Stajich JE

References (16)

Title : Genomic evidence for intraspecific hybridization in a clonal and extremely halotolerant yeast - Gostincar_2018_BMC.Genomics_19_364
Author(s) : Gostincar C , Stajich JE , Zupancic J , Zalar P , Gunde-Cimerman N
Ref : BMC Genomics , 19 :364 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The black yeast Hortaea werneckii (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) is one of the most extremely halotolerant fungi, capable of growth at NaCl concentrations close to saturation. Although dothideomycetous fungi are typically haploid, the reference H. werneckii strain has a diploid genome consisting of two subgenomes with a high level of heterozygosity. RESULTS: In order to explain the origin of the H. werneckii diploid genome we here report the genome sequencing of eleven strains isolated from different habitats and geographic locations. Comparison of nine diploid and two haploid strains showed that the reference genome was likely formed by hybridization between two haploids and not by endoreduplication as suggested previously. Results also support additional hybridization events in the evolutionary history of investigated strains, however exchange of genetic material in the species otherwise appears to be rare. Possible links between such unusual reproduction and the extremotolerance of H. werneckii remain to be investigated. CONCLUSIONS: H. werneckii appears to be able to form persistent haploid as well as diploid strains, is capable of occasional hybridization between relatively heterozygous haploids, but is otherwise limited to clonal reproduction. The reported data and the first identification of haploid H. werneckii strains establish this species as a good model for studying the effects of ploidy and hybridization in an extremotolerant system unperturbed by frequent genetic recombination.
ESTHER : Gostincar_2018_BMC.Genomics_19_364
PubMedSearch : Gostincar_2018_BMC.Genomics_19_364
PubMedID: 29764372
Gene_locus related to this paper: horwe-a0a3m7em55

Title : Bifiguratus adelaidae, gen. et sp. nov., a new member of Mucoromycotina in endophytic and soil-dwelling habitats - Torres-Cruz_2017_Mycologia_109_363
Author(s) : Torres-Cruz TJ , Billingsley Tobias TL , Almatruk M , Hesse CN , Kuske CR , Desiro A , Benucci GMN , Bonito G , Stajich JE , Dunlap C , Arnold AE , Porras-Alfaro A
Ref : Mycologia , 109 :363 , 2017
Abstract : Illumina amplicon sequencing of soil in a temperate pine forest in the southeastern United States detected an abundant, nitrogen (N)-responsive fungal genotype of unknown phylogenetic affiliation. Two isolates with ribosomal sequences consistent with that genotype were subsequently obtained. Examination of records in GenBank revealed that a genetically similar fungus had been isolated previously as an endophyte of moss in a pine forest in the southwestern United States. The three isolates were characterized using morphological, genomic, and multilocus molecular data (18S, internal transcribed spacer [ITS], and 28S rRNA sequences). Phylogenetic and maximum likelihood phylogenomic reconstructions revealed that the taxon represents a novel lineage in Mucoromycotina, only preceded by Calcarisporiella, the earliest diverging lineage in the subphylum. Sequences for the novel taxon are frequently detected in environmental sequencing studies, and it is currently part of UNITE's dynamic list of most wanted fungi. The fungus is dimorphic, grows best at room temperature, and is associated with a wide variety of bacteria. Here, a new monotypic genus, Bifiguratus, is proposed, typified by Bifiguratus adelaidae.
ESTHER : Torres-Cruz_2017_Mycologia_109_363
PubMedSearch : Torres-Cruz_2017_Mycologia_109_363
PubMedID: 28876195
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9fung-a0a261xyf2 , 9fung-a0a261y1n4 , 9fung-a0a261xx90

Title : Comparative genomics of the major fungal agents of human and animal Sporotrichosis: Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis - Teixeira_2014_BMC.Genomics_15_943
Author(s) : Teixeira MM , de Almeida LG , Kubitschek-Barreira P , Alves FL , Kioshima ES , Abadio AK , Fernandes L , Derengowski LS , Ferreira KS , Souza RC , Ruiz JC , de Andrade NC , Paes HC , Nicola AM , Albuquerque P , Gerber AL , Martins VP , Peconick LD , Neto AV , Chaucanez CB , Silva PA , Cunha OL , de Oliveira FF , dos Santos TC , Barros AL , Soares MA , de Oliveira LM , Marini MM , Villalobos-Duno H , Cunha MM , de Hoog S , da Silveira JF , Henrissat B , Nino-Vega GA , Cisalpino PS , Mora-Montes HM , Almeida SR , Stajich JE , Lopes-Bezerra LM , Vasconcelos AT , Felipe MS
Ref : BMC Genomics , 15 :943 , 2014
Abstract : BACKGROUND: The fungal genus Sporothrix includes at least four human pathogenic species. One of these species, S. brasiliensis, is the causal agent of a major ongoing zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis in Brazil. Elsewhere, sapronoses are caused by S. schenckii and S. globosa. The major aims on this comparative genomic study are: 1) to explore the presence of virulence factors in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis; 2) to compare S. brasiliensis, which is cat-transmitted and infects both humans and cats with S. schenckii, mainly a human pathogen; 3) to compare these two species to other human pathogens (Onygenales) with similar thermo-dimorphic behavior and to other plant-associated Sordariomycetes.
RESULTS: The genomes of S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis were pyrosequenced to 17x and 20x coverage comprising a total of 32.3 Mb and 33.2 Mb, respectively. Pair-wise genome alignments revealed that the two species are highly syntenic showing 97.5% average sequence identity. Phylogenomic analysis reveals that both species diverged about 3.8-4.9 MYA suggesting a recent event of speciation. Transposable elements comprise respectively 0.34% and 0.62% of the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes and expansions of Gypsy-like elements was observed reflecting the accumulation of repetitive elements in the S. brasiliensis genome. Mitochondrial genomic comparisons showed the presence of group-I intron encoding homing endonucleases (HE's) exclusively in S. brasiliensis. Analysis of protein family expansions and contractions in the Sporothrix lineage revealed expansion of LysM domain-containing proteins, small GTPases, PKS type1 and leucin-rich proteins. In contrast, a lack of polysaccharide lyase genes that are associated with decay of plants was observed when compared to other Sordariomycetes and dimorphic fungal pathogens, suggesting evolutionary adaptations from a plant pathogenic or saprobic to an animal pathogenic life style.
CONCLUSIONS: Comparative genomic data suggest a unique ecological shift in the Sporothrix lineage from plant-association to mammalian parasitism, which contributes to the understanding of how environmental interactions may shape fungal virulence. . Moreover, the striking differences found in comparison with other dimorphic fungi revealed that dimorphism in these close relatives of plant-associated Sordariomycetes is a case of convergent evolution, stressing the importance of this morphogenetic change in fungal pathogenesis.
ESTHER : Teixeira_2014_BMC.Genomics_15_943
PubMedSearch : Teixeira_2014_BMC.Genomics_15_943
PubMedID: 25351875
Gene_locus related to this paper: spos1-u7pkb8 , 9pezi-a0a0c2epn8 , 9pezi-a0a0c2fvx8 , 9pezi-a0a0c2ihy1 , 9pezi-a0a0c2is67 , 9pezi-a0a0c2j1q8 , 9pezi-a0a0c2j8k6 , sposc-a0a0f2mb37

