Schwarz S

References (15)

Title : Amino derivatives of platanic acid act as selective and potent inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase - Heller_2016_Eur.J.Med.Chem_126_652
Author(s) : Heller L , Kahnt M , Loesche A , Grabandt P , Schwarz S , Brandt W , Csuk R
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 126 :652 , 2016
Abstract : A set of thirtyfive 30-norlupan derivatives (2-36) was prepared from the natural triterpenoid platanic acid (PA), and the hydroxyl group at C-3, the carboxyl group at C-17 and the carbonyl group at C-20 were modified. These derivatives were tested for their inhibitory activity for the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE, from electric eel) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, from equine serum) using Ellman's assay. Extra enzyme kinetic studies were performed. The most active compound was (3beta, 20R)-3-acetyloxy-20-amino-30-norlupan-28-oate (32) showing a Ki value of 0.01 +/- 0.003 muM for BChE. This compound proved to be a selective (FB = 851), mixed-type inhibitor for BChE.
ESTHER : Heller_2016_Eur.J.Med.Chem_126_652
PubMedSearch : Heller_2016_Eur.J.Med.Chem_126_652
PubMedID: 27936444

Title : Converting maslinic acid into an effective inhibitor of acylcholinesterases - Schwarz_2015_Eur.J.Med.Chem_103_438
Author(s) : Schwarz S , Loesche A , Lucas SD , Sommerwerk S , Serbian I , Siewert B , Pianowski E , Csuk R
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 103 :438 , 2015
Abstract : During the last decade, maslinic acid has been evaluated for many biological properties, e.g. as an anti-tumor or an anti-viral agent but also as a nutraceutical. The potential of maslinic acid and related derivatives to act as inhibitors of acetyl- or butyryl-cholinesterase was examined in this communication in more detail. Cholinesterases do still represent an interesting group of target enzymes with respect to the investigation and treatment of the Alzheimer's disease and other dementia illnesses as well. Although other triterpenoic acids have successfully been tested for their ability to act as inhibitors of cholinesterases, up to now maslinic acid has not been part of such studies. For this reason, three series of maslinic acid derivatives possessing modifications at different centers were synthesized and subjected to Ellman's assay to determine their inhibitory strength and type of inhibitory action. While parent compound maslinic acid was no inhibitor in these assays, some of the compounds exhibited an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in the single-digit micro-molar range. Two compounds were identified as inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase showing inhibition constants comparable to those of galantamine, a drug often used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, additional selectivity as well as cytotoxicity studies were performed underlining the potential of several derivatives and qualifying them for further investigations. Docking studies revealed that the different kinetic behavior within the same compound series may be explained by the ability of the compounds to enter the active site gorge of AChE.
ESTHER : Schwarz_2015_Eur.J.Med.Chem_103_438
PubMedSearch : Schwarz_2015_Eur.J.Med.Chem_103_438
PubMedID: 26383128

Title : Allobetulin derived seco-oleananedicarboxylates act as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase - Heller_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_25_2654
Author(s) : Heller L , Schwarz S , Obernauer A , Csuk R
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 25 :2654 , 2015
Abstract : Ring opening of allobetulone gave either seco-acid 8 or di-acid 4. These acids were converted into esters that were screened by Ellman's assay. A dