Di Marzo V

References (38)

Title : Development of Potent and Selective Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitors. SARs, Structural Analysis, and Biological Characterization - Butini_2024_J.Med.Chem__
Author(s) : Butini S , Grether U , Jung KM , Ligresti A , Allara M , Postmus AGJ , Maramai S , Brogi S , Papa A , Carullo G , Sykes D , Veprintsev D , Federico S , Grillo A , Di Guglielmo B , Ramunno A , Stevens AF , Heer D , Lamponi S , Gemma S , Benz J , Di Marzo V , van der Stelt M , Piomelli D , Campiani G
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , : , 2024
Abstract : New potent, selective monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitors based on the azetidin-2-one scaffold ((+/-)-5a-v, (+/-)-6a-j, and (+/-)-7a-d) were developed as irreversible ligands, as demonstrated by enzymatic and crystallographic studies for (+/-)-5d, (+/-)-5l, and (+/-)-5r. X-ray analyses combined with extensive computational studies allowed us to clarify the binding mode of the compounds. 5v was identified as selective for MAGL when compared with other serine hydrolases. Solubility, in vitro metabolic stability, cytotoxicity, and absence of mutagenicity were determined for selected analogues. The most promising compounds ((+/-)-5c, (+/-)-5d, and (+/-)-5v) were used for in vivo studies in mice, showing a decrease in MAGL activity and increased 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol levels in forebrain tissue. In particular, 5v is characterized by a high eudysmic ratio and (3R,4S)-5v is one of the most potent irreversible inhibitors of h/mMAGL identified thus far. These results suggest that the new MAGL inhibitors have therapeutic potential for different central and peripheral pathologies.
ESTHER : Butini_2024_J.Med.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Butini_2024_J.Med.Chem__
PubMedID: 38241614
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-MGLL

Title : The endocannabinoidome in human placenta: Possible contribution to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia - Maia_2023_Biofactors__
Author(s) : Maia J , Iannotti FA , Piscitelli F , Fonseca BM , Braga A , Braga J , Teixeira N , Di Marzo V , Correia-da-Silva G
Ref : Biofactors , : , 2023
Abstract : Preeclampsia (PE) was first reported thousands of years ago, yet there is still a shortage of biomarkers to determine the severity and type of PE. The importance of the expanded endocannabinoid system, or endocannabinoidome (eCBome), has emerged recently in placental physiology and pathology, though the potential alterations of the eCBome in PE have not been fully explored. Analysis by qRT-PCR using placental samples of normotensive and PE women demonstrate for the first time the presence of ABHD4, GDE1, and DAGLbeta in both normotensive and PE placental tissues. Interestingly, NAPE-PLD, FAAH-1, DAGLalpha, MAGL, and ABHD6 mRNA levels were increased in the placental tissues of PE patients. Quantification in plasma and placental tissues showed a decrease for anandamide (AEA), N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA), and N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine (DHEA) in the placenta, accompanied only by a decrease in plasma levels of AEA. In addition, a strong negative correlation was obtained between OEA and the biomarker of PE, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1. Given the inflammatory nature of PE and the anti-inflammatory role of OEA and DHEA, the decrease in the local levels of these mediators may underlie the inflammatory component of this pathology. Additionally, lower AEA levels in both placenta and plasma may contribute to the atypical alterations of the spiral arteries in PE due to the vasorelaxation effects of AEA. These results add new information to the role of the eCBome members in placental development, while also pointing to a potential role as biomarkers of PE.
ESTHER : Maia_2023_Biofactors__
PubMedSearch : Maia_2023_Biofactors__
PubMedID: 37092955

Title : Genetic Manipulation of sn-1-Diacylglycerol Lipase and CB(1) Cannabinoid Receptor Gain-of-Function Uncover Neuronal 2-Linoleoyl Glycerol Signaling in Drosophila melanogaster - Tortoriello_2021_Cannabis.Cannabinoid.Res_6_119
Author(s) : Tortoriello G , Beiersdorf J , Romani S , Williams G , Cameron GA , Mackie K , Williams MJ , Di Marzo V , Keimpema E , Doherty P , Harkany T
Ref : Cannabis Cannabinoid Res , 6 :119 , 2021
Abstract : Introduction: In mammals, sn-1-diacylglycerol lipases (DAGL) generate 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) that, as the major endocannabinoid, modulates synaptic neurotransmission by acting on CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB(1)R). Even though the insect genome codes for inaE, which is a DAGL ortholog (dDAGL), its products and their functions remain unknown particularly because insects lack chordate-type cannabinoid receptors. Materials and Methods: Gain-of-function and loss-of-function genetic manipulations were carried out in Drosophila melanogaster, including the generation of both dDAGL-deficient and mammalian CB(1)R-overexpressing flies. Neuroanatomy, dietary manipulations coupled with targeted mass spectrometry determination of arachidonic acid and 2-linoleoyl glycerol (2-LG) production, behavioral assays, and signal transduction profiling for Akt and Erk kinases were employed. Findings from Drosophilae were validated by a CB(1)R-binding assay for 2-LG in mammalian cortical homogenates with functionality confirmed in neurons using high-throughput real-time imaging in vitro. Results: In this study, we show that dDAGL is primarily expressed in the brain and nerve cord of Drosophila during larval development and in adult with 2-LG being its chief product as defined by dietary precursor availability. Overexpression of the human CB(1)R in the ventral nerve cord compromised the mobility of adult Drosophilae. The causality of 2-LG signaling to CB(1)R-induced behavioral impairments was shown by inaE inactivation normalizing defunct motor coordination. The 2-LG-induced activation of transgenic CB(1)Rs affected both Akt and Erk kinase cascades by paradoxical signaling. Data from Drosophila models were substantiated by showing 2-LG-mediated displacement of [(3)H]CP 55,940 in mouse cortical homogenates and reduced neurite extension and growth cone collapsing responses in cultured mouse neurons. Conclusions: Overall, these results suggest that 2-LG is an endocannabinoid-like signal lipid produced by dDAGL in Drosophila.
ESTHER : Tortoriello_2021_Cannabis.Cannabinoid.Res_6_119
PubMedSearch : Tortoriello_2021_Cannabis.Cannabinoid.Res_6_119
PubMedID: 33912677
Gene_locus related to this paper: drome-CG33174

Title : Mgll Knockout Mouse Resistance to Diet-Induced Dysmetabolism Is Associated with Altered Gut Microbiota - Dione_2020_Cells_9_
Author(s) : Dione N , Lacroix S , Taschler U , Deschenes T , Abolghasemi A , Leblanc N , Di Marzo V , Silvestri C
Ref : Cells , 9 : , 2020
Abstract : Monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) regulates metabolism by catabolizing monoacylglycerols (MAGs), including the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and some of its bioactive congeners, to the corresponding free fatty acids. Mgll knockout mice (Mgll(-/-)) exhibit elevated tissue levels of MAGs in association with resistance to the metabolic and cardiovascular perturbations induced by a high fat diet (HFD). The gut microbiome and its metabolic function are disrupted in obesity in a manner modulated by 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG's) main receptors, the cannabinoid CB1 receptors. We therefore hypothesized that Mgll(-/-) mice have an altered microbiome, that responds differently to diet-induced obesity from that of wild-type (WT) mice. We subjected mice to HFD and assessed changes in the microbiomes after 8 and 22 weeks. As expected, Mgll(-/-) mice showed decreased adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity, and altered circulating incretin/adipokine levels in response to HFD. Mgll(-/-) mice on a chow diet exhibited significantly higher levels of Hydrogenoanaerobacterium, Roseburia, and Ruminococcus than WT mice. The relative abundance of the Lactobacillaceae and Coriobacteriaceae and of the Lactobacillus, Enterorhabdus, Clostridium_XlVa, and Falsiporphyromonas genera was significantly altered by HFD in WT but not Mgll(-/-) mice. Differently abundant families were also associated with changes in circulating adipokine and incretin levels in HFD-fed mice. Some gut microbiota family alterations could be reproduced by supplementing 2-AG or MAGs in culturomics experiments carried out with WT mouse fecal samples. We suggest that the altered microbiome of Mgll(-/-) mice contributes to their obesity resistant phenotype, and results in part from increased levels of 2-AG and MAGs.
ESTHER : Dione_2020_Cells_9_
PubMedSearch : Dione_2020_Cells_9_
PubMedID: 33348740
Gene_locus related to this paper: mouse-MGLL