Title : Genomic insights into the atopic eczema-associated skin commensal yeast Malassezia sympodialis - Gioti_2013_MBio_4_e00572
Author(s) : Gioti A , Nystedt B , Li W , Xu J , Andersson A , Averette AF , Munch K , Wang X , Kappauf C , Kingsbury JM , Kraak B , Walker LA , Johansson HJ , Holm T , Lehtio J , Stajich JE , Mieczkowski P , Kahmann R , Kennell JC , Cardenas ME , Lundeberg J , Saunders CW , Boekhout T , Dawson TL , Munro CA , de Groot PW , Butler G , Heitman J , Scheynius A
Ref : MBio , 4 :e00572 , 2013
Abstract : Malassezia commensal yeasts are associated with a number of skin disorders, such as atopic eczema/dermatitis and dandruff, and they also can cause systemic infections. Here we describe the 7.67-Mbp genome of Malassezia sympodialis, a species associated with atopic eczema, and contrast its genome repertoire with that of Malassezia globosa, associated with dandruff, as well as those of other closely related fungi. Ninety percent of the predicted M. sympodialis protein coding genes were experimentally verified by mass spectrometry at the protein level. We identified a relatively limited number of genes related to lipid biosynthesis, and both species lack the fatty acid synthase gene, in line with the known requirement of these yeasts to assimilate lipids from the host. Malassezia species do not appear to have many cell wall-localized glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) proteins and lack other cell wall proteins previously identified in other fungi. This is surprising given that in other fungi these proteins have been shown to mediate interactions (e.g., adhesion and biofilm formation) with the host. The genome revealed a complex evolutionary history for an allergen of unknown function, Mala s 7, shown to be encoded by a member of an amplified gene family of secreted proteins. Based on genetic and biochemical studies with the basidiomycete human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, we characterized the allergen Mala s 6 as the cytoplasmic cyclophilin A. We further present evidence that M. sympodialis may have the capacity to undergo sexual reproduction and present a model for a pseudobipolar mating system that allows limited recombination between two linked MAT loci. IMPORTANCE: Malassezia commensal yeasts are associated with a number of skin disorders. The previously published genome of M. globosa provided some of the first insights into Malassezia biology and its involvement in dandruff. Here, we present the genome of M. sympodialis, frequently isolated from patients with atopic eczema and healthy individuals. We combined comparative genomics with sequencing and functional characterization of specific genes in a population of clinical isolates and in closely related model systems. Our analyses provide insights into the evolution of allergens related to atopic eczema and the evolutionary trajectory of the machinery for sexual reproduction and meiosis. We hypothesize that M. sympodialis may undergo sexual reproduction, which has important implications for the understanding of the life cycle and virulence potential of this medically important yeast. Our findings provide a foundation for the development of genetic and genomic tools to elucidate host-microbe interactions that occur on the skin and to identify potential therapeutic targets.
ESTHER : Gioti_2013_MBio_4_e00572
PubMedSearch : Gioti_2013_MBio_4_e00572
PubMedID: 23341551
Gene_locus related to this paper: mals4-m5ean5

Title : Shared signatures of parasitism and phylogenomics unite Cryptomycota and microsporidia - James_2013_Curr.Biol_23_1548
Author(s) : James TY , Pelin A , Bonen L , Ahrendt S , Sain D , Corradi N , Stajich JE
Ref : Current Biology , 23 :1548 , 2013
Abstract : Fungi grow within their food, externally digesting it and absorbing nutrients across a semirigid chitinous cell wall. Members of the new phylum Cryptomycota were proposed to represent intermediate fungal forms, lacking a chitinous cell wall during feeding and known almost exclusively from ubiquitous environmental ribosomal RNA sequences that cluster at the base of the fungal tree [1, 2]. Here, we sequence the first Cryptomycotan genome (the water mold endoparasite Rozella allomycis) and unite the Cryptomycota with another group of endoparasites, the microsporidia, based on phylogenomics and shared genomic traits. We propose that Cryptomycota and microsporidia share a common endoparasitic ancestor, with the clade unified by a chitinous cell wall used to develop turgor pressure in the infection process [3, 4]. Shared genomic elements include a nucleotide transporter that is used by microsporidia for stealing energy in the form of ATP from their hosts [5]. Rozella harbors a mitochondrion that contains a very rapidly evolving genome and lacks complex I of the respiratory chain. These degenerate features are offset by the presence of nuclear genes for alternative respiratory pathways. The Rozella proteome has not undergone major contraction like microsporidia; instead, several classes have undergone expansion, such as host-effector, signal-transduction, and folding proteins.
ESTHER : James_2013_Curr.Biol_23_1548
PubMedSearch : James_2013_Curr.Biol_23_1548
PubMedID: 23932404

