Roe BA

References (10)

Title : Plant-symbiotic fungi as chemical engineers: multi-genome analysis of the clavicipitaceae reveals dynamics of alkaloid loci - Schardl_2013_PLoS.Genet_9_e1003323
Author(s) : Schardl CL , Young CA , Hesse U , Amyotte SG , Andreeva K , Calie PJ , Fleetwood DJ , Haws DC , Moore N , Oeser B , Panaccione DG , Schweri KK , Voisey CR , Farman ML , Jaromczyk JW , Roe BA , O'Sullivan DM , Scott B , Tudzynski P , An Z , Arnaoudova EG , Bullock CT , Charlton ND , Chen L , Cox M , Dinkins RD , Florea S , Glenn AE , Gordon A , Guldener U , Harris DR , Hollin W , Jaromczyk J , Johnson RD , Khan AK , Leistner E , Leuchtmann A , Li C , Liu J , Liu M , Mace W , Machado C , Nagabhyru P , Pan J , Schmid J , Sugawara K , Steiner U , Takach JE , Tanaka E , Webb JS , Wilson EV , Wiseman JL , Yoshida R , Zeng Z
Ref : PLoS Genet , 9 :e1003323 , 2013
Abstract : The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloe and Neotyphodium species), which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. Epichloae produce alkaloids of four distinct classes, all of which deter insects, and some-including the infamous ergot alkaloids-have potent effects on mammals. The exceptional chemotypic diversity of the epichloae may relate to their broad range of host interactions, whereby some are pathogenic and contagious, others are mutualistic and vertically transmitted (seed-borne), and still others vary in pathogenic or mutualistic behavior. We profiled the alkaloids and sequenced the genomes of 10 epichloae, three ergot fungi (Claviceps species), a morning-glory symbiont (Periglandula ipomoeae), and a bamboo pathogen (Aciculosporium take), and compared the gene clusters for four classes of alkaloids. Results indicated a strong tendency for alkaloid loci to have conserved cores that specify the skeleton structures and peripheral genes that determine chemical variations that are known to affect their pharmacological specificities. Generally, gene locations in cluster peripheries positioned them near to transposon-derived, AT-rich repeat blocks, which were probably involved in gene losses, duplications, and neofunctionalizations. The alkaloid loci in the epichloae had unusual structures riddled with large, complex, and dynamic repeat blocks. This feature was not reflective of overall differences in repeat contents in the genomes, nor was it characteristic of most other specialized metabolism loci. The organization and dynamics of alkaloid loci and abundant repeat blocks in the epichloae suggested that these fungi are under selection for alkaloid diversification. We suggest that such selection is related to the variable life histories of the epichloae, their protective roles as symbionts, and their associations with the highly speciose and ecologically diverse cool-season grasses.
ESTHER : Schardl_2013_PLoS.Genet_9_e1003323
PubMedSearch : Schardl_2013_PLoS.Genet_9_e1003323
PubMedID: 23468653
Gene_locus related to this paper: clap2-m1w2a8 , clap2-m1w555 , clap2-m1wa31 , clap2-m1whd2 , clap2-m1weh2 , clap2-m1w5y7 , clap2-m1wh11 , clap2-m1vyn7 , clap2-m1w670