Title : Role of 2-Arachidonoyl-Glycerol and CB1 Receptors in Orexin-A-Mediated Prevention of Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Neuronal Injury - Palomba_2020_Cells_9_
Author(s) : Palomba L , Motta A , Imperatore R , Piscitelli F , Capasso R , Mastroiacovo F , Battaglia G , Bruno V , Cristino L , Di Marzo V
Ref : Cells , 9 : , 2020
Abstract : Orexin-A (OX-A) protects the brain against oxidative stress-mediated ischemic injury. Since the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors were previously shown to mediate some of the effects of OX-A exerted through the orexin-1 receptor (OX-1R), we investigated the involvement of 2-AG in OX-A-induced neuroprotection following oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in mouse cortical neurons. OGD-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and neuronal death were prevented by both OX-A and arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a synthetic CB1 receptor agonist, in a manner sensitive to OX-1R and CB1 receptor antagonists, SB334867 and AM251. OX-A stimulated 2-AG biosynthesis in cortical neurons. In neurons isolated from monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL, a 2-AG hydrolyzing enzyme) null mice, 10-fold higher 2-AG concentrations were found and OGD failed to induce ROS production and cell death, whereas AM251 restored these noxious effects. OX-A-induced neuroprotection was mediated by the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) survival pathway since both OX-A and ACEA induced phosphorylation of Akt and prevented OGD-induced cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, in a manner counteracted by SB334867 or AM251. Administration of OX-A reduced infarct volume and elevated brain 2-AG levels in a mouse model of transient ischemia. These results suggest that 2-AG and CB1 receptor mediate OX-A prevention of ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis.
ESTHER : Palomba_2020_Cells_9_
PubMedSearch : Palomba_2020_Cells_9_
PubMedID: 32575773

Title : Discovery of novel benzofuran-based compounds with neuroprotective and immunomodulatory properties for Alzheimer's disease treatment - Montanari_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_178_243
Author(s) : Montanari S , Mahmoud AM , Pruccoli L , Rabbito A , Naldi M , Petralla S , Moraleda I , Bartolini M , Monti B , Iriepa I , Belluti F , Gobbi S , Di Marzo V , Bisi A , Tarozzi A , Ligresti A , Rampa A
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 178 :243 , 2019
Abstract : To address the multifactorial nature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), a multi-target-directed ligand approach was herein developed. As a follow-up of our previous studies, a small library of newly designed 2-arylbenzofuran derivatives was evaluated towards cholinesterases and cannabinoid receptors. The two most promising compounds, 8 and 10, were then assessed for their neuroprotective activity and for their ability to modulate the microglial phenotype. Compound 8 emerged as able to fight AD from several directions: it restored the cholinergic system by inhibiting butyrylcholinesterase, showed neuroprotective activity against Abeta1-42 oligomers, was a potent and selective CB2 ligand and had immunomodulatory effects, switching microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the neuroprotective M2 phenotype. Derivative 10 was a potent CB2 inverse agonist with promising immunomodulatory properties and could be considered as a tool for investigating the role of CB2 receptors and for developing potential immunomodulating drugs addressing the endocannabinoid system.
ESTHER : Montanari_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_178_243
PubMedSearch : Montanari_2019_Eur.J.Med.Chem_178_243
PubMedID: 31185414

Title : Human leukocytes differentially express endocannabinoid-glycerol lipases and hydrolyze 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol and its metabolites from the 15-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways - Turcotte_2019_J.Leukoc.Biol_106_1337
Author(s) : Turcotte C , Dumais E , Archambault AS , Martin C , Blanchet MR , Bissonnette E , Boulet LP , Laviolette M , Di Marzo V , Flamand N
Ref : J Leukoc Biol , 106 :1337 , 2019
Abstract : 2-Arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid with anti-inflammatory properties. Blocking 2-AG hydrolysis to enhance CB2 signaling has proven effective in mouse models of inflammation. However, the expression of 2-AG lipases has never been thoroughly investigated in human leukocytes. Herein, we investigated the expression of seven 2-AG hydrolases by human blood leukocytes and alveolar macrophages (AMs) and found the following protein expression pattern: monoacylglycerol (MAG lipase; eosinophils, AMs, monocytes), carboxylesterase (CES1; monocytes, AMs), palmitoyl-protein thioesterase (PPT1; AMs), alpha/beta-hydrolase domain (ABHD6; mainly AMs), ABHD12 (all), ABHD16A (all), and LYPLA2 (lysophospholipase 2; monocytes, lymphocytes, AMs). We next found that all leukocytes could hydrolyze 2-AG and its metabolites derived from cyclooxygenase-2 (prostaglandin E2 -glycerol [PGE2 -G]) and the 15-lipoxygenase (15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoyl-glycerol [15-HETE-G]). Neutrophils and eosinophils were consistently better at hydrolyzing 2-AG and its metabolites than monocytes and lymphocytes. Moreover, the efficacy of leukocytes to hydrolyze 2-AG and its metabolites was 2-AG >/= 15-HETE-G >> PGE2 -G for each leukocyte. Using the inhibitors methylarachidonoyl-fluorophosphonate (MAFP), 4-nitrophenyl-4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxyla te (JZL184), Palmostatin B, 4'-carbamoylbiphenyl-4-yl methyl(3-(pyridin-4-yl)benzyl)carbamate, N-methyl-N-[[3-(4-pyridinyl)phenyl]methyl]-4'-(aminocarbonyl)[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl ester carbamic acid (WWL70), 4'-[[[methyl[[3-(4-pyridinyl)phenyl]methyl]amino]carbonyl]oxy]-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4- carboxylic acid, ethyl ester (WWL113), tetrahydrolipstatin, and ML349, we could not pinpoint a specific hydrolase responsible for the hydrolysis of 2-AG, PGE2 -G, and 15-HETE-G by these leukocytes. Furthermore, JZL184, a selective MAG lipase inhibitor, blocked the hydrolysis of 2-AG, PGE2 -G, and 15-HETE-G by neutrophils and the hydrolysis of PGE2 -G and 15-HETE-G by lymphocytes, two cell types with limited/no MAG lipase. Using an activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probe to label hydrolases in leukocytes, we found that they express many MAFP-sensitive hydrolases and an unknown JZL184-sensitive hydrolase of approximately 52 kDa. Altogether, our results indicate that human leukocytes are experts at hydrolyzing 2-AG and its metabolites via multiple lipases and probably via a yet-to-be characterized 52 kDa hydrolase. Blocking 2-AG hydrolysis in humans will likely abrogate the ability of human leukocytes to degrade 2-AG and its metabolites and increase their anti-inflammatory effects in vivo.
ESTHER : Turcotte_2019_J.Leukoc.Biol_106_1337
PubMedSearch : Turcotte_2019_J.Leukoc.Biol_106_1337
PubMedID: 31556464
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-ABHD6 , human-ABHD12 , human-ABHD16A , human-CES1 , human-LYPLA2 , human-PPT1

Title : Pharmacological inhibition of MAGL attenuates experimental colon carcinogenesis - Pagano_2017_Pharmacol.Res_119_227
Author(s) : Pagano E , Borrelli F , Orlando P , Romano B , Monti M , Morbidelli L , Aviello G , Imperatore R , Capasso R , Piscitelli F , Buono L , Di Marzo V , Izzo AA
Ref : Pharmacol Res , 119 :227 , 2017
Abstract : Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem in Western countries. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) exerts antiproliferative actions in a number of tumoral cell lines, including CRC cells. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), a serine hydrolase that inactivates 2-AG, is highly expressed in aggressive human cancer cells. Here, we investigated the role of MAGL in experimental colon carcinogenesis. The role of MAGL was assessed in vivo by using the xenograft and the azoxymethane models of colon carcinogenesis; MAGL expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry; 2-AG levels were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry; angiogenesis was evaluated in tumor tissues [by microvessel counting and by investigating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) proteins] as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC); cyclin D1 was evaluated by RT-PCR. MAGL and 2-AG were strongly expressed in tumor tissues. The MAGL inhibitor URB602 reduced xenograft tumor volume, this effect being associated to down-regulation of VEGF and FGF-2, reduction in the number of vessels and down-regulation of cyclin D1. In HUVEC, URB602 exerted a direct antiangiogenic effect by inhibiting FGF-2 induced proliferation and migration, and by modulating pro/anti-angiogenic agents. In experiments aiming at investigating the role of MAGL in chemoprevention, URB602 attenuated azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic lesions, polyps and tumors. MAGL, possibly through modulation of angiogenesis, plays a pivotal role in experimental colon carcinogenesis. Pharmacological inhibition of MAGL could represent an innovative therapeutic approach to reduce colorectal tumor progression.
ESTHER : Pagano_2017_Pharmacol.Res_119_227
PubMedSearch : Pagano_2017_Pharmacol.Res_119_227
PubMedID: 28193521

