biological activities of six under-utilized medicinal leafy vegetable plants indigenous to Africa, i.e., Basella alba, Crassocephalum rubens, Gnetum africanum, Launaea taraxacifolia, Solanecio biafrae, and Solanum macrocarpon, were investigated via two independent techniques. The total phenolic content (TPC) was determined, and six microtiter plate assays were applied after extraction and fractionation. Three were antioxidant in vitro assays, i.e., ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reduction antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, and the others were enzyme (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase) inhibition assays. The highest TPC and antioxidant activity from all the methods were obtained from polar and medium polar fractions of C. rubens, S. biafrae, and S. macrocarpon. The highest acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition was exhibited by polar fractions of S. biafrae, C. rubens, and L. taraxacifolia, the latter comparable to galantamine. The highest tyrosinase inhibition was observed in the n-butanol fraction of C. rubens and ethyl acetate fraction of S. biafrae. In vitro assay results of the different extracts and fractions were mostly in agreement with the bioactivity profiling via high-performance thin-layer chromatography-multi-imaging-effect-directed analysis, exploiting nine different planar assays. Several separated compounds of the plant extracts showed antioxidant, alpha-glucosidase, alpha-amylase, acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase-inhibiting, Gram-positive/-negative antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and genotoxic activities. A prominent apolar bioactive compound zone was tentatively assigned to fatty acids, in particular linolenic acid, via electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. The detected antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticholinesterase, cytotoxic, and genotoxic potentials of these vegetable plants, in particular C. rubens, S. biafrae, and S. macrocarpon, may validate some of their ethnomedicinal uses.
ESTHER : Oresanya_2024_Molecules_29_
PubMedSearch : Oresanya_2024_Molecules_29_
PubMedID: 38338474

Title : Profile comparison and valorization of Tunisian Salvia aegyptiaca and S. verbenaca aerial part extracts via hyphenated high-performance thin-layer chromatography - Reguigui_2022_J.Chromatogr.A_1673_463057
Author(s) : Reguigui A , Heil J , Gorai M , Mabrouk M , Romdhane M , Morlock GE
Ref : Journal of Chromatography A , 1673 :463057 , 2022
Abstract : Aerial parts of the rare species Salvia aegyptiaca L. and S. verbenaca L. were collected from arid habitats in southern Tunisia. Their polar (ethanol-water) and mid-polar (ethyl acetate) extracts were analyzed non-targeted via a developed high-performance thin-layer chromatography profiling hyphenated with 12 effect-directed assays and 8 different physico-chemical detections. Bioactive compound zones were observed with inhibiting activities on alpha-glucosidase, -glucosidase, -glucuronidase, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and tyrosinase, with radical scavenging (antioxidative) effects, and with activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The effect-directed profile patterns showed common bioactive zones for different collection sites of the same species and distinct differences between species. Such characteristic profiles can be used to prove authenticity. Genotoxic, estrogen-like and androgen-like compounds were not detected even at higher amounts applied (for extracts from 1.6 mg sample). In the physico-chemical profiling, further organic substances were selectively detected, which highlighted the complexity of the multi-component mixture. The Tunisian sage profiles were further compared to the frequently used S. folium L. and S. officinalis L. leaves, and to reference mixtures containing phenolic acids and tanshinones. Selected bioactive zones in the S. verbenaca extracts were characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry, and some mass signals were attributed to a caffeic acid derivative and to oleanolic and ursolic acids. Such effect-directed non-target profiling allows straightforward comparison not only of sage but of plant extracts in general.