Title : The Medicago genome provides insight into the evolution of rhizobial symbioses - Young_2011_Nature_480_520
Author(s) : Young ND , Debelle F , Oldroyd GE , Geurts R , Cannon SB , Udvardi MK , Benedito VA , Mayer KF , Gouzy J , Schoof H , Van de Peer Y , Proost S , Cook DR , Meyers BC , Spannagl M , Cheung F , De Mita S , Krishnakumar V , Gundlach H , Zhou S , Mudge J , Bharti AK , Murray JD , Naoumkina MA , Rosen B , Silverstein KA , Tang H , Rombauts S , Zhao PX , Zhou P , Barbe V , Bardou P , Bechner M , Bellec A , Berger A , Berges H , Bidwell S , Bisseling T , Choisne N , Couloux A , Denny R , Deshpande S , Dai X , Doyle JJ , Dudez AM , Farmer AD , Fouteau S , Franken C , Gibelin C , Gish J , Goldstein S , Gonzalez AJ , Green PJ , Hallab A , Hartog M , Hua A , Humphray SJ , Jeong DH , Jing Y , Jocker A , Kenton SM , Kim DJ , Klee K , Lai H , Lang C , Lin S , Macmil SL , Magdelenat G , Matthews L , McCorrison J , Monaghan EL , Mun JH , Najar FZ , Nicholson C , Noirot C , O'Bleness M , Paule CR , Poulain J , Prion F , Qin B , Qu C , Retzel EF , Riddle C , Sallet E , Samain S , Samson N , Sanders I , Saurat O , Scarpelli C , Schiex T , Segurens B , Severin AJ , Sherrier DJ , Shi R , Sims S , Singer SR , Sinharoy S , Sterck L , Viollet A , Wang BB , Wang K , Wang M , Wang X , Warfsmann J , Weissenbach J , White DD , White JD , Wiley GB , Wincker P , Xing Y , Yang L , Yao Z , Ying F , Zhai J , Zhou L , Zuber A , Denarie J , Dixon RA , May GD , Schwartz DC , Rogers J , Quetier F , Town CD , Roe BA
Ref : Nature , 480 :520 , 2011
Abstract : Legumes (Fabaceae or Leguminosae) are unique among cultivated plants for their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation with rhizobial bacteria, a process that takes place in a specialized structure known as the nodule. Legumes belong to one of the two main groups of eurosids, the Fabidae, which includes most species capable of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. Legumes comprise several evolutionary lineages derived from a common ancestor 60 million years ago (Myr ago). Papilionoids are the largest clade, dating nearly to the origin of legumes and containing most cultivated species. Medicago truncatula is a long-established model for the study of legume biology. Here we describe the draft sequence of the M. truncatula euchromatin based on a recently completed BAC assembly supplemented with Illumina shotgun sequence, together capturing approximately 94% of all M. truncatula genes. A whole-genome duplication (WGD) approximately 58 Myr ago had a major role in shaping the M. truncatula genome and thereby contributed to the evolution of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. Subsequent to the WGD, the M. truncatula genome experienced higher levels of rearrangement than two other sequenced legumes, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus. M. truncatula is a close relative of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a widely cultivated crop with limited genomics tools and complex autotetraploid genetics. As such, the M. truncatula genome sequence provides significant opportunities to expand alfalfa's genomic toolbox.
ESTHER : Young_2011_Nature_480_520
PubMedSearch : Young_2011_Nature_480_520
PubMedID: 22089132
Gene_locus related to this paper: medtr-b7fki4 , medtr-b7fmi1 , medtr-g7itl1 , medtr-g7iu67 , medtr-g7izm0 , medtr-g7j641 , medtr-g7jtf8 , medtr-g7jtg2 , medtr-g7jtg4 , medtr-g7kem3 , medtr-g7kml3 , medtr-g7ksx5 , medtr-g7leb3 , medtr-q1s5d8 , medtr-q1s9m3 , medtr-q1t171 , medtr-g7k9e1 , medtr-g7k9e3 , medtr-g7k9e5 , medtr-g7k9e8 , medtr-g7k9e9 , medtr-g7lbp2 , medtr-g7lch3 , medtr-g7ib94 , medtr-g7ljk8 , medtr-g7i6w5 , medtr-g7kvg4 , medtr-g7iam1 , medtr-g7iam3 , medtr-g7l754 , medtr-g7jr41 , medtr-g7l4f5 , medtr-g7l755 , medtr-a0a072vyl4 , medtr-g7jwk8 , medtr-a0a072vhg0 , medtr-a0a072vrv9 , medtr-g7kmk5 , medtr-a0a072uuf6 , medtr-a0a072urp3 , medtr-g7zzc3 , medtr-g7ie19 , medtr-g7kst7 , medtr-a0a072u5k5 , medtr-a0a072v056 , medtr-scp1 , medtr-g7kyn0 , medtr-g7inw6 , medtr-g7j3q3