Title : Cannabinoid CB2 receptor ligand profiling reveals biased signalling and off-target activity - Soethoudt_2017_Nat.Commun_8_13958
Author(s) : Soethoudt M , Grether U , Fingerle J , Grim TW , Fezza F , De Petrocellis L , Ullmer C , Rothenhausler B , Perret C , van Gils N , Finlay D , MacDonald C , Chicca A , Gens MD , Stuart J , de Vries H , Mastrangelo N , Xia L , Alachouzos G , Baggelaar MP , Martella A , Mock ED , Deng H , Heitman LH , Connor M , Di Marzo V , Gertsch J , Lichtman AH , Maccarrone M , Pacher P , Glass M , van der Stelt M
Ref : Nat Commun , 8 :13958 , 2017
Abstract : The cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R) represents a promising therapeutic target for various forms of tissue injury and inflammatory diseases. Although numerous compounds have been developed and widely used to target CB2R, their selectivity, molecular mode of action and pharmacokinetic properties have been poorly characterized. Here we report the most extensive characterization of the molecular pharmacology of the most widely used CB2R ligands to date. In a collaborative effort between multiple academic and industry laboratories, we identify marked differences in the ability of certain agonists to activate distinct signalling pathways and to cause off-target effects. We reach a consensus that HU910, HU308 and JWH133 are the recommended selective CB2R agonists to study the role of CB2R in biological and disease processes. We believe that our unique approach would be highly suitable for the characterization of other therapeutic targets in drug discovery research.
ESTHER : Soethoudt_2017_Nat.Commun_8_13958
PubMedSearch : Soethoudt_2017_Nat.Commun_8_13958
PubMedID: 28045021

Title : Activity-based protein profiling reveals off-target proteins of the FAAH inhibitor BIA 10-2474 - van Esbroeck_2017_Science_356_1084
Author(s) : van Esbroeck ACM , Janssen APA , Cognetta AB, 3rd , Ogasawara D , Shpak G , van der Kroeg M , Kantae V , Baggelaar MP , de Vrij FMS , Deng H , Allara M , Fezza F , Lin Z , van der Wel T , Soethoudt M , Mock ED , den Dulk H , Baak IL , Florea BI , Hendriks G , De Petrocellis L , Overkleeft HS , Hankemeier T , De Zeeuw CI , Di Marzo V , Maccarrone M , Cravatt BF , Kushner SA , van der Stelt M
Ref : Science , 356 :1084 , 2017
Abstract : A recent phase 1 trial of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor BIA 10-2474 led to the death of one volunteer and produced mild-to-severe neurological symptoms in four others. Although the cause of the clinical neurotoxicity is unknown, it has been postulated, given the clinical safety profile of other tested FAAH inhibitors, that off-target activities of BIA 10-2474 may have played a role. Here we use activity-based proteomic methods to determine the protein interaction landscape of BIA 10-2474 in human cells and tissues. This analysis revealed that the drug inhibits several lipases that are not targeted by PF04457845, a highly selective and clinically tested FAAH inhibitor. BIA 10-2474, but not PF04457845, produced substantial alterations in lipid networks in human cortical neurons, suggesting that promiscuous lipase inhibitors have the potential to cause metabolic dysregulation in the nervous system.
ESTHER : van Esbroeck_2017_Science_356_1084
PubMedSearch : van Esbroeck_2017_Science_356_1084
PubMedID: 28596366

Title : Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH), Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE): Networked Targets for the Development of Carbamates as Potential Anti-Alzheimer's Disease Agents - Montanari_2016_J.Med.Chem_59_6387
Author(s) : Montanari S , Scalvini L , Bartolini M , Belluti F , Gobbi S , Andrisano V , Ligresti A , Di Marzo V , Rivara S , Mor M , Bisi A , Rampa A
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 59 :6387 , 2016
Abstract : The modulation of the endocannabinoid system is emerging as a viable avenue for the treatment of neurodegeneration, being involved in neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory processes. In particular, indirectly enhancing endocannabinoid signaling to therapeutic levels through FAAH inhibition might be beneficial for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, effectively preventing or slowing the progression of the disease. Hence, in the search for a more effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease, in this paper, the multitarget-directed ligand paradigm was applied to the design of carbamates able to simultaneously target the recently proposed endocannabinoid system and the classic cholinesterase system, and achieve effective dual FAAH/cholinesterase inhibitors. Among the two series of synthesized compounds, while some derivatives proved to be extremely potent on a single target, compounds 9 and 19 were identified as effective dual FAAH/ChE inhibitors, with well-balanced nanomolar activities. Thus, 9 and 19 might be considered as new promising candidates for Alzheimer's disease treatment.
ESTHER : Montanari_2016_J.Med.Chem_59_6387
PubMedSearch : Montanari_2016_J.Med.Chem_59_6387
PubMedID: 27309570

Title : Development and Pharmacological Characterization of Selective Blockers of 2-Arachidonoyl Glycerol Degradation with Efficacy in Rodent Models of Multiple Sclerosis and Pain - Brindisi_2016_J.Med.Chem_59_2612
Author(s) : Brindisi M , Maramai S , Gemma S , Brogi S , Grillo A , Di Cesare Mannelli L , Gabellieri E , Lamponi S , Saponara S , Gorelli B , Tedesco D , Bonfiglio T , Landry C , Jung KM , Armirotti A , Luongo L , Ligresti A , Piscitelli F , Bertucci C , Dehouck MP , Campiani G , Maione S , Ghelardini C , Pittaluga A , Piomelli D , Di Marzo V , Butini S
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 59 :2612 , 2016
Abstract : We report the discovery of compound 4a, a potent beta-lactam-based monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) inhibitor characterized by an irreversible and stereoselective mechanism of action, high membrane permeability, high brain penetration evaluated using a human in vitro blood-brain barrier model, high selectivity in binding and affinity-based proteomic profiling assays, and low in vitro toxicity. Mode-of-action studies demonstrate that 4a, by blocking MGL, increases 2-arachidonoylglycerol and behaves as a cannabinoid (CB1/CB2) receptor indirect agonist. Administration of 4a in mice suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalitis ameliorates the severity of the clinical symptoms in a CB1/CB2-dependent manner. Moreover, 4a produced analgesic effects in a rodent model of acute inflammatory pain, which was antagonized by CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists. 4a also relieves the neuropathic hypersensitivity induced by oxaliplatin. Given these evidence, 4a, as MGL selective inhibitor, could represent a valuable lead for the future development of therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis and chronic pain.
ESTHER : Brindisi_2016_J.Med.Chem_59_2612
PubMedSearch : Brindisi_2016_J.Med.Chem_59_2612
PubMedID: 26888301

Title : Genetic deletion of monoacylglycerol lipase leads to impaired cannabinoid receptor CB1 R signaling and anxiety-like behavior - Imperatore_2015_J.Neurochem_135_799
Author(s) : Imperatore R , Morello G , Luongo L , Taschler U , Romano R , De Gregorio D , Belardo C , Maione S , Di Marzo V , Cristino L
Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 135 :799 , 2015
Abstract : Endocannabinoids (eCB) are key regulators of excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmission at cannabinoid-1-receptor (CB1 R)-expressing axon terminals. The most abundant eCB in the brain, that is 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), is hydrolyzed by the enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), whose chronic inhibition in the brain was reported to cause CB1 R desensitization. We employed the MAGL knock-out mouse (MAGL-/-), a genetic model of congenital and sustained elevation of 2-AG levels in the brain, to provide morphological and biochemical evidence for beta-arrestin2-mediated CB1 R desensitization in brain regions involved in the control of emotional states, that is, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, hippocampus and cerebellar cortex. We found a widespread CB1 R/beta-arrestin2 co-expression in the mPFC, amygdala and hippocampus accompanied by impairment of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling and elevation of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT1) at CB1 R-positive excitatory terminals in the mPFC, or vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) at CB1 R-positive inhibitory terminals in the amygdala and hippocampus. The impairment of CB1 R signaling in MAGL-/- mice was also accompanied by enhanced excitatory drive in the basolateral amygdala (BLA)-mPFC circuit, with subsequent elevation of glutamate release to the mPFC and anxiety-like and obsessive-compulsive behaviors, as assessed by the light/dark box and marble burying tests, respectively. Collectively, these data provide evidence for a beta-arrestin2-mediated desensitization of CB1 R in MAGL-/- mice, with impact on the synaptic plasticity of brain circuits involved in emotional functions. In this study, the authors provide evidence that congenitally enhanced endocannabinoid levels in the neuronal circuits underlying anxiety-like behavioral states (mainly medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus) lead to CB1R desenistization and anxiety and depression. MAGL-/- mice, a model of congenital overactivity of the eCB system, exhibited a compensatory impairment of CB1R signaling in anxiety-associated brain areas and a subsequent change in excitatory/inhibitory tone associated with altered score in the marble burying and light/dark box test, in concomitance with anxiety and depression behavior states. These findings may have potential relevance to the understanding of the neurochemical effects of chronic CB1R overstimulation in cannabis abusers.
ESTHER : Imperatore_2015_J.Neurochem_135_799
PubMedSearch : Imperatore_2015_J.Neurochem_135_799
PubMedID: 26223500