ESTHER : Reguigui_2022_J.Chromatogr.A_1673_463057
PubMedSearch : Reguigui_2022_J.Chromatogr.A_1673_463057
PubMedID: 35477072

Title : Effect-Directed Profiling of Monofloral Honeys from Ethiopia by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Morlock_2022_Molecules_27_
Author(s) : Morlock GE , Belay A , Heil J , Mehl A , Borck H
Ref : Molecules , 27 : , 2022
Abstract : Ethiopian honey is used not only as food but also for treatment in traditional medicine. For its valorization, bioactive compounds were analyzed in nine types of monofloral Ethiopian honey. Therefore, a non-target effect-directed profiling was developed via high-performance thin-layer chromatography combined with multi-imaging and planar effect-directed assays. Characteristic bioactivity profiles of the different honeys were determined in terms of antibacterial, free-radical scavenging, and various enzyme inhibitory activities. Honeys from Hypoestes spp. and Leucas abyssinica showed low activity in all assays. In contrast, others from Acacia spp., Becium grandiflorum, Croton macrostachyus, Eucalyptus globulus, Schefflera abyssinica, Vernonia amygdalina, and Coffea arabica showed more intense activity profiles, but these differed depending on the assay. In particular, the radical scavenging activity of Croton macrostachyus and Coffea arabica honeys, the acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting activity of Eucalyptus globulus and Coffea arabica honeys, and the antibacterial activity of Schefflera abyssinica honey are highlighted. Bioactive compounds of interest were further characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Identifying differences in bioactivity between mono-floral honey types affects quality designation and branding. Effect-directed profiling provides new insights that are valuable for food science and nutrition as well as for the market, and contributes to honey differentiation, categorization, and authentication.
ESTHER : Morlock_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedSearch : Morlock_2022_Molecules_27_
PubMedID: 35684478

Title : Effect-Directed Profiling of Powdered Tea Extracts for Catechins, Theaflavins, Flavonols and Caffeine - Morlock_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_
Author(s) : Morlock GE , Heil J , Inarejos-Garcia AM , Maeder J
Ref : Antioxidants (Basel) , 10 : , 2021
Abstract : The antioxidative activity of Camelia sinensis tea and especially powdered tea extracts on the market, among others used as added value in functional foods, can considerably vary due to not only natural variance, but also adulteration and falsification. Thus, an effect-directed profiling was developed to prove the functional effects or health-promoting claims. It took 3-12 min per sample, depending on the assay incubation time, for 21 separations in parallel. Used as a fast product quality control, it can detect known and unknown bioactive compounds. Twenty tea extracts and a reference mixture of 11-bioactive compounds were investigated in parallel under the same chromatographic conditions by a newly developed reversed phase high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method. In eight planar on-surface assays, effect-directed tea profiles were revealed. Catechins and theaflavins turned out to be not only highly active, but also multi-potent compounds, able to act in a broad range of metabolic pathways. The flavan-3-ols acted as radical scavengers (DPPH() assay), antibacterials against Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis bacteria, and inhibitors of tyrosinase, alpha-glucosidase, beta-glucosidase, and acetylcholinesterase. Further effects against Gram-negative Aliivibrio fischeri bacteria and beta-glucuronidase were assigned to other components in the powdered tea extracts. According to their specifications, the activity responses of the powdered tea extracts were higher than in mere leaf extracts of green, white and black tea. The multi-imaging and effect-directed profiling was not only able to identify known functional food ingredients, but also to detect unknown bioactive compounds (including bioactive contaminants, residues or adulterations).