Title : Insights into evolution of multicellular fungi from the assembled chromosomes of the mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea (Coprinus cinereus) - Stajich_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_11889
Author(s) : Stajich JE , Wilke SK , Ahren D , Au CH , Birren BW , Borodovsky M , Burns C , Canback B , Casselton LA , Cheng CK , Deng J , Dietrich FS , Fargo DC , Farman ML , Gathman AC , Goldberg J , Guigo R , Hoegger PJ , Hooker JB , Huggins A , James TY , Kamada T , Kilaru S , Kodira C , Kues U , Kupfer D , Kwan HS , Lomsadze A , Li W , Lilly WW , Ma LJ , Mackey AJ , Manning G , Martin F , Muraguchi H , Natvig DO , Palmerini H , Ramesh MA , Rehmeyer CJ , Roe BA , Shenoy N , Stanke M , Ter-Hovhannisyan V , Tunlid A , Velagapudi R , Vision TJ , Zeng Q , Zolan ME , Pukkila PJ
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 107 :11889 , 2010
Abstract : The mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea is a classic experimental model for multicellular development in fungi because it grows on defined media, completes its life cycle in 2 weeks, produces some 10(8) synchronized meiocytes, and can be manipulated at all stages in development by mutation and transformation. The 37-megabase genome of C. cinerea was sequenced and assembled into 13 chromosomes. Meiotic recombination rates vary greatly along the chromosomes, and retrotransposons are absent in large regions of the genome with low levels of meiotic recombination. Single-copy genes with identifiable orthologs in other basidiomycetes are predominant in low-recombination regions of the chromosome. In contrast, paralogous multicopy genes are found in the highly recombining regions, including a large family of protein kinases (FunK1) unique to multicellular fungi. Analyses of P450 and hydrophobin gene families confirmed that local gene duplications drive the expansions of paralogous copies and the expansions occur in independent lineages of Agaricomycotina fungi. Gene-expression patterns from microarrays were used to dissect the transcriptional program of dikaryon formation (mating). Several members of the FunK1 kinase family are differentially regulated during sexual morphogenesis, and coordinate regulation of adjacent duplications is rare. The genomes of C. cinerea and Laccaria bicolor, a symbiotic basidiomycete, share extensive regions of synteny. The largest syntenic blocks occur in regions with low meiotic recombination rates, no transposable elements, and tight gene spacing, where orthologous single-copy genes are overrepresented. The chromosome assembly of C. cinerea is an essential resource in understanding the evolution of multicellularity in the fungi.
ESTHER : Stajich_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_11889
PubMedSearch : Stajich_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_11889
PubMedID: 20547848
Gene_locus related to this paper: copc7-a8n2b8 , copc7-a8n3e0 , copc7-a8n3e1 , copc7-a8n6a5 , copc7-a8n8h4 , copc7-a8n702 , copc7-a8n941 , copc7-a8nkc7 , copc7-a8nll5 , copc7-a8nll6 , copc7-a8nqf4 , copc7-a8nqg3 , copc7-a8nqv8 , copc7-a8nvb5 , copc7-a8nwm2 , copc7-a8nz18 , copc7-a8p0p4 , copc7-d6rlx1 , copc7-d6rnh7 , copc7-kex1 , copci-b9u444 , copc7-a8nb05 , copc7-a8nha0 , copci-b9u443 , copc7-a8nq30 , copc7-a8nh79 , copc7-d6rm78 , copc7-a8nzs7 , copc7-axe1

Title : Transcriptome analysis of the salivary glands of the female tick Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) - Aljamali_2009_Insect.Mol.Biol_18_129
Author(s) : Aljamali MN , Hern L , Kupfer D , Downard S , So S , Roe BA , Sauer JR , Essenberg RC
Ref : Insect Molecular Biology , 18 :129 , 2009
Abstract : Ticks infest a wide range of hosts while bypassing their immune, inflammatory and haemostatic responses during their extended feeding, which may last for more than two weeks. Here, we present a transcriptome analysis of 3868 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from three cDNA libraries generated from the salivary glands of adult female Ambyomma americanum ticks at different stages of feeding. We applied a normalization step for one library, significantly decreasing the abundance of mitochondrial sequences amongst the 2292 sequences from the normalized library. Our ESTs include homologues that may modulate haemostatic, immune and inflammatory responses of the hosts. Other ESTs probably represent important components of the highly efficient secretory pathways for salivary proteins and concomitantly transmitted pathogens.
ESTHER : Aljamali_2009_Insect.Mol.Biol_18_129
PubMedSearch : Aljamali_2009_Insect.Mol.Biol_18_129
PubMedID: 19320755