Title : The genome and development-dependent transcriptomes of Pyronema confluens: a window into fungal evolution - Traeger_2013_PLoS.Genet_9_e1003820
Author(s) : Traeger S , Altegoer F , Freitag M , Gabaldon T , Kempken F , Kumar A , Marcet-Houben M , Poggeler S , Stajich JE , Nowrousian M
Ref : PLoS Genet , 9 :e1003820 , 2013
Abstract : Fungi are a large group of eukaryotes found in nearly all ecosystems. More than 250 fungal genomes have already been sequenced, greatly improving our understanding of fungal evolution, physiology, and development. However, for the Pezizomycetes, an early-diverging lineage of filamentous ascomycetes, there is so far only one genome available, namely that of the black truffle, Tuber melanosporum, a mycorrhizal species with unusual subterranean fruiting bodies. To help close the sequence gap among basal filamentous ascomycetes, and to allow conclusions about the evolution of fungal development, we sequenced the genome and assayed transcriptomes during development of Pyronema confluens, a saprobic Pezizomycete with a typical apothecium as fruiting body. With a size of 50 Mb and ~13,400 protein-coding genes, the genome is more characteristic of higher filamentous ascomycetes than the large, repeat-rich truffle genome; however, some typical features are different in the P. confluens lineage, e.g. the genomic environment of the mating type genes that is conserved in higher filamentous ascomycetes, but only partly conserved in P. confluens. On the other hand, P. confluens has a full complement of fungal photoreceptors, and expression studies indicate that light perception might be similar to distantly related ascomycetes and, thus, represent a basic feature of filamentous ascomycetes. Analysis of spliced RNA-seq sequence reads allowed the detection of natural antisense transcripts for 281 genes. The P. confluens genome contains an unusually high number of predicted orphan genes, many of which are upregulated during sexual development, consistent with the idea of rapid evolution of sex-associated genes. Comparative transcriptomics identified the transcription factor gene pro44 that is upregulated during development in P. confluens and the Sordariomycete Sordaria macrospora. The P. confluens pro44 gene (PCON_06721) was used to complement the S. macrospora pro44 deletion mutant, showing functional conservation of this developmental regulator.
ESTHER : Traeger_2013_PLoS.Genet_9_e1003820
PubMedSearch : Traeger_2013_PLoS.Genet_9_e1003820
PubMedID: 24068976
Gene_locus related to this paper: pyrom-u4ltg1 , pyrom-u4lhe1 , pyrom-u4kwa3 , pyrom-u4lfu9 , pyrom-u4l0a5 , pyrom-u4l0n5 , pyrom-u4lhv4 , pyrom-u4l8w9 , pyrom-u4lvb8 , pyrom-u4l9c9 , pyrom-u4lwe6 , pyrom-u4l3n9

Title : Genome variation in Cryptococcus gattii, an emerging pathogen of immunocompetent hosts - D'Souza_2011_MBio_2_e00342
Author(s) : D'Souza CA , Kronstad JW , Taylor G , Warren R , Yuen M , Hu G , Jung WH , Sham A , Kidd SE , Tangen K , Lee N , Zeilmaker T , Sawkins J , McVicker G , Shah S , Gnerre S , Griggs A , Zeng Q , Bartlett K , Li W , Wang X , Heitman J , Stajich JE , Fraser JA , Meyer W , Carter D , Schein J , Krzywinski M , Kwon-Chung KJ , Varma A , Wang J , Brunham R , Fyfe M , Ouellette BF , Siddiqui A , Marra M , Jones S , Holt R , Birren BW , Galagan JE , Cuomo CA
Ref : MBio , 2 :e00342 , 2011
Abstract : Cryptococcus gattii recently emerged as the causative agent of cryptococcosis in healthy individuals in western North America, despite previous characterization of the fungus as a pathogen in tropical or subtropical regions. As a foundation to study the genetics of virulence in this pathogen, we sequenced the genomes of a strain (WM276) representing the predominant global molecular type (VGI) and a clinical strain (R265) of the major genotype (VGIIa) causing disease in North America. We compared these C. gattii genomes with each other and with the genomes of representative strains of the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans that generally cause disease in immunocompromised people. Our comparisons included chromosome alignments, analysis of gene content and gene family evolution, and comparative genome hybridization (CGH). These studies revealed that the genomes of the two representative C. gattii strains (genotypes VGI and VGIIa) are colinear for the majority of chromosomes, with some minor rearrangements. However, multiortholog phylogenetic analysis and an evaluation of gene/sequence conservation support the existence of speciation within the C. gattii complex. More extensive chromosome rearrangements were observed upon comparison of the C. gattii and the C. neoformans genomes. Finally, CGH revealed considerable variation in clinical and environmental isolates as well as changes in chromosome copy numbers in C. gattii isolates displaying fluconazole heteroresistance.
ESTHER : D'Souza_2011_MBio_2_e00342
PubMedSearch : D'Souza_2011_MBio_2_e00342
PubMedID: 21304167
Gene_locus related to this paper: crygw-e6qy09 , crygw-e6r2n3 , crygw-e6r7g6 , crygw-e6rbd6 , crygw-e6rcm3 , crygw-e6rg44 , cryne-q5ka03 , cryne-q5km63 , cryne-q5knq0 , cryne-q55va3 , crynj-q5kpe0 , crygr-a0a095cfy5 , crygw-kex1