Title : Highly Selective, Reversible Inhibitor Identified by Comparative Chemoproteomics Modulates Diacylglycerol Lipase Activity in Neurons - Baggelaar_2015_J.Am.Chem.Soc_137_8851
Author(s) : Baggelaar MP , Chameau PJ , Kantae V , Hummel J , Hsu KL , Janssen F , van der Wel T , Soethoudt M , Deng H , den Dulk H , Allara M , Florea BI , Di Marzo V , Wadman WJ , Kruse CG , Overkleeft HS , Hankemeier T , Werkman TR , Cravatt BF , van der Stelt M
Ref : Journal of the American Chemical Society , 137 :8851 , 2015
Abstract : Diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL)-alpha and -beta are enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Selective and reversible inhibitors are required to study the function of DAGLs in neuronal cells in an acute and temporal fashion, but they are currently lacking. Here, we describe the identification of a highly selective DAGL inhibitor using structure-guided and a chemoproteomics strategy to characterize the selectivity of the inhibitor in complex proteomes. Key to the success of this approach is the use of comparative and competitive activity-based proteome profiling (ABPP), in which broad-spectrum and tailor-made activity-based probes are combined to report on the inhibition of a protein family in its native environment. Competitive ABPP with broad-spectrum fluorophosphonate-based probes and specific beta-lactone-based probes led to the discovery of alpha-ketoheterocycle LEI105 as a potent, highly selective, and reversible dual DAGL-alpha/DAGL-beta inhibitor. LEI105 did not affect other enzymes involved in endocannabinoid metabolism including abhydrolase domain-containing protein 6, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 12, monoacylglycerol lipase, and fatty acid amide hydrolase and did not display affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Targeted lipidomics revealed that LEI105 concentration-dependently reduced 2-AG levels, but not anandamide levels, in Neuro2A cells. We show that cannabinoid CB1-receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity in a mouse hippocampal slice model can be reduced by LEI105. Thus, we have developed a highly selective DAGL inhibitor and provide new pharmacological evidence to support the hypothesis that "on demand biosynthesis" of 2-AG is responsible for retrograde signaling.
ESTHER : Baggelaar_2015_J.Am.Chem.Soc_137_8851
PubMedSearch : Baggelaar_2015_J.Am.Chem.Soc_137_8851
PubMedID: 26083464
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DAGLA , human-DAGLB

Title : Inhibiting endocannabinoid biosynthesis: a novel approach to the treatment of constipation - Bashashati_2015_Br.J.Pharmacol_172_3099
Author(s) : Bashashati M , Nasser Y , Keenan CM , Ho W , Piscitelli F , Nalli M , Mackie K , Storr MA , Di Marzo V , Sharkey KA
Ref : British Journal of Pharmacology , 172 :3099 , 2015
Abstract : BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endocannabinoids are a family of lipid mediators involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility. The expression, localization and function of their biosynthetic enzymes in the GI tract are not well understood. Here, we examined the expression, localization and function of the enzyme diacylglycerol lipase-alpha (DAGLalpha), which is involved in biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cannabinoid CB1 receptor-deficient, wild-type control and C3H/HeJ mice, a genetically constipated strain, were used. The distribution of DAGLalpha in the enteric nervous system was examined by immunohistochemistry. Effects of the DAGL inhibitors, orlistat and OMDM-188 on pharmacologically induced GI hypomotility were assessed by measuring intestinal contractility in vitro and whole gut transit or faecal output in vivo. Endocannabinoid levels were measured by mass spectrometry. KEY RESULTS: DAGLalpha was expressed throughout the GI tract. In the intestine, unlike DAGLbeta, DAGLalpha immunoreactivity was prominently expressed in the enteric nervous system. In the myenteric plexus, it was colocalized with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in cholinergic nerves. In normal mice, inhibiting DAGL reversed both pharmacologically reduced intestinal contractility and pharmacologically prolonged whole gut transit. Moreover, inhibiting DAGL normalized faecal output in constipated C3H/HeJ mice. In colons incubated with scopolamine, 2-AG was elevated while inhibiting DAGL normalized 2-AG levels. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: DAGLalpha was expressed in the enteric nervous system of mice and its inhibition reversed slowed GI motility, intestinal contractility and constipation through 2-AG and CB1 receptor-mediated mechanisms. Our data suggest that DAGLalpha inhibitors may be promising candidates for the treatment of constipation.
ESTHER : Bashashati_2015_Br.J.Pharmacol_172_3099
PubMedSearch : Bashashati_2015_Br.J.Pharmacol_172_3099
PubMedID: 25684407

Title : The endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception in rats - Galdino_2014_Neuropharmacol_77_313
Author(s) : Galdino G , Romero TR , Silva JF , Aguiar DC , de Paula AM , Cruz JS , Parrella C , Piscitelli F , Duarte ID , Di Marzo V , Perez AC
Ref : Neuropharmacology , 77 :313 , 2014
Abstract : Exercise-induced antinociception is widely described in the literature, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are poorly understood. Systemic (s.c.) and central (i.t., i.c.v.) pretreatment with CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptor antagonists (AM251 and AM630) blocked the antinociception induced by an aerobic exercise (AE) protocol in both mechanical and thermal nociceptive tests. Western blot analysis revealed an increase and activation of CB(1) receptors in the rat brain, and immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated an increase of activation and expression of CB(1) receptors in neurons of the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) after exercise. Additionally, pretreatment (s.c., i.t. and i.c.v.) with endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme inhibitors (MAFP and JZL184) and an anandamide reuptake inhibitor (VDM11) prolonged and intensified this antinociceptive effect. These results indicate that exercise could activate the endocannabinoid system, producing antinociception. Supporting this hypothesis, liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry measurements demonstrated that plasma levels of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and of anandamide-related mediators (palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide) were increased after AE. Therefore, these results suggest that the endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception at peripheral and central levels.
ESTHER : Galdino_2014_Neuropharmacol_77_313
PubMedSearch : Galdino_2014_Neuropharmacol_77_313
PubMedID: 24148812

Title : Discovery of Glycine Sulfonamides as Dual Inhibitors of sn-1-Diacylglycerol Lipase alpha and alpha\/beta-Hydrolase Domain 6 - Janssen_2014_J.Med.Chem_57_6610
Author(s) : Janssen FJ , Deng H , Baggelaar MP , Allara M , van der Wel T , den Dulk H , Ligresti A , van Esbroeck AC , McGuire R , Di Marzo V , Overkleeft HS , van der Stelt M
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 57 :6610 , 2014
Abstract : sn-1-Diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGL-alpha) is the main enzyme responsible for the production of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the central nervous system. Glycine sulfonamides have recently been identified by a high throughput screening campaign as a novel class of inhibitors for this enzyme. Here, we report on the first structure-activity relationship study of glycine sulfonamide inhibitors and their brain membrane proteome-wide selectivity on serine hydrolases with activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). We found that (i) DAGL-alpha tolerates a variety of biaryl substituents, (ii) the sulfonamide is required for inducing a specific orientation of the 2,2-dimethylchroman substituent, and (iii) a carboxylic acid is essential for its activity. ABPP revealed that the sulfonamide glycine inhibitors have at least three off-targets, including alpha/beta-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6). Finally, we identified LEI-106 as a potent, dual DAGL-alpha/ABHD6 inhibitor, which makes this compound a potential lead for the discovery of new molecular therapies for diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome.
ESTHER : Janssen_2014_J.Med.Chem_57_6610
PubMedSearch : Janssen_2014_J.Med.Chem_57_6610
PubMedID: 24988361