Title : Genome sequence of a nephritogenic and highly transformable M49 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes - McShan_2008_J.Bacteriol_190_7773
Author(s) : McShan WM , Ferretti JJ , Karasawa T , Suvorov AN , Lin S , Qin B , Jia H , Kenton S , Najar F , Wu H , Scott J , Roe BA , Savic DJ
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 190 :7773 , 2008
Abstract : The 1,815,783-bp genome of a serotype M49 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]), strain NZ131, has been determined. This GAS strain (FCT type 3; emm pattern E), originally isolated from a case of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, is unusually competent for electrotransformation and has been used extensively as a model organism for both basic genetic and pathogenesis investigations. As with the previously sequenced S. pyogenes genomes, three unique prophages are a major source of genetic diversity. Two clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) regions were present in the genome, providing genetic information on previous prophage encounters. A unique cluster of genes was found in the pathogenicity island-like emm region that included a novel Nudix hydrolase, and, further, this cluster appears to be specific for serotype M49 and M82 strains. Nudix hydrolases eliminate potentially hazardous materials or prevent the unbalanced accumulation of normal metabolites; in bacteria, these enzymes may play a role in host cell invasion. Since M49 S. pyogenes strains have been known to be associated with skin infections, the Nudix hydrolase and its associated genes may have a role in facilitating survival in an environment that is more variable and unpredictable than the uniform warmth and moisture of the throat. The genome of NZ131 continues to shed light upon the evolutionary history of this human pathogen. Apparent horizontal transfer of genetic material has led to the existence of highly variable virulence-associated regions that are marked by multiple rearrangements and genetic diversification while other regions, even those associated with virulence, vary little between genomes. The genome regions that encode surface gene products that will interact with host targets or aid in immune avoidance are the ones that display the most sequence diversity. Thus, while natural selection favors stability in much of the genome, it favors diversity in these regions.
ESTHER : McShan_2008_J.Bacteriol_190_7773
PubMedSearch : McShan_2008_J.Bacteriol_190_7773
PubMedID: 18820018
Gene_locus related to this paper: strpy-ESTA , strpy-PEPXP , strpy-SPY1308

Title : Mating factor linkage and genome evolution in basidiomycetous pathogens of cereals - Bakkeren_2006_Fungal.Genet.Biol_43_655
Author(s) : Bakkeren G , Jiang G , Warren RL , Butterfield Y , Shin H , Chiu R , Linning R , Schein J , Lee N , Hu G , Kupfer DM , Tang Y , Roe BA , Jones S , Marra M , Kronstad JW
Ref : Fungal Genet Biol , 43 :655 , 2006
Abstract : Sex in basidiomycete fungi is controlled by tetrapolar mating systems in which two unlinked gene complexes determine up to thousands of mating specificities, or by bipolar systems in which a single locus (MAT) specifies different sexes. The genus Ustilago contains bipolar (Ustilago hordei) and tetrapolar (Ustilago maydis) species and sexual development is associated with infection of cereal hosts. The U. hordei MAT-1 locus is unusually large (approximately 500 kb) and recombination is suppressed in this region. We mapped the genome of U. hordei and sequenced the MAT-1 region to allow a comparison with mating-type regions in U. maydis. Additionally the rDNA cluster in the U. hordei genome was identified and characterized. At MAT-1, we found 47 genes along with a striking accumulation of retrotransposons and repetitive DNA; the latter features were notably absent from the corresponding U. maydis regions. The tetrapolar mating system may be ancestral and differences in pathogenic life style and potential for inbreeding may have contributed to genome evolution.
ESTHER : Bakkeren_2006_Fungal.Genet.Biol_43_655
PubMedSearch : Bakkeren_2006_Fungal.Genet.Biol_43_655
PubMedID: 16793293
Gene_locus related to this paper: ustho-q2a721