Title : Massive changes in genome architecture accompany the transition to self-fertility in the filamentous fungus Neurospora tetrasperma - Ellison_2011_Genetics_189_55
Author(s) : Ellison CE , Stajich JE , Jacobson DJ , Natvig DO , Lapidus A , Foster B , Aerts A , Riley R , Lindquist EA , Grigoriev IV , Taylor JW
Ref : Genetics , 189 :55 , 2011
Abstract : A large region of suppressed recombination surrounds the sex-determining locus of the self-fertile fungus Neurospora tetrasperma. This region encompasses nearly one-fifth of the N. tetrasperma genome and suppression of recombination is necessary for self-fertility. The similarity of the N. tetrasperma mating chromosome to plant and animal sex chromosomes and its recent origin (<5 MYA), combined with a long history of genetic and cytological research, make this fungus an ideal model for studying the evolutionary consequences of suppressed recombination. Here we compare genome sequences from two N. tetrasperma strains of opposite mating type to determine whether structural rearrangements are associated with the nonrecombining region and to examine the effect of suppressed recombination for the evolution of the genes within it. We find a series of three inversions encompassing the majority of the region of suppressed recombination and provide evidence for two different types of rearrangement mechanisms: the recently proposed mechanism of inversion via staggered single-strand breaks as well as ectopic recombination between transposable elements. In addition, we show that the N. tetrasperma mat a mating-type region appears to be accumulating deleterious substitutions at a faster rate than the other mating type (mat A) and thus may be in the early stages of degeneration.
ESTHER : Ellison_2011_Genetics_189_55
PubMedSearch : Ellison_2011_Genetics_189_55
PubMedID: 21750257
Gene_locus related to this paper: neucr-90C4.300 , neucr-B19A17.360 , neucr-B23G1.090 , neucr-NCU00292.1 , neucr-NCU02679.1 , neucr-NCU04930.1 , neucr-NCU06573.1 , neucr-NCU08752.1 , neucr-NCU09575.1 , neucr-NCU10022.1 , neucr-q7s1x0 , neucr-q7s216 , neucr-q7s259 , neucr-q7s260 , neucr-q7scr4 , neut8-f8n463 , neut9-g4uk39 , neucr-f5hbr2 , neut8-f8mcp7 , neucr-q7ry64 , neucr-FAED , neut8-f8mrh8

Title : Insights into evolution of multicellular fungi from the assembled chromosomes of the mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea (Coprinus cinereus) - Stajich_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_11889
Author(s) : Stajich JE , Wilke SK , Ahren D , Au CH , Birren BW , Borodovsky M , Burns C , Canback B , Casselton LA , Cheng CK , Deng J , Dietrich FS , Fargo DC , Farman ML , Gathman AC , Goldberg J , Guigo R , Hoegger PJ , Hooker JB , Huggins A , James TY , Kamada T , Kilaru S , Kodira C , Kues U , Kupfer D , Kwan HS , Lomsadze A , Li W , Lilly WW , Ma LJ , Mackey AJ , Manning G , Martin F , Muraguchi H , Natvig DO , Palmerini H , Ramesh MA , Rehmeyer CJ , Roe BA , Shenoy N , Stanke M , Ter-Hovhannisyan V , Tunlid A , Velagapudi R , Vision TJ , Zeng Q , Zolan ME , Pukkila PJ
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 107 :11889 , 2010
Abstract : The mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea is a classic experimental model for multicellular development in fungi because it grows on defined media, completes its life cycle in 2 weeks, produces some 10(8) synchronized meiocytes, and can be manipulated at all stages in development by mutation and transformation. The 37-megabase genome of C. cinerea was sequenced and assembled into 13 chromosomes. Meiotic recombination rates vary greatly along the chromosomes, and retrotransposons are absent in large regions of the genome with low levels of meiotic recombination. Single-copy genes with identifiable orthologs in other basidiomycetes are predominant in low-recombination regions of the chromosome. In contrast, paralogous multicopy genes are found in the highly recombining regions, including a large family of protein kinases (FunK1) unique to multicellular fungi. Analyses of P450 and hydrophobin gene families confirmed that local gene duplications drive the expansions of paralogous copies and the expansions occur in independent lineages of Agaricomycotina fungi. Gene-expression patterns from microarrays were used to dissect the transcriptional program of dikaryon formation (mating). Several members of the FunK1 kinase family are differentially regulated during sexual morphogenesis, and coordinate regulation of adjacent duplications is rare. The genomes of C. cinerea and Laccaria bicolor, a symbiotic basidiomycete, share extensive regions of synteny. The largest syntenic blocks occur in regions with low meiotic recombination rates, no transposable elements, and tight gene spacing, where orthologous single-copy genes are overrepresented. The chromosome assembly of C. cinerea is an essential resource in understanding the evolution of multicellularity in the fungi.
ESTHER : Stajich_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_11889
PubMedSearch : Stajich_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_11889
PubMedID: 20547848
Gene_locus related to this paper: copc7-a8n2b8 , copc7-a8n3e0 , copc7-a8n3e1 , copc7-a8n6a5 , copc7-a8n8h4 , copc7-a8n702 , copc7-a8n941 , copc7-a8nkc7 , copc7-a8nll5 , copc7-a8nll6 , copc7-a8nqf4 , copc7-a8nqg3 , copc7-a8nqv8 , copc7-a8nvb5 , copc7-a8nwm2 , copc7-a8nz18 , copc7-a8p0p4 , copc7-d6rlx1 , copc7-d6rnh7 , copc7-kex1 , copci-b9u444 , copc7-a8nb05 , copc7-a8nha0 , copci-b9u443 , copc7-a8nq30 , copc7-a8nh79 , copc7-d6rm78 , copc7-a8nzs7 , copc7-axe1

Title : Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune - Ohm_2010_Nat.Biotechnol_28_957
Author(s) : Ohm RA , de Jong JF , Lugones LG , Aerts A , Kothe E , Stajich JE , de Vries RP , Record E , Levasseur A , Baker SE , Bartholomew KA , Coutinho PM , Erdmann S , Fowler TJ , Gathman AC , Lombard V , Henrissat B , Knabe N , Kues U , Lilly WW , Lindquist E , Lucas S , Magnuson JK , Piumi F , Raudaskoski M , Salamov A , Schmutz J , Schwarze FW , vanKuyk PA , Horton JS , Grigoriev IV , Wosten HA
Ref : Nat Biotechnol , 28 :957 , 2010
Abstract : Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another, fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals.
ESTHER : Ohm_2010_Nat.Biotechnol_28_957
PubMedSearch : Ohm_2010_Nat.Biotechnol_28_957
PubMedID: 20622885
Gene_locus related to this paper: schcm-d8pqz6 , schcm-d8prj2 , schcm-d8pug6 , schcm-d8pxe8 , schcm-d8pxe9 , schcm-d8pxz1 , schcm-d8q1c7 , schcm-d8q2b4 , schcm-d8q3j1 , schcm-d8q5m5 , schcm-d8q7x7.1 , schcm-d8q7x7.2 , schcm-d8q8y8 , schcm-d8q9n6 , schcm-d8q697 , schcm-d8qip8 , schcm-d8q5s5 , schcm-d8ppb3 , schcm-d8ppb6 , schcm-d8pv73 , schcm-d8pzm1 , schcm-d8q5a7 , schcm-d8qif0