ESTHER : Morlock_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_
PubMedSearch : Morlock_2021_Antioxidants.(Basel)_10_
PubMedID: 33467615

Title : Is Our Natural Food Our Homeostasis? Array of a Thousand Effect-Directed Profiles of 68 Herbs and Spices - Schreiner_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_755941
Author(s) : Schreiner T , Sauter D , Friz M , Heil J , Morlock GE
Ref : Front Pharmacol , 12 :755941 , 2021
Abstract : The beneficial effects of plant-rich diets and traditional medicines are increasingly recognized in the treatment of civilization diseases due to the abundance and diversity of bioactive substances therein. However, the important active portion of natural food or plant-based medicine is presently not under control. Hence, a paradigm shift from quality control based on marker compounds to effect-directed profiling is postulated. We investigated 68 powdered plant extracts (botanicals) which are added to food products in food industry. Among them are many plants that are used as traditional medicines, herbs and spices. A generic strategy was developed to evaluate the bioactivity profile of each botanical as completely as possible and to straightforwardly assign the most potent bioactive compounds. It is an 8-dimensional hyphenation of normal-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography with multi-imaging by ultraviolet, visible and fluorescence light detection as well as effect-directed assay and heart-cut of the bioactive zone to orthogonal reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromato-graphy-photodiode array detection-heated electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In the non-target, effect-directed screening via 16 different on-surface assays, we tentatively assigned more than 60 important bioactive compounds in the studied botanicals. These were antibacterials, estrogens, antiestrogens, androgens, and antiandrogens, as well as acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, beta-glucosidase, beta-glucuronidase, and tyrosinase inhibitors, which were on-surface heart-cut eluted from the bioautogram or enzyme inhibition autogram to the next dimension for further targeted characterization. This biological-physicochemical hyphenation is able to detect and control active mechanisms of traditional medicines or botanicals as well as the essentials of plant-based food. The array of 1,292 profiles (68 samples x 19 detections) showed the versatile bioactivity potential of natural food. It reveals how efficiently and powerful our natural food contributes to our homeostasis.
ESTHER : Schreiner_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_755941
PubMedSearch : Schreiner_2021_Front.Pharmacol_12_755941
PubMedID: 34955829

Title : The sequence of the human genome - Venter_2001_Science_291_1304
Author(s) : Venter JC , Adams MD , Myers EW , Li PW , Mural RJ , Sutton GG , Smith HO , Yandell M , Evans CA , Holt RA , Gocayne JD , Amanatides P , Ballew RM , Huson DH , Wortman JR , Zhang Q , Kodira CD , Zheng XH , Chen L , Skupski M , Subramanian G , Thomas PD , Zhang J , Gabor Miklos GL , Nelson C , Broder S , Clark AG , Nadeau J , McKusick VA , Zinder N , Levine AJ , Roberts RJ , Simon M , Slayman C , Hunkapiller M , Bolanos R , Delcher A , Dew I , Fasulo D , Flanigan M , Florea L , Halpern A , Hannenhalli S , Kravitz S , Levy S , Mobarry C , Reinert K , Remington K , Abu-Threideh J , Beasley E , Biddick K , Bonazzi V , Brandon R , Cargill M , Chandramouliswaran I , Charlab R , Chaturvedi K , Deng Z , Di Francesco V , Dunn P , Eilbeck K , Evangelista C , Gabrielian AE , Gan W , Ge W , Gong F , Gu Z , Guan P , Heiman TJ , Higgins ME , Ji RR , Ke Z , Ketchum KA , Lai Z , Lei Y , Li Z , Li J , Liang Y , Lin X , Lu F , Merkulov GV , Milshina N , Moore HM , Naik AK , Narayan VA , Neelam B , Nusskern D , Rusch DB , Salzberg S , Shao W , Shue B , Sun J , Wang Z , Wang A , Wang X , Wang J , Wei M , Wides R , Xiao C , Yan C , Yao A , Ye J , Zhan M , Zhang W , Zhang H , Zhao Q , Zheng L , Zhong F , Zhong W , Zhu S , Zhao S , Gilbert D , Baumhueter S , Spier G , Carter C , Cravchik A , Woodage T , Ali F , An H , Awe A , Baldwin D , Baden H , Barnstead M , Barrow I , Beeson K , Busam D , Carver A , Center A , Cheng ML , Curry L , Danaher S , Davenport L , Desilets R , Dietz S , Dodson K , Doup L , Ferriera S , Garg