Title : Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans UA159, a cariogenic dental pathogen - Ajdic_2002_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_99_14434
Author(s) : Ajdic D , McShan WM , McLaughlin RE , Savic G , Chang J , Carson MB , Primeaux C , Tian R , Kenton S , Jia H , Lin S , Qian Y , Li S , Zhu H , Najar F , Lai H , White J , Roe BA , Ferretti JJ
Ref : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 99 :14434 , 2002
Abstract : Streptococcus mutans is the leading cause of dental caries (tooth decay) worldwide and is considered to be the most cariogenic of all of the oral streptococci. The genome of S. mutans UA159, a serotype c strain, has been completely sequenced and is composed of 2,030,936 base pairs. It contains 1,963 ORFs, 63% of which have been assigned putative functions. The genome analysis provides further insight into how S. mutans has adapted to surviving the oral environment through resource acquisition, defense against host factors, and use of gene products that maintain its niche against microbial competitors. S. mutans metabolizes a wide variety of carbohydrates via nonoxidative pathways, and all of these pathways have been identified, along with the associated transport systems whose genes account for almost 15% of the genome. Virulence genes associated with extracellular adherent glucan production, adhesins, acid tolerance, proteases, and putative hemolysins have been identified. Strain UA159 is naturally competent and contains all of the genes essential for competence and quorum sensing. Mobile genetic elements in the form of IS elements and transposons are prominent in the genome and include a previously uncharacterized conjugative transposon and a composite transposon containing genes for the synthesis of antibiotics of the gramicidin/bacitracin family; however, no bacteriophage genomes are present.
ESTHER : Ajdic_2002_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_99_14434
PubMedSearch : Ajdic_2002_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_99_14434
PubMedID: 12397186
Gene_locus related to this paper: strmu-BACT , strmu-BGLB , strmu-GBPD , strmu-pepx , strmu-SMU.118C , strmu-SMU.178 , strmu-SMU.633 , strmu-SMU.643 , strmu-SMU.737 , strmu-SMU.1028 , strmu-SMU.1071C , strmu-SMU.1280C , strmu-SMU.1314 , strmu-SMU.1319C , strmu-SMU.1337C , strmu-SMU.1393C , strmu-SMU.1443C , strmu-SMU.1482C , strmu-SMU.1678

Title : Complete genome sequence of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes - Ferretti_2001_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_98_4658
Author(s) : Ferretti JJ , McShan WM , Ajdic D , Savic DJ , Savic G , Lyon K , Primeaux C , Sezate S , Suvorov AN , Kenton S , Lai HS , Lin SP , Qian Y , Jia HG , Najar FZ , Ren Q , Zhu H , Song L , White J , Yuan X , Clifton SW , Roe BA , McLaughlin R
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 98 :4658 , 2001
Abstract : The 1,852,442-bp sequence of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes, a Gram-positive pathogen, has been determined and contains 1,752 predicted protein-encoding genes. Approximately one-third of these genes have no identifiable function, with the remainder falling into previously characterized categories of known microbial function. Consistent with the observation that S. pyogenes is responsible for a wider variety of human disease than any other bacterial species, more than 40 putative virulence-associated genes have been identified. Additional genes have been identified that encode proteins likely associated with microbial "molecular mimicry" of host characteristics and involved in rheumatic fever or acute glomerulonephritis. The complete or partial sequence of four different bacteriophage genomes is also present, with each containing genes for one or more previously undiscovered superantigen-like proteins. These prophage-associated genes encode at least six potential virulence factors, emphasizing the importance of bacteriophages in horizontal gene transfer and a possible mechanism for generating new strains with increased pathogenic potential.
ESTHER : Ferretti_2001_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_98_4658
PubMedSearch : Ferretti_2001_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_98_4658
PubMedID: 11296296
Gene_locus related to this paper: strpy-ESTA , strpy-PEPXP , strpy-Q8K5W4 , strpy-SPY1308 , strpy-SPYM18.1727