Title : Population genomic sequencing of Coccidioides fungi reveals recent hybridization and transposon control - Neafsey_2010_Genome.Res_20_938
Author(s) : Neafsey DE , Barker BM , Sharpton TJ , Stajich JE , Park DJ , Whiston E , Hung CY , McMahan C , White J , Sykes S , Heiman D , Young S , Zeng Q , Abouelleil A , Aftuck L , Bessette D , Brown A , FitzGerald M , Lui A , Macdonald JP , Priest M , Orbach MJ , Galgiani JN , Kirkland TN , Cole GT , Birren BW , Henn MR , Taylor JW , Rounsley SD
Ref : Genome Res , 20 :938 , 2010
Abstract : We have sequenced the genomes of 18 isolates of the closely related human pathogenic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii to more clearly elucidate population genomic structure, bringing the total number of sequenced genomes for each species to 10. Our data confirm earlier microsatellite-based findings that these species are genetically differentiated, but our population genomics approach reveals that hybridization and genetic introgression have recently occurred between the two species. The directionality of introgression is primarily from C. posadasii to C. immitis, and we find more than 800 genes exhibiting strong evidence of introgression in one or more sequenced isolates. We performed PCR-based sequencing of one region exhibiting introgression in 40 C. immitis isolates to confirm and better define the extent of gene flow between the species. We find more coding sequence than expected by chance in the introgressed regions, suggesting that natural selection may play a role in the observed genetic exchange. We find notable heterogeneity in repetitive sequence composition among the sequenced genomes and present the first detailed genome-wide profile of a repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) process distinctly different from what has been observed in Neurospora. We identify promiscuous HLA-I and HLA-II epitopes in both proteomes and discuss the possible implications of introgression and population genomic data for public health and vaccine candidate prioritization. This study highlights the importance of population genomic data for detecting subtle but potentially important phenomena such as introgression.
ESTHER : Neafsey_2010_Genome.Res_20_938
PubMedSearch : Neafsey_2010_Genome.Res_20_938
PubMedID: 20516208
Gene_locus related to this paper: cocp7-c5p2u8 , cocp7-c5p5s7 , cocp7-c5pe69 , cocp7-c5pf68 , cocp7-c5pgk6 , cocim-j3ka92 , cocp7-c5phc6 , cocps-e9d3i4 , cocit-a0a0j8rde7 , cocps-e9csw0 , cocps-e9dgm8

Title : De novo assembly of a 40 Mb eukaryotic genome from short sequence reads: Sordaria macrospora, a model organism for fungal morphogenesis - Nowrousian_2010_PLoS.Genet_6_e1000891
Author(s) : Nowrousian M , Stajich JE , Chu M , Engh I , Espagne E , Halliday K , Kamerewerd J , Kempken F , Knab B , Kuo HC , Osiewacz HD , Poggeler S , Read ND , Seiler S , Smith KM , Zickler D , Kuck U , Freitag M
Ref : PLoS Genet , 6 :e1000891 , 2010
Abstract : Filamentous fungi are of great importance in ecology, agriculture, medicine, and biotechnology. Thus, it is not surprising that genomes for more than 100 filamentous fungi have been sequenced, most of them by Sanger sequencing. While next-generation sequencing techniques have revolutionized genome resequencing, e.g. for strain comparisons, genetic mapping, or transcriptome and ChIP analyses, de novo assembly of eukaryotic genomes still presents significant hurdles, because of their large size and stretches of repetitive sequences. Filamentous fungi contain few repetitive regions in their 30-90 Mb genomes and thus are suitable candidates to test de novo genome assembly from short sequence reads. Here, we present a high-quality draft sequence of the Sordaria macrospora genome that was obtained by a combination of Illumina/Solexa and Roche/454 sequencing. Paired-end Solexa sequencing of genomic DNA to 85-fold coverage and an additional 10-fold coverage by single-end 454 sequencing resulted in approximately 4 Gb of DNA sequence. Reads were assembled to a 40 Mb draft version (N50 of 117 kb) with the Velvet assembler. Comparative analysis with Neurospora genomes increased the N50 to 498 kb. The S. macrospora genome contains even fewer repeat regions than its closest sequenced relative, Neurospora crassa. Comparison with genomes of other fungi showed that S. macrospora, a model organism for morphogenesis and meiosis, harbors duplications of several genes involved in self/nonself-recognition. Furthermore, S. macrospora contains more polyketide biosynthesis genes than N. crassa. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that some of these genes may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer from a distantly related ascomycete group. Our study shows that, for typical filamentous fungi, de novo assembly of genomes from short sequence reads alone is feasible, that a mixture of Solexa and 454 sequencing substantially improves the assembly, and that the resulting data can be used for comparative studies to address basic questions of fungal biology.
ESTHER : Nowrousian_2010_PLoS.Genet_6_e1000891
PubMedSearch : Nowrousian_2010_PLoS.Genet_6_e1000891
PubMedID: 20386741
Gene_locus related to this paper: neucr-q7shu8 , sormk-d1z7y1 , sormk-d1z8p7 , sormk-d1z746 , sormk-d1z812 , sormk-d1zcm2 , sormk-d1zhs5 , sormk-d1zlt5 , sormk-d1zr11 , sormk-d1zr95 , sormk-d1ztn6 , sormk-d1ztt1 , sormk-d1zux2 , sormk-f7vpt4 , sormk-f7vqu7 , sormk-f7vyd8 , sormk-f7w1j4 , sormk-f7w1p0 , sormk-f7w5h1 , sormk-f7w7t7 , sormk-f7w263 , sormk-f7w570 , sormk-f7w670 , sormk-f7wad9 , sormk-f7w8d0 , sormk-f7w8d1 , sormk-f7wbq7 , sormk-f7vmc7 , sormk-f7vq06 , sormk-f7w6v4 , sormk-f7w1s1 , sormk-kex1