Title : Acute inhibition of diacylglycerol lipase blocks endocannabinoid-mediated retrograde signalling: evidence for on-demand biosynthesis of 2-arachidonoylglycerol - Hashimotodani_2013_J.Physiol_591_4765
Author(s) : Hashimotodani Y , Ohno-Shosaku T , Tanimura A , Kita Y , Sano Y , Shimizu T , Di Marzo V , Kano M
Ref : The Journal of Physiology , 591 :4765 , 2013
Abstract : Abstract The endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) produced by diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DGLalpha) is one of the best-characterized retrograde messengers at central synapses. It has been thought that 2-AG is produced 'on demand' upon activation of postsynaptic neurons. However, recent studies propose that 2-AG is pre-synthesized by DGLalpha and stored in neurons, and that 2-AG is released from such 'pre-formed pools' without the participation of DGLalpha. To address whether the 2-AG source for retrograde signalling is the on-demand biosynthesis by DGLalpha or the mobilization from pre-formed pools, we examined the effects of acute pharmacological inhibition of DGL by a novel potent DGL inhibitor, OMDM-188, on retrograde eCB signalling triggered by Ca2+ elevation, Gq/11 protein-coupled receptor activation or synergy of these two stimuli in postsynaptic neurons. We found that pretreatment for 1 h with OMDM-188 effectively blocked depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), a purely Ca2+-dependent form of eCB signalling, in slices from the hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum. We also found that at parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses in the cerebellum OMDM-188 abolished synaptically induced retrograde eCB signalling, which is known to be caused by the synergy of postsynaptic Ca2+ elevation and group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (I-mGluR) activation. Moreover, brief OMDM-188 treatments for several minutes were sufficient to suppress both DSI and the I-mGluR-induced retrograde eCB signalling in cultured hippocampal neurons. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that 2-AG for synaptic retrograde signalling is supplied as a result of on-demand biosynthesis by DGLalpha rather than mobilization from presumptive pre-formed pools.
ESTHER : Hashimotodani_2013_J.Physiol_591_4765
PubMedSearch : Hashimotodani_2013_J.Physiol_591_4765
PubMedID: 23858009
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DAGLA

Title : The inhibition of 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) biosynthesis, rather than enhancing striatal damage, protects striatal neurons from malonate-induced death: a potential role of cyclooxygenase-2-dependent metabolism of 2-AG - Valdeolivas_2013_Cell.Death.Dis_4_e862
Author(s) : Valdeolivas S , Pazos MR , Bisogno T , Piscitelli F , Iannotti FA , Allara M , Sagredo O , Di Marzo V , Fernandez-Ruiz J
Ref : Cell Death Dis , 4 :e862 , 2013
Abstract : The cannabinoid CB2 receptor, which is activated by the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), protects striatal neurons from apoptotic death caused by the local administration of malonate, a rat model of Huntington's disease (HD). In the present study, we investigated whether endocannabinoids provide tonic neuroprotection in this HD model, by examining the effect of O-3841, an inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipases, the enzymes that catalyse 2-AG biosynthesis, and JZL184 or OMDM169, two inhibitors of 2-AG inactivation by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). The inhibitors were injected in rats with the striatum lesioned with malonate, and several biochemical and morphological parameters were measured in this brain area. Similar experiments were also conducted in vitro in cultured M-213 cells, which have the phenotypic characteristics of striatal neurons. O-3841 produced a significant reduction in the striatal levels of 2-AG in animals lesioned with malonate. However, surprisingly, the inhibitor attenuated malonate-induced GABA and BDNF deficiencies and the reduction in Nissl staining, as well as the increase in GFAP immunostaining. In contrast, JZL184 exacerbated malonate-induced striatal damage. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was induced in the striatum 24 h after the lesion simultaneously with other pro-inflammatory responses. The COX-2-derived 2-AG metabolite, prostaglandin E2 glyceryl ester (PGE2-G), exacerbated neurotoxicity, and this effect was antagonized by the blockade of PGE2-G action with AGN220675. In M-213 cells exposed to malonate, in which COX-2 was also upregulated, JZL184 worsened neurotoxicity, and this effect was attenuated by the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib or AGN220675. OMDM169 also worsened neurotoxicity and produced measurable levels of PGE2-G. In conclusion, the inhibition of 2-AG biosynthesis is neuroprotective in rats lesioned with malonate, possibly through the counteraction of the formation of pro-neuroinflammatory PGE2-G, formed from COX-2-mediated oxygenation of 2-AG. Accordingly, MAGL inhibition or the administration of PGE2-G aggravates the malonate toxicity.
ESTHER : Valdeolivas_2013_Cell.Death.Dis_4_e862
PubMedSearch : Valdeolivas_2013_Cell.Death.Dis_4_e862
PubMedID: 24136226

Title : A novel fluorophosphonate inhibitor of the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol with potential anti-obesity effects - Bisogno_2013_Br.J.Pharmacol_169_784
Author(s) : Bisogno T , Mahadevan A , Coccurello R , Chang JW , Allara M , Chen Y , Giacovazzo G , Lichtman A , Cravatt BF , Moles A , Di Marzo V
Ref : British Journal of Pharmacology , 169 :784 , 2013
Abstract : BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The development of potent and selective inhibitors of the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) via DAG lipases (DAGL) alpha and beta is just starting to be considered as a novel and promising source of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of disorders that might benefit from a reduction in endocannabinoid tone, such as hyperphagia in obese subjects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Three new fluorophosphonate compounds O-7458, O-7459 and O-7460 were synthesized and characterized in various enzymatic assays. The effects of O-7460 on high-fat diet intake were tested in mice. KEY
RESULTS: Of the new compounds, O-7460 exhibited the highest potency (IC50 = 690 nM) against the human recombinant DAGLalpha, and selectivity (IC50 > 10 muM) towards COS-7 cell and human monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), and rat brain fatty acid amide hydrolase. Competitive activity-based protein profiling confirmed that O-7460 inhibits mouse brain MAGL only at concentrations >/=10 muM, and showed that this compound has only one major 'off-target', that is, the serine hydrolase KIAA1363. O-7460 did not exhibit measurable affinity for human recombinant CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors (Ki > 10 muM). In mouse neuroblastoma N18TG2 cells stimulated with ionomycin, O-7460 (10 muM) reduced 2-AG levels. When administered to mice, O-7460 dose-dependently (0-12 mg.kg(-1) , i.p.) inhibited the intake of a high-fat diet over a 14 h observation period, and, subsequently, slightly but significantly reduced body weight. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: O-7460 might be considered a useful pharmacological tool to investigate further the role played by 2-AG both in vitro and in vivo under physiological as well as pathological conditions. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids. To view the other articles in this section visit http:\/\/dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-4 & http:\/\/dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.167.issue-8.
ESTHER : Bisogno_2013_Br.J.Pharmacol_169_784
PubMedSearch : Bisogno_2013_Br.J.Pharmacol_169_784
PubMedID: 23072382
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DAGLA , human-DAGLB

Title : Development of an activity-based probe and in silico design reveal highly selective inhibitors for diacylglycerol lipase-alpha in brain -
Author(s) : Baggelaar MP , Janssen FJ , van Esbroeck AC , den Dulk H , Allara M , Hoogendoorn S , McGuire R , Florea BI , Meeuwenoord N , van den Elst H , van der Marel GA , Brouwer J , Di Marzo V , Overkleeft HS , van der Stelt M
Ref : Angew Chem Int Ed Engl , 52 :12081 , 2013
PubMedID: 24173880
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DAGLA

Title : Biaryl tetrazolyl ureas as inhibitors of endocannabinoid metabolism: modulation at the N-portion and distal phenyl ring - Ortar_2013_Eur.J.Med.Chem_63_118
Author(s) : Ortar G , Morera E , De Petrocellis L , Ligresti A , Schiano Moriello A , Morera L , Nalli M , Ragno R , Pirolli A , Di Marzo V
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 63 :118 , 2013
Abstract : In the present study, we have further extended the structure-activity relationships for the tetrazolyl ureas class of compounds as potential FAAH and/or MAGL inhibitors, by replacing the dimethylamino group of the parent compounds 1 and 2 with bulkier groups or by introducing on the distal phenyl ring of 1 and 2 a selected set of substituents. Some of the new compounds (16, 20, 21, 25, and 28) inhibited FAAH potently (IC50 = 3.0-9.7 nM) and selectively (39- to more than 141-fold) over MAGL, while tetrazole 27 turned out to be a promising dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor of potential therapeutic use. Covalent docking studies on FAAH indicated that the binding modes of tetrazoles 1-32 did not display a unique pattern. The ability of tetrazoles 1-32 to act as TRPV1 and TRPA1 modulators was also investigated.
ESTHER : Ortar_2013_Eur.J.Med.Chem_63_118
PubMedSearch : Ortar_2013_Eur.J.Med.Chem_63_118
PubMedID: 23474898

Title : The First Dual ChE\/FAAH Inhibitors: New Perspectives for Alzheimer's Disease? - Rampa_2012_ACS.Med.Chem.Lett_3_182
Author(s) : Rampa A , Bartolini M , Bisi A , Belluti F , Gobbi S , Andrisano V , Ligresti A , Di Marzo V
Ref : ACS Med Chem Lett , 3 :182 , 2012
Abstract : The treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) still remains an area of significant unmet need, with drugs that only target the symptoms of the disease. Therefore, there is considerable need for disease-modifying therapies. The complex etiology of AD prompts scientists to develop multitarget strategies to combat causes and symptoms. To this aim, we designed, synthesized, and tested four new carbamates as dual cholinesterase-FAAH inhibitors. The dual activity of these compounds could lead to a potentially more effective treatment for the counteraction of AD progression, because they would allow regulation of both ACh and eCB signaling and improve neuronal transmission and/or counteract neuroinflammation.
ESTHER : Rampa_2012_ACS.Med.Chem.Lett_3_182
PubMedSearch : Rampa_2012_ACS.Med.Chem.Lett_3_182
PubMedID: 24900454