Title : The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22 - Dunham_1999_Nature_402_489
Author(s) : Dunham I , Hunt AR , Collins JE , Bruskiewich R , Beare DM , Clamp M , Smink LJ , Ainscough R , Almeida JP , Babbage AK , Bagguley C , Bailey J , Barlow KF , Bates KN , Beasley OP , Bird CP , Blakey SE , Bridgeman AM , Buck D , Burgess J , Burrill WD , Burton J , Carder C , Carter NP , Chen Y , Clark G , Clegg SM , Cobley VE , Cole CG , Collier RE , Connor R , Conroy D , Corby NR , Coville GJ , Cox AV , Davis J , Dawson E , Dhami PD , Dockree C , Dodsworth SJ , Durbin RM , Ellington AG , Evans KL , Fey JM , Fleming K , French L , Garner AA , Gilbert JGR , Goward ME , Grafham DV , Griffiths MND , Hall C , Hall RE , Hall-Tamlyn G , Heathcott RW , Ho S , Holmes S , Hunt SE , Jones MC , Kershaw J , Kimberley AM , King A , Laird GK , Langford CF , Leversha MA , Lloyd C , Lloyd DM , Martyn ID , Mashreghi-Mohammadi M , Matthews LH , Mccann OT , Mcclay J , Mclaren S , McMurray AA , Milne SA , Mortimore BJ , Odell CN , Pavitt R , Pearce AV , Pearson D , Phillimore BJCT , Phillips SH , Plumb RW , Ramsay H , Ramsey Y , Rogers L , Ross MT , Scott CE , Sehra HK , Skuce CD , Smalley S , Smith ML , Soderlund C , Spragon L , Steward CA , Sulston JE , Swann RM , Vaudin M , Wall M , Wallis JM , Whiteley MN , Willey DL , Williams L , Williams SA , Williamson H , Wilmer TE , Wilming L , Wright CL , Hubbard T , Bentley DR , Beck S , Rogers J , Shimizu N , Minoshima S , Kawasaki K , Sasaki T , Asakawa S , Kudoh J , Shintani A , Shibuya K , Yoshizaki Y , Aoki N , Mitsuyama S , Roe BA , Chen F , Chu L , Crabtree J , Deschamps S , Do A , Do T , Dorman A , Fang F , Fu Y , Hu P , Hua A , Kenton S , Lai H , Lao HI , Lewis J , Lewis S , Lin S-P , Loh P , Malaj E , Nguyen T , Pan H , Phan S , Qi S , Qian Y , Ray L , Ren Q , Shaull S , Sloan D , Song L , Wang Q , Wang Y , Wang Z , White J , Willingham D , Wu H , Yao Z , Zhan M , Zhang G , Chissoe S , Murray J , Miller N , Minx P , Fulton R , Johnson D , Bemis G , Bentley D , Bradshaw H , Bourne S , Cordes M , Du Z , Fulton L , Goela D , Graves T , Hawkins J , Hinds K , Kemp K , Latreille P , Layman D , Ozersky P , Rohlfing T , Scheet P , Walker C , Wamsley A , Wohldmann P , Pepin K , Nelson J , Korf I , Bedell JA , Hillier L , Mardis E , Waterston R , Wilson R , Emanuel BS , Shaikh T , Kurahashi H , Saitta S , Budarf ML , McDermid HE , Johnson A , Wong ACC , Morrow BE , Edelmann L , Kim UJ , Shizuya H , Simon MI , Dumanski JP , Peyrard M , Kedra D , Seroussi E , Fransson I , Tapia I , Bruder CE , O'Brien KP
Ref : Nature , 402 :489 , 1999
Abstract : Knowledge of the complete genomic DNA sequence of an organism allows a systematic approach to defining its genetic components. The genomic sequence provides access to the complete structures of all genes, including those without known function, their control elements, and, by inference, the proteins they encode, as well as all other biologically important sequences. Furthermore, the sequence is a rich and permanent source of information for the design of further biological studies of the organism and for the study of evolution through cross-species sequence comparison. The power of this approach has been amply demonstrated by the determination of the sequences of a number of microbial and model organisms. The next step is to obtain the complete sequence of the entire human genome. Here we report the sequence of the euchromatic part of human chromosome 22. The sequence obtained consists of 12 contiguous segments spanning 33.4 megabases, contains at least 545 genes and 134 pseudogenes, and provides the first view of the complex chromosomal landscapes that will be found in the rest of the genome.
ESTHER : Dunham_1999_Nature_402_489
PubMedSearch : Dunham_1999_Nature_402_489
PubMedID: 10591208
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-CES5A , human-SERHL2

Title : Treatment of two insecticides in an electrochemical Fenton system - Roe_1997_J.Environ.Sci.Health.B_32_261
Author(s) : Roe BA , Lemley AT
Ref : J Environ Sci Health B , 32 :261 , 1997
Abstract : The ability of an electrochemical Fenton system to degrade the organophosphorous insecticides malathion and methyl parathion was studied. A combination of hydrogen peroxide and electrochemically-generated iron was found to be successful in degrading the two insecticides, and optimization of the system was pursued. Augmentation with near UV light at an intensity of 1.67 x 10(17) quanta/sec and centered at a wavelength of 370 nm improved the degradation of malathion at low iron concentrations but did not affect other treatments. Adding the hydrogen peroxide slowly over the course of treatment rather than all at once at the beginning of each treatment did, however, greatly improve the system. Removal efficiencies of 98.0% or greater were achieved for both pesticides.
ESTHER : Roe_1997_J.Environ.Sci.Health.B_32_261
PubMedSearch : Roe_1997_J.Environ.Sci.Health.B_32_261
PubMedID: 9090863