Title : Comparative genomic analyses of the human fungal pathogens Coccidioides and their relatives - Sharpton_2009_Genome.Res_19_1722
Author(s) : Sharpton TJ , Stajich JE , Rounsley SD , Gardner MJ , Wortman JR , Jordar VS , Maiti R , Kodira CD , Neafsey DE , Zeng Q , Hung CY , McMahan C , Muszewska A , Grynberg M , Mandel MA , Kellner EM , Barker BM , Galgiani JN , Orbach MJ , Kirkland TN , Cole GT , Henn MR , Birren BW , Taylor JW
Ref : Genome Res , 19 :1722 , 2009
Abstract : While most Ascomycetes tend to associate principally with plants, the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii are primary pathogens of immunocompetent mammals, including humans. Infection results from environmental exposure to Coccidiodies, which is believed to grow as a soil saprophyte in arid deserts. To investigate hypotheses about the life history and evolution of Coccidioides, the genomes of several Onygenales, including C. immitis and C. posadasii; a close, nonpathogenic relative, Uncinocarpus reesii; and a more diverged pathogenic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum, were sequenced and compared with those of 13 more distantly related Ascomycetes. This analysis identified increases and decreases in gene family size associated with a host/substrate shift from plants to animals in the Onygenales. In addition, comparison among Onygenales genomes revealed evolutionary changes in Coccidioides that may underlie its infectious phenotype, the identification of which may facilitate improved treatment and prevention of coccidioidomycosis. Overall, the results suggest that Coccidioides species are not soil saprophytes, but that they have evolved to remain associated with their dead animal hosts in soil, and that Coccidioides metabolism genes, membrane-related proteins, and putatively antigenic compounds have evolved in response to interaction with an animal host.
ESTHER : Sharpton_2009_Genome.Res_19_1722
PubMedSearch : Sharpton_2009_Genome.Res_19_1722
PubMedID: 19717792
Gene_locus related to this paper: ajecg-c0nbn5 , ajecg-c0nbz4 , ajecg-c0ndw0 , ajecg-c0nqc6 , ajecg-c0nst6 , ajecg-c0ntx5 , ajecg-c0nu33 , ajecg-c0nzh6 , ajecg-c0p0h0 , ajech-c6h1y9 , ajecn-a6qs62 , ajecn-a6quy7 , ajecn-a6r2c0 , ajecn-a6r491 , ajecn-a6r635 , ajecn-a6rab7 , ajecn-a6ram0 , ajecn-a6rf08 , ajecn-a6rf70 , ajecn-atg15 , ajecn-dapb , ajeds-c5jqx1 , cocim-atg15 , cocim-bst1 , cocim-j3k8a1 , cocp7-c5p0f2 , cocp7-c5p0i6 , cocp7-c5p1s3 , cocp7-c5p1u2 , cocp7-c5p2u8 , cocp7-c5p4s8 , cocp7-c5p4z1 , cocp7-c5p5s7 , cocp7-c5p129 , cocp7-c5p172 , cocp7-c5p250 , cocps-e9ctz7 , cocp7-c5pae0 , cocp7-c5pby4 , cocp7-c5pdn8 , cocp7-c5pdv9 , cocp7-c5pe69 , cocp7-c5pf68 , cocp7-c5pgk6 , cocp7-c5pid0 , cocp7-dapb , cocps-e9cz73 , cocps-e9dbi4 , cocps-e9dbu0 , cocps-e9dfh7 , uncre-c4jf72 , uncre-c4jf79 , uncre-c4ji27 , uncre-c4jj62 , uncre-c4jjs9 , uncre-c4jk71 , uncre-c4jlm9 , uncre-c4jlp5 , uncre-c4jlr7 , uncre-c4jnk2 , uncre-c4jnn3 , uncre-c4juj6 , uncre-c4jve9 , uncre-c4jvh5 , uncre-c4jw09 , uncre-c4jyw9 , uncre-c4jzs5 , uncre-dapb , ajech-c6h9r4 , uncre-c4jds5 , cocp7-c5pii3 , ajecn-a6r5v8 , cocim-j3ka92 , cocp7-c5phc6 , ajecn-a6qtc4 , ajecn-a6r145 , cocps-e9d3i4 , cocp7-c5p7x1 , cocps-e9csw0 , ajecg-c0nww6 , ajecn-kex1 , uncre-kex1 , uncre-cbpya , cocps-kex1 , ajecn-cbpya