Title : Endocannabinoids generated by Ca2+ or by metabotropic glutamate receptors appear to arise from different pools of diacylglycerol lipase - Zhang_2011_PLoS.One_6_e16305
Author(s) : Zhang L , Wang M , Bisogno T , Di Marzo V , Alger BE
Ref : PLoS ONE , 6 :e16305 , 2011
Abstract : The identity and subcellular sources of endocannabinoids (eCBs) will shape their ability to affect synaptic transmission and, ultimately, behavior. Recent discoveries support the conclusion that 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, 2-AG, is the major signaling eCB, however, some important issues remain open. 2-AG can be synthesized by a mechanism that is strictly Ca(2+)-dependent, and another that is initiated by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and facilitated by Ca(2+). An important question is whether or not the 2-AG in these cases is synthesized by the same pool of diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLalpha). Using whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques in CA1 pyramidal cells in acute in vitro rat hippocampal slices, we investigated two mechanistically distinct eCB-mediated responses to address this issue. We now report that pharmacological inhibitors of DGLalpha have quantitatively different effects on eCB-mediated responses triggered by different stimuli, suggesting that functional, and perhaps physical, distinctions among pools of DAGLalpha exist.
ESTHER : Zhang_2011_PLoS.One_6_e16305
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2011_PLoS.One_6_e16305
PubMedID: 21305054

Title : Diacylglycerol lipase is not involved in depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition at unitary inhibitory connections in mouse hippocampus - Min_2010_J.Neurosci_30_2710
Author(s) : Min R , Testa-Silva G , Heistek TS , Canto CB , Lodder JC , Bisogno T , Di Marzo V , Brussaard AB , Burnashev N , Mansvelder HD
Ref : Journal of Neuroscience , 30 :2710 , 2010
Abstract : Endocannabinoids control hippocampal inhibitory synaptic transmission through activation of presynaptic CB(1) receptors. During depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), endocannabinoids are synthesized upon postsynaptic depolarization. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) may mediate hippocampal DSI. Currently, the best studied pathway for biosynthesis of 2-AG involves the enzyme diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL). However, whether DAGL is necessary for hippocampal DSI is controversial and was not systematically addressed. Here, we investigate DSI at unitary connections between CB(1) receptor-containing interneurons and pyramidal neurons in CA1. We found that the novel DAGL inhibitor OMDM-188, as well as the established inhibitor RHC-80267, did not affect DSI. As reported previously, effects of the DAGL inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin depended on the application method: postsynaptic intracellular application left DSI intact, while incubation blocked DSI. We show that all DAGL inhibitors tested block slow self-inhibition in neocortical interneurons, which involves DAGL. We conclude that DAGL is not involved in DSI at unitary connections in hippocampus.
ESTHER : Min_2010_J.Neurosci_30_2710
PubMedSearch : Min_2010_J.Neurosci_30_2710
PubMedID: 20164355

Title : FAAH and MAGL inhibitors: therapeutic opportunities from regulating endocannabinoid levels - Petrosino_2010_Curr.Opin.Investig.Drugs_11_51
Author(s) : Petrosino S , Di Marzo V
Ref : Curr Opin Investig Drugs , 11 :51 , 2010
Abstract : Apart from their widespread recreational abuse, the psychoactive preparations of the plant Cannabis sativa and its major psychotropic component, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are also known for their medicinal properties. Following the identification of receptors for THC - the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors - in mammals, various pharmaceutical strategies have attempted to exploit the properties of the cannabinoid system while minimizing psychotropic side effects. The cloning of the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors enabled the discovery of the endogenous agonists of the receptors, the endocannabinoids, and eventually led to the identification of enzymes that catalyze endocannabinoid inactivation. Unlike exogenously administered THC and synthetic CB1 and CB2 agonists, the endocannabinoids that are produced endogenously following the onset of several pathologies may act in a site- and time-specific manner to minimize the consequences of such conditions. This observation has suggested the possibility of targeting endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes to prolong the precisely regulated pro-homeostatic action of endocannabinoids. Two major enzymes have been cloned and investigated thoroughly: fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). Inhibitors of these enzymes have demonstrated therapeutic benefit in animal models of several disorders, including neuropathic pain, anxiety and inflammatory bowel diseases, as well as against the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. This review describes the major biochemical properties of FAAH and MAGL, and the design and pharmacological properties of inhibitors of these enzymes.
ESTHER : Petrosino_2010_Curr.Opin.Investig.Drugs_11_51
PubMedSearch : Petrosino_2010_Curr.Opin.Investig.Drugs_11_51
PubMedID: 20047159

Title : DAG lipase involvement in depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition: does endocannabinoid biosynthesis always meet the demand? - Min_2010_Neuroscientist_16_608
Author(s) : Min R , Di Marzo V , Mansvelder HD
Ref : Neuroscientist , 16 :608 , 2010
Abstract : Hippocampal depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) is a robust form of short-term synaptic plasticity. DSI is mediated by endocannabinoid signaling. Since this discovery, pinning down the endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand that mediates DSI has been problematic. Blocking degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) lengthens DSI, which seems to indicate that 2-AG mediates DSI. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of the 2-AG-synthesizing enzyme diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) has yielded conflicting results: DAGL inhibitors often fail to block hippocampal DSI. Recently, 2 studies seem to have cornered this problem using DAGL knockout mice. Hippocampal DSI is absent in DAGL-alpha knockout mice, pointing to a key role for 2-AG in DSI. However, these studies do not reconcile the discrepancy with pharmacological experiments. Here, we argue that the seeming contradiction between results from pharmacological and genetic approaches may be explained in several ways. We suggest that the contradiction may be resolved by taking a different perspective on endocannabinoid signaling: in some forms of endocannabinoid-mediated signaling endocannabinoids might not be necessarily produced "on demand" but presynthesized and stored until needed.
ESTHER : Min_2010_Neuroscientist_16_608
PubMedSearch : Min_2010_Neuroscientist_16_608
PubMedID: 20837870

Title : Development of a potent inhibitor of 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolysis with antinociceptive activity in vivo - Bisogno_2009_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1791_53
Author(s) : Bisogno T , Ortar G , Petrosino S , Morera E , Palazzo E , Nalli M , Maione S , Di Marzo V
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta , 1791 :53 , 2009
Abstract : Although inhibitors of the enzymatic hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol are available, they are either rather weak in vitro (IC(50)>30 microM) or their selectivity towards other proteins of the endocannabinoid system has not been tested. Here we describe the synthesis and activity in vitro and in vivo of a tetrahydrolipstatin analogue, OMDM169, as a potent inhibitor of 2-AG hydrolysis, capable of enhancing 2-AG levels and of exerting analgesic activity via indirect activation of cannabinoid receptors. OMDM169 exhibited 0.13 microM10 microM) at human CB(1) and CB(2) receptors. However, OMDM169 shared with tetrahydrolipstatin the capability of inhibiting the human pancreatic lipase (IC(50)=0.6 microM). OMDM169 inhibited fatty acid amide hydrolase and diacylglycerol lipase only at higher concentrations (IC(50)=3.0 and 2.8 microM, respectively), and, accordingly, it increased by approximately 1.6-fold the levels of 2-AG, but not anandamide, in intact ionomycin-stimulated N18TG2 neuroblastoma cells. Acute intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of OMDM169 to mice inhibited the second phase of the formalin-induced nocifensive response with an IC(50) of approximately 2.5 mg/kg, and concomitantly elevated 2-AG, but not anandamide, levels in the ipsilateral paw of formalin-treated mice. The antinociceptive effect of OMDM169 was antagonized by antagonists of CB(1) and CB(2) receptors, AM251 and AM630, respectively (1 mg/kg, i.p.). OMDM69 might represent a template for the development of selective and even more potent inhibitors of 2-AG hydrolysis.
ESTHER : Bisogno_2009_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1791_53
PubMedSearch : Bisogno_2009_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1791_53
PubMedID: 19027877
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DAGLA , human-DAGLB