N , Gluecksmann A , Hart B , Haynes J , Haynes C , Heiner C , Hladun S , Hostin D , Houck J , Howland T , Ibegwam C , Johnson J , Kalush F , Kline L , Koduru S , Love A , Mann F , May D , McCawley S , McIntosh T , McMullen I , Moy M , Moy L , Murphy B , Nelson K , Pfannkoch C , Pratts E , Puri V , Qureshi H , Reardon M , Rodriguez R , Rogers YH , Romblad D , Ruhfel B , Scott R , Sitter C , Smallwood M , Stewart E , Strong R , Suh E , Thomas R , Tint NN , Tse S , Vech C , Wang G , Wetter J , Williams S , Williams M , Windsor S , Winn-Deen E , Wolfe K , Zaveri J , Zaveri K , Abril JF , Guigo R , Campbell MJ , Sjolander KV , Karlak B , Kejariwal A , Mi H , Lazareva B , Hatton T , Narechania A , Diemer K , Muruganujan A , Guo N , Sato S , Bafna V , Istrail S , Lippert R , Schwartz R , Walenz B , Yooseph S , Allen D , Basu A , Baxendale J , Blick L , Caminha M , Carnes-Stine J , Caulk P , Chiang YH , Coyne M , Dahlke C , Mays A , Dombroski M , Donnelly M , Ely D , Esparham S , Fosler C , Gire H , Glanowski S , Glasser K , Glodek A , Gorokhov M , Graham K , Gropman B , Harris M , Heil J , Henderson S , Hoover J , Jennings D , Jordan C , Jordan J , Kasha J , Kagan L , Kraft C , Levitsky A , Lewis M , Liu X , Lopez J , Ma D , Majoros W , McDaniel J , Murphy S , Newman M , Nguyen T , Nguyen N , Nodell M , Pan S , Peck J , Peterson M , Rowe W , Sanders R , Scott J , Simpson M , Smith T , Sprague A , Stockwell T , Turner R , Venter E , Wang M , Wen M , Wu D , Wu M , Xia A , Zandieh A , Zhu X
Ref : Science , 291 :1304 , 2001
Abstract : A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five individuals. Two assembly strategies-a whole-genome assembly and a regional chromosome assembly-were used, each combining sequence data from Celera and the publicly funded genome effort. The public data were shredded into 550-bp segments to create a 2.9-fold coverage of those genome regions that had been sequenced, without including biases inherent in the cloning and assembly procedure used by the publicly funded group. This brought the effective coverage in the assemblies to eightfold, reducing the number and size of gaps in the final assembly over what would be obtained with 5.11-fold coverage. The two assembly strategies yielded very similar results that largely agree with independent mapping data. The assemblies effectively cover the euchromatic regions of the human chromosomes. More than 90% of the genome is in scaffold assemblies of 100,000 bp or more, and 25% of the genome is in scaffolds of 10 million bp or larger. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed 26,588 protein-encoding transcripts for which there was strong corroborating evidence and an additional approximately 12,000 computationally derived genes with mouse matches or other weak supporting evidence. Although gene-dense clusters are obvious, almost half the genes are dispersed in low G+C sequence separated by large tracts of apparently noncoding sequence. Only 1.1% of the genome is spanned by exons, whereas 24% is in introns, with 75% of the genome being intergenic DNA. Duplications of segmental blocks, ranging in size up to chromosomal lengths, are abundant throughout the genome and reveal a complex evolutionary history. Comparative genomic analysis indicates vertebrate expansions of genes associated with neuronal function, with tissue-specific developmental regulation, and with the hemostasis and immune systems. DNA sequence comparisons between the consensus sequence and publicly funded genome data provided locations of 2.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A random pair of human haploid genomes differed at a rate of 1 bp per 1250 on average, but there was marked heterogeneity in the level of polymorphism across the genome. Less than 1% of all SNPs resulted in variation in proteins, but the task of determining which SNPs have functional consequences remains an open challenge.
ESTHER : Venter_2001_Science_291_1304
PubMedSearch : Venter_2001_Science_291_1304
PubMedID: 11181995
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-AADAC , human-ABHD1 , human-ABHD10 , human-ABHD11 , human-ACHE , human-BCHE , human-LDAH , human-ABHD18 , human-CMBL , human-ABHD17A , human-KANSL3 , human-LIPA , human-LYPLAL1 , human-NDRG2 , human-NLGN3 , human-NLGN4X , human-NLGN4Y , human-PAFAH2 , human-PREPL , human-RBBP9 , human-SPG21