Title : The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis - Martin_2008_Nature_452_88
Author(s) : Martin F , Aerts A , Ahren D , Brun A , Danchin EG , Duchaussoy F , Gibon J , Kohler A , Lindquist E , Pereda V , Salamov A , Shapiro HJ , Wuyts J , Blaudez D , Buee M , Brokstein P , Canback B , Cohen D , Courty PE , Coutinho PM , Delaruelle C , Detter JC , Deveau A , Difazio S , Duplessis S , Fraissinet-Tachet L , Lucic E , Frey-Klett P , Fourrey C , Feussner I , Gay G , Grimwood J , Hoegger PJ , Jain P , Kilaru S , Labbe J , Lin YC , Legue V , Le Tacon F , Marmeisse R , Melayah D , Montanini B , Muratet M , Nehls U , Niculita-Hirzel H , Oudot-Le Secq MP , Peter M , Quesneville H , Rajashekar B , Reich M , Rouhier N , Schmutz J , Yin T , Chalot M , Henrissat B , Kues U , Lucas S , Van de Peer Y , Podila GK , Polle A , Pukkila PJ , Richardson PM , Rouze P , Sanders IR , Stajich JE , Tunlid A , Tuskan G , Grigoriev IV
Ref : Nature , 452 :88 , 2008
Abstract : Mycorrhizal symbioses--the union of roots and soil fungi--are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains approximately 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are fundamental to sustainable plant productivity.
ESTHER : Martin_2008_Nature_452_88
PubMedSearch : Martin_2008_Nature_452_88
PubMedID: 18322534
Gene_locus related to this paper: lacbs-b0cns1 , lacbs-b0cpl4 , lacbs-b0cr62 , lacbs-b0cr66 , lacbs-b0csq9 , lacbs-b0ct56 , lacbs-b0ctt5 , lacbs-b0cuw1 , lacbs-b0cv23 , lacbs-b0cxm7 , lacbs-b0cz37 , lacbs-b0czx3 , lacbs-b0d0z5 , lacbs-b0d4i0 , lacbs-b0d4j3 , lacbs-b0d5n6 , lacbs-b0d8k0 , lacbs-b0d263 , lacbs-b0dhh1 , lacbs-b0dkp6 , lacbs-b0dmr2 , lacbs-b0dmt4 , lacbs-b0dsx5 , lacbs-b0dt05 , lacbs-b0dtw4 , lacbs-b0du88 , lacbs-b0dsl6

Title : Insights from the genome of the biotrophic fungal plant pathogen Ustilago maydis - Kamper_2006_Nature_444_97
Author(s) : Kamper J , Kahmann R , Bolker M , Ma LJ , Brefort T , Saville BJ , Banuett F , Kronstad JW , Gold SE , Muller O , Perlin MH , Wosten HA , de Vries R , Ruiz-Herrera J , Reynaga-Pena CG , Snetselaar K , McCann M , Perez-Martin J , Feldbrugge M , Basse CW , Steinberg G , Ibeas JI , Holloman W , Guzman P , Farman M , Stajich JE , Sentandreu R , Gonzalez-Prieto JM , Kennell JC , Molina L , Schirawski J , Mendoza-Mendoza A , Greilinger D , Munch K , Rossel N , Scherer M , Vranes M , Ladendorf O , Vincon V , Fuchs U , Sandrock B , Meng S , Ho EC , Cahill MJ , Boyce KJ , Klose J , Klosterman SJ , Deelstra HJ , Ortiz-Castellanos L , Li W , Sanchez-Alonso P , Schreier PH , Hauser-Hahn I , Vaupel M , Koopmann E , Friedrich G , Voss H , Schluter T , Margolis J , Platt D , Swimmer C , Gnirke A , Chen F , Vysotskaia V , Mannhaupt G , Guldener U , Munsterkotter M , Haase D , Oesterheld M , Mewes HW , Mauceli EW , Decaprio D , Wade CM , Butler J , Young S , Jaffe DB , Calvo S , Nusbaum C , Galagan J , Birren BW
Ref : Nature , 444 :97 , 2006
Abstract : Ustilago maydis is a ubiquitous pathogen of maize and a well-established model organism for the study of plant-microbe interactions. This basidiomycete fungus does not use aggressive virulence strategies to kill its host. U. maydis belongs to the group of biotrophic parasites (the smuts) that depend on living tissue for proliferation and development. Here we report the genome sequence for a member of this economically important group of biotrophic fungi. The 20.5-million-base U. maydis genome assembly contains 6,902 predicted protein-encoding genes and lacks pathogenicity signatures found in the genomes of aggressive pathogenic fungi, for example a battery of cell-wall-degrading enzymes. However, we detected unexpected genomic features responsible for the pathogenicity of this organism. Specifically, we found 12 clusters of genes encoding small secreted proteins with unknown function. A significant fraction of these genes exists in small gene families. Expression analysis showed that most of the genes contained in these clusters are regulated together and induced in infected tissue. Deletion of individual clusters altered the virulence of U. maydis in five cases, ranging from a complete lack of symptoms to hypervirulence. Despite years of research into the mechanism of pathogenicity in U. maydis, no 'true' virulence factors had been previously identified. Thus, the discovery of the secreted protein gene clusters and the functional demonstration of their decisive role in the infection process illuminate previously unknown mechanisms of pathogenicity operating in biotrophic fungi. Genomic analysis is, similarly, likely to open up new avenues for the discovery of virulence determinants in other pathogens.
ESTHER : Kamper_2006_Nature_444_97
PubMedSearch : Kamper_2006_Nature_444_97
PubMedID: 17080091
Gene_locus related to this paper: ustma-q4p4j7 , ustma-q4p5d2 , ustma-q4p8h8 , ustma-q4p8x7 , ustma-q4p082 , ustma-q4p194 , ustma-q4pa07 , ustma-q4pas0 , ustma-q4pbb4 , ustma-q4pg48