Title : Endocannabinoid dysregulation in the pancreas and adipose tissue of mice fed with a high-fat diet - Starowicz_2008_Obesity.(Silver.Spring)_16_553
Author(s) : Starowicz KM , Cristino L , Matias I , Capasso R , Racioppi A , Izzo AA , Di Marzo V
Ref : Obesity (Silver Spring) , 16 :553 , 2008
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: In mice, endocannabinoids (ECs) modulate insulin release from pancreatic beta-cells and adipokine expression in adipocytes through cannabinoid receptors. Their pancreatic and adipose tissue levels are elevated during hyperglycemia and obesity, but the mechanisms underlying these alterations are not understood. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We assessed in mice fed for up to 14 weeks with a standard or high-fat diet (HFD): (i) the expression of cannabinoid receptors and EC biosynthesizing enzymes (N-acyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine-selective phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) and DAGLalpha) and degrading enzymes (fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)) in pancreatic and adipose tissue sections by immunohistochemical staining; (ii) the amounts, measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, of the ECs, 2-AG, and anandamide (AEA). RESULTS: Although CB(1) receptors and biosynthetic enzymes were found mostly in alpha-cells, degrading enzymes were identified in beta-cells. Following HFD, staining for biosynthetic enzymes in beta-cells and lower staining for FAAH were observed together with an increase of EC pancreatic levels. While we observed no diet-induced change in the intensity of the staining of EC metabolic enzymes in the mesenteric visceral fat, a decrease in EC concentrations was accompanied by lower and higher staining of biosynthesizing enzymes and FAAH, respectively, in the subcutaneous fat. No change in cannabinoid receptor staining was observed following HFD in any of the analyzed tissues. DISCUSSION: We provide unprecedented information on the distribution of EC metabolic enzymes in the pancreas and adipose organ, where their aberrant expression during hyperglycemia and obesity contribute to dysregulated EC levels.
ESTHER : Starowicz_2008_Obesity.(Silver.Spring)_16_553
PubMedSearch : Starowicz_2008_Obesity.(Silver.Spring)_16_553
PubMedID: 18239598

Title : Study of the regulation of the endocannabinoid system in a virus model of multiple sclerosis reveals a therapeutic effect of palmitoylethanolamide - Loria_2008_Eur.J.Neurosci_28_633
Author(s) : Loria F , Petrosino S , Mestre L , Spagnolo A , Correa F , Hernangomez M , Guaza C , Di Marzo V , Docagne F
Ref : European Journal of Neuroscience , 28 :633 , 2008
Abstract : Cannabinoids have recently been approved as a treatment for pain in multiple sclerosis (MS). Increasing evidence from animal studies suggests that this class of compounds could also prove efficient to fight neurodegeneration, demyelination, inflammation and autoimmune processes occurring in this pathology. However, the use of cannabinoids is limited by their psychoactive effects. In this context, potentiation of the endogenous cannabinoid signalling could represent a substitute to the use of exogenously administrated cannabinoid ligands. Here, we studied the expression of different elements of the endocannabinoid system in a chronic model of MS in mice. We first studied the expression of the two cannabinoid receptors, CB(1) and CB(2), as well as the putative intracellular cannabinoid receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha. We observed an upregulation of CB(2), correlated to the production of proinflammatory cytokines, at 60 days after the onset of the MS model. At this time, the levels of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and of the anti-inflammatory anandamide congener, palmithoylethanolamide, were enhanced, without changes in the levels of anandamide. These changes were not due to differences in the expression of the degradation enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase, or of biosynthetic enzymes, diacylglycerol lipase-alpha and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase-D at this time (60 days). Finally, the exogenous administration of palmitoylethanolamide resulted in a reduction of motor disability in the animals subjected to this model of MS, accompanied by an anti-inflammatory effect. This study overall highlights the potential therapeutic effects of endocannabinoids in MS.
ESTHER : Loria_2008_Eur.J.Neurosci_28_633
PubMedSearch : Loria_2008_Eur.J.Neurosci_28_633
PubMedID: 18657182

Title : Antinociceptive effects of tetrazole inhibitors of endocannabinoid inactivation: cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid receptor-mediated mechanisms - Maione_2008_Br.J.Pharmacol_155_775
Author(s) : Maione S , Morera E , Marabese I , Ligresti A , Luongo L , Ortar G , Di Marzo V
Ref : British Journal of Pharmacology , 155 :775 , 2008
Abstract : BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tetrazoles were recently developed as inhibitors of the cellular uptake of the endocannabinoid anandamide or of its hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), but were proposed to act also on non-endocannabinoid-related serine hydrolases. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We tested, in a model of inflammatory pain induced in mice by formalin, five chemically similar inhibitors: (i) OMDM119 and OMDM122, two potent carbamoyl tetrazole FAAH inhibitors with no effect on anandamide uptake; (ii) LY2183240, a carbamoyl tetrazole with activity as both FAAH and uptake inhibitor; (iii) OMDM132, a non-carbamoyl tetrazole with activity only as uptake inhibitor and iv) OMDM133, a non-carbamoyl tetrazole with no activity at either FAAH or uptake. RESULTS: All compounds (2.5-10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) inhibited the second phase of the nocifensive response induced by intraplantar injection of formalin. The effects of OMDM119, OMDM122 and OMDM133 were not antagonized by pretreatment with cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonists, such as rimonabant or AM251 (1-3 mg kg(-1), i.p.). The effects of LY2183240 and OMDM132 were fully or partially antagonized by rimonabant, respectively, and the latter compound was also partly antagonized by the CB(2) receptor antagonist, AM630. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: (i) non-FAAH hydrolases might be entirely responsible for the antinociceptive activity of some, but not all, tetrazole FAAH inhibitors, (ii) the presence of a carbamoylating group is neither necessary nor sufficient for such compounds to act through targets other than FAAH and (iii) inhibition of anandamide uptake is responsible for part of this antinociceptive activity, independently of effects on FAAH.
ESTHER : Maione_2008_Br.J.Pharmacol_155_775
PubMedSearch : Maione_2008_Br.J.Pharmacol_155_775
PubMedID: 18660824

Title : Tetrahydrolipstatin analogues as modulators of endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol metabolism - Ortar_2008_J.Med.Chem_51_6970
Author(s) : Ortar G , Bisogno T , Ligresti A , Morera E , Nalli M , Di Marzo V
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 51 :6970 , 2008
Abstract : A series of 21 analogues of tetrahydrolipstatin (THL, 1) were synthesized and tested as inhibitors of the formation or hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Three of the novel compounds, i.e., 11, 13, and 15, inhibited 2-AG formation via the diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLalpha) with IC 50 values lower than 50 nM (IC 50 of THL = 1 microM) and were between 23- and 375-fold selective vs 2-AG hydrolysis by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) as well as vs cannabinoid CB 1 and CB 2 receptors and anandamide hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Three other THL analogues, i.e., 14, 16, and 18, were slightly more potent than THL against DAGLalpha and appreciably selective vs MAGL, CB receptors, and FAAH (15-26-fold). One compound, i.e., 8, was a potent inhibitor of MAGL-like activity (IC 50 = 0.41 microM), and relatively ( approximately 7-fold) selective vs the other targets tested.
ESTHER : Ortar_2008_J.Med.Chem_51_6970
PubMedSearch : Ortar_2008_J.Med.Chem_51_6970
PubMedID: 18831576

Title : Development of the first potent and specific inhibitors of endocannabinoid biosynthesis - Bisogno_2006_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1761_205
Author(s) : Bisogno T , Cascio MG , Saha B , Mahadevan A , Urbani P , Minassi A , Appendino G , Saturnino C , Martin B , Razdan R , Di Marzo V
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta , 1761 :205 , 2006
Abstract : Enzymes for the biosynthesis and degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) have been cloned and are the sn-1-selective-diacylglycerol lipases alpha and beta (DAGLalpha and beta) and the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. Here, we used membranes from COS cells over-expressing recombinant human DAGLalpha to screen new synthetic substances as DAGLalpha inhibitors, and cytosolic fractions from wild-type COS cells to look for MAGL inhibitors. DAGLalpha and MAGL activities were assessed by using sn-1-[14C]-oleoyl-2-arachidonoyl-glycerol and 2-[3H]-arachidonoylglycerol as substrates, respectively. We screened known compounds as well as new phosphonate derivatives of oleic acid and fluoro-phosphinoyl esters of different length. Apart from the general lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin (orlistat) (IC50 approximately 60 nM), the most potent inhibitors of DAGLalpha were O-3640 [octadec-9-enoic acid-1-(fluoro-methyl-phosphoryloxymethyl)-propylester] (IC50 = 500 nM), and O-3841 [octadec-9-enoic acid 1-methoxymethyl-2-(fluoro-methyl-phosphinoyloxy)-ethyl ester] (IC50 = 160 nM). Apart from being almost inactive on MAGL, these two compounds showed high selectivity over rat liver triacylglycerol lipase, rat N-acylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine-selective phospholipase D (involved in anandamide biosynthesis), rat fatty acid amide hydrolase and human recombinant cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. Methylarachidonoyl-fluorophosphonate and the novel compound UP-101 [O-ethyl-O-p-nitro-phenyl oleylphosphonate] inhibited both DAGLalpha and MAGL with similar potencies (IC50 = 0.8-0.1 and 3.7-3.2 microM, respectively). Thus, we report the first potent and specific inhibitors of the biosynthesis of 2-AG that may be used as pharmacological tools to investigate the biological role of this endocannabinoid.
ESTHER : Bisogno_2006_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1761_205
PubMedSearch : Bisogno_2006_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1761_205
PubMedID: 16466961
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DAGLA , human-DAGLB

Title : Endocannabinoid metabolic pathways and enzymes - Ligresti_2005_Curr.Drug.Targets.CNS.Neurol.Disord_4_615
Author(s) : Ligresti A , Cascio MG , Di Marzo V
Ref : Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord , 4 :615 , 2005
Abstract : Endocannabinoids, defined in 1995 as endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors, their anabolic and catabolic pathways, and the enzymes involved in these pathways (the "endocannabinoid enzymes"), are the subject of this review. A general strategy seems to apply to the regulation of the levels of the two major endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Five endocannabinoid enzymes have been cloned to date: two are responsible for the biosynthesis and degradation of anandamide, the NAPE-selective phospholipase D and the fatty acid amide hydrolase, respectively; the other three catalyse the biosynthesis and degradation of 2-AG, the sn-1-selective diacylglycerol lipases alpha and beta and the monoacylglycerol lipase, respectively. The major features of these five proteins, their relative weight in determining endocannabinoid levels, and the possible targeting of some of them for therapeutic purpose, as well as the possibility of the existence of alternative anabolic and catabolic pathways are discussed.
ESTHER : Ligresti_2005_Curr.Drug.Targets.CNS.Neurol.Disord_4_615
PubMedSearch : Ligresti_2005_Curr.Drug.Targets.CNS.Neurol.Disord_4_615
PubMedID: 16375679

Title : Differential diurnal variations of anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol levels in rat brain - Valenti_2004_Cell.Mol.Life.Sci_61_945
Author(s) : Valenti M , Vigano D , Casico MG , Rubino T , Steardo L , Parolaro D , Di Marzo V
Ref : Cell Mol Life Sciences , 61 :945 , 2004
Abstract : The endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors, also known as endocannabinoids, have been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes of the central nervous system. Here we show that the levels of the two major endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), in four areas of the rat brain, change dramatically between the light and dark phases of the day. While anandamide levels in the nucleus accumbens, pre-frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus were significantly higher in the dark phase, the opposite was observed with 2-AG, whose levels were significantly higher during the light phase in all four regions. We found that the activity of the fatty acid amide hydrolase, which catalyzes the metabolism of anandamide, was significantly lower during the dark phase, thus providing a possible explaination for the increase in anandamide levels. However, the activities of monoacylglycerol lipase and diacylglycerol lipase, two of the possible enzymes catalyzing the degradation and biosynthesis of 2-AG, respectively, changed significantly only in the striatum. These data suggest that the levels of the two major endocannabinoids might be under the control of endogenous factors known to undergo diurnal variations, and underscore the different roles, suggested by previous studies, of anandamide and 2-AG in neurophysiological processes.
ESTHER : Valenti_2004_Cell.Mol.Life.Sci_61_945
PubMedSearch : Valenti_2004_Cell.Mol.Life.Sci_61_945
PubMedID: 15095014

Title : Cloning of the first sn1-DAG lipases points to the spatial and temporal regulation of endocannabinoid signaling in the brain - Bisogno_2003_J.Cell.Biol_163_463
Author(s) : Bisogno T , Howell F , Williams G , Minassi A , Cascio MG , Ligresti A , Matias I , Schiano-Moriello A , Paul P , Williams EJ , Gangadharan U , Hobbs C , Di Marzo V , Doherty P
Ref : Journal of Cell Biology , 163 :463 , 2003
Abstract : Diacylglycerol (DAG) lipase activity is required for axonal growth during development and for retrograde synaptic signaling at mature synapses. This enzyme synthesizes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor is also required for the above responses. We now report on the cloning and enzymatic characterization of the first specific sn-1 DAG lipases. Two closely related genes have been identified and their expression in cells correlated with 2-AG biosynthesis and release. The expression of both enzymes changes from axonal tracts in the embryo to dendritic fields in the adult, and this correlates with the developmental change in requirement for 2-AG synthesis from the pre- to the postsynaptic compartment. This switch provides a possible explanation for a fundamental change in endocannabinoid function during brain development. Identification of these enzymes may offer new therapeutic opportunities for a wide range of disorders.
ESTHER : Bisogno_2003_J.Cell.Biol_163_463
PubMedSearch : Bisogno_2003_J.Cell.Biol_163_463
PubMedID: 14610053
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DAGLA , human-DAGLB , mouse-DGLB , mouse-q6wqj1

Title : Highly selective CB(1) cannabinoid receptor ligands and novel CB(1)\/VR(1) vanilloid receptor hybrid ligands - Di Marzo_2001_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_281_444
Author(s) : Di Marzo V , Bisogno T , De Petrocellis L , Brandi I , Jefferson RG , Winckler RL , Davis JB , Dasse O , Mahadevan A , Razdan RK , Martin BR
Ref : Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications , 281 :444 , 2001
Abstract : Anandamide and the metabolically stabler analogs, (R)-1'-methyl-2'-hydroxy-ethyl-arachidonamide (Met-AEA) and N-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzyl)-arachidonamide (arvanil), are CB(1) cannabinoid and VR(1) vanilloid receptors agonists. We synthesized 1',1'-dimethylheptyl-arvanil (O-1839) and six other AEA analogs obtained by addition of either a hydroxy, cyano, or bromo group on the C-20 atom of 1,1'-dimethylpentyl-Met-AEA (O-1811, O-1812 and O-1860, respectively) or 1,1'-dimethylpentyl-arvanil (O-1856, O-1895 and O-1861, respectively). The compounds were tested for their (i) affinity for CB(1) and CB(2) receptors, (ii) capability to activate VR1 receptors, (iii) inhibitory effect on the anandamide hydrolysis and on the anandamide membrane transporter, and (iv) cannabimimetic activity in the mouse 'tetrad' of in vivo assays. O-1812 is the first ligand ever proven to be highly (500- to 1000-fold) selective for CB(1) vs both VR(1) and CB(2) receptors, while O-1861 is the first true "hybrid" agonist of CB(1)/VR(1) receptors and a compound with potential therapeutic importance. The activities of the seven compounds in vivo did not correlate with their activities at either CB(1) or VR(1) receptors, thus suggesting the existence of other brain sites of action mediating some of their neurobehavioral actions in mice.
ESTHER : Di Marzo_2001_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_281_444
PubMedSearch : Di Marzo_2001_Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun_281_444
PubMedID: 11181068

Title : Cannabinoid properties of methylfluorophosphonate analogs - Martin_2000_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_294_1209
Author(s) : Martin BR , Beletskaya I , Patrick G , Jefferson R , Winckler R , Deutsch DG , Di Marzo V , Dasse O , Mahadevan A , Razdan RK
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 294 :1209 , 2000
Abstract : Methylarachidonylfluorophosphonate (MAFP) and related analogs have been shown to inhibit fatty acid amidohydrolase activity (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of the endogenous cannabinoid ligand anandamide. To fully characterize this class of compounds, methylfluorophosphonate compounds with saturated alkyl chains ranging from C8 to C20 along with C20 unsaturated derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to interact with the CB1 receptor, inhibit FAAH, and produce in vivo pharmacological effects. These analogs demonstrated widely varying affinities for the CB1 receptor. Of the saturated compounds, C8:0 was incapable of displacing [(3)H]CP 55,940 binding, whereas C12:0 exhibited high affinity (2.5 nM). The C20:0 saturated analog had low affinity (900 nM), but the introduction of unsaturation into the C20 analogs restored receptor affinity. However, none of the analogs were capable of fully displacing [(3)H]CP 55,940 binding. On the other hand, all compounds were able to completely inhibit FAAH enzyme activity, with the C20:0 analog being the least potent. The most potent FAAH inhibitor was the short-chained saturated C12:0, whereas the other analogs were 15- to 30-fold less potent. In vivo, the C8:0 and C12:0 analogs were highly potent and fully efficacious in producing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like effects, whereas the other analogs were either inactive or acted as partial agonists. None was capable of attenuating the agonist effects of THC. Conversely, the C20:0 analog potentiated the effects of anandamide but not those of 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol and THC. The high in vivo potency of the novel short-chain saturated MAFP derivatives (C8:0 and C12:0) underscores the complexity of manipulating the endogenous cannabinoid system.
ESTHER : Martin_2000_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_294_1209
PubMedSearch : Martin_2000_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_294_1209
PubMedID: 10945879