Title : The genome sequence of Caenorhabditis briggsae: a platform for comparative genomics - Stein_2003_PLoS.Biol_1_E45
Author(s) : Stein LD , Bao Z , Blasiar D , Blumenthal T , Brent MR , Chen N , Chinwalla A , Clarke L , Clee C , Coghlan A , Coulson A , D'Eustachio P , Fitch DH , Fulton LA , Fulton RE , Griffiths-Jones S , Harris TW , Hillier LW , Kamath R , Kuwabara PE , Mardis ER , Marra MA , Miner TL , Minx P , Mullikin JC , Plumb RW , Rogers J , Schein JE , Sohrmann M , Spieth J , Stajich JE , Wei C , Willey D , Wilson RK , Durbin R , Waterston RH
Ref : PLoS Biol , 1 :E45 , 2003
Abstract : The soil nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and Caenorhabditis elegans diverged from a common ancestor roughly 100 million years ago and yet are almost indistinguishable by eye. They have the same chromosome number and genome sizes, and they occupy the same ecological niche. To explore the basis for this striking conservation of structure and function, we have sequenced the C. briggsae genome to a high-quality draft stage and compared it to the finished C. elegans sequence. We predict approximately 19,500 protein-coding genes in the C. briggsae genome, roughly the same as in C. elegans. Of these, 12,200 have clear C. elegans orthologs, a further 6,500 have one or more clearly detectable C. elegans homologs, and approximately 800 C. briggsae genes have no detectable matches in C. elegans. Almost all of the noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) known are shared between the two species. The two genomes exhibit extensive colinearity, and the rate of divergence appears to be higher in the chromosomal arms than in the centers. Operons, a distinctive feature of C. elegans, are highly conserved in C. briggsae, with the arrangement of genes being preserved in 96% of cases. The difference in size between the C. briggsae (estimated at approximately 104 Mbp) and C. elegans (100.3 Mbp) genomes is almost entirely due to repetitive sequence, which accounts for 22.4% of the C. briggsae genome in contrast to 16.5% of the C. elegans genome. Few, if any, repeat families are shared, suggesting that most were acquired after the two species diverged or are undergoing rapid evolution. Coclustering the C. elegans and C. briggsae proteins reveals 2,169 protein families of two or more members. Most of these are shared between the two species, but some appear to be expanding or contracting, and there seem to be as many as several hundred novel C. briggsae gene families. The C. briggsae draft sequence will greatly improve the annotation of the C. elegans genome. Based on similarity to C. briggsae, we found strong evidence for 1,300 new C. elegans genes. In addition, comparisons of the two genomes will help to understand the evolutionary forces that mold nematode genomes.
ESTHER : Stein_2003_PLoS.Biol_1_E45
PubMedSearch : Stein_2003_PLoS.Biol_1_E45
PubMedID: 14624247
Gene_locus related to this paper: caebr-a8wl70 , caebr-a8wm66 , caebr-a8wny7 , caebr-a8wpj6 , caebr-a8wpy7.1 , caebr-a8wq91 , caebr-a8wr10 , caebr-A8WSQ5 , caebr-a8wta1 , caebr-A8WTU9 , caebr-a8wux6 , caebr-A8WX49 , caebr-a8wxx0 , caebr-a8wyd4 , caebr-a8wye8 , caebr-a8wz10 , caebr-a8wz31.1 , caebr-a8wz31.2 , caebr-a8wz31.4 , caebr-a8wzp9 , caebr-a8wzr9.1 , caebr-a8wzr9.2 , caebr-a8wzs0 , caebr-a8wzs1 , caebr-a8x0r9 , caebr-a8x0z5 , caebr-a8x1l6 , caebr-a8x1r6 , caebr-a8x3t6 , caebr-a8x4h0 , caebr-a8x4u8 , caebr-a8x4w8 , caebr-a8x5l4 , caebr-a8x5l5 , caebr-a8x5r5 , caebr-a8x5s6 , caebr-a8x5t4 , caebr-a8x6s0 , caebr-a8x6s1 , caebr-a8x7d1 , caebr-a8x7h0 , caebr-a8x7v6 , caebr-A8X8P2 , caebr-a8x8q5 , caebr-a8x8y6 , caebr-a8x9s4 , caebr-a8x324.1 , caebr-a8x324.2 , caebr-a8x622 , caebr-a8xac7 , caebr-a8xag5 , caebr-a8xb07 , caebr-a8xb88 , caebr-a8xby0 , caebr-a8xdz0 , caebr-a8xf42 , caebr-a8xfd1 , caebr-a8xfe6 , caebr-a8xgi0 , caebr-a8xgz4 , caebr-a8xgz5 , caebr-a8xh38 , caebr-a8xhp8 , caebr-a8xhx9 , caebr-a8xjw4 , caebr-a8xk02 , caebr-a8xk46 , caebr-a8xk76 , caebr-a8xke1 , caebr-A8XLQ2 , caebr-a8xns2.1 , caebr-a8xns2.2 , caebr-a8xq21 , caebr-a8xub3 , caebr-a8xuc2 , caebr-a8xuc8 , caebr-a8xug3 , caebr-a8xuh6 , caebr-a8xui4 , caebr-a8xui5 , caebr-a8xui6 , caebr-a8xui7 , caebr-a8xum8 , caebr-a8y0h0.1 , caebr-a8y0h0.2 , caebr-a8y0h1.1 , caebr-a8y0h1.2 , caebr-a8y1b5 , caebr-a8y1r7 , caebr-a8y2v4 , caebr-a8y3e3 , caebr-a8y3i5 , caebr-a8y3j9 , caebr-a8y4p9 , caebr-a8y100 , caebr-a8y101 , caebr-ACHE1 , caebr-ACHE2 , caebr-ACHE3 , caebr-ACHE4 , caebr-b6ii84 , caebr-G01D9.5 , caebr-ges1e , caebr-a8y4l4 , caebr-A8Y1T9 , caebr-A8Y168 , caebr-A8Y0Z5 , caebr-A8XYQ5 , caebr-A8XXK4 , caebr-A8XWZ8 , caebr-A8XUF0 , caebr-A8XUB6 , caebr-A8XSV2 , caebr-A8XJ37 , caebr-A8XG15 , caebr-A8XFE8 , caebr-A8XEY7 , caebr-A8XEU8 , caebr-A8XDT6 , caebr-A8XDV3 , caebr-A8XDQ3 , caebr-A8XDK8 , caebr-A8XBW4 , caebr-A8XAG3 , caebr-A8X8H5 , caebr-A8X6Z9 , caebr-A8X6H9 , caebr-A8X629 , caebr-A8X438 , caebr-A8X4G2 , caebr-A8X4H8 , caebr-A8X4W2 , caebr-A8X3P4 , caebr-A8X3R1 , caebr-A8X2Z4 , caebr-A8X0N2 , caebr-A8X0B3 , caebr-A8WW80 , caebr-U483 , caebr-A8XPH6 , caebr-A8XNJ0 , caebr-A8XNA2 , caebr-A8XLP0 , caebr-A8XK33 , caebr-A8WTK6 , caebr-A8WU44 , caebr-A8WPJ2 , caebr-A8WNE5 , caebr-A8WMB3 , caebr-a8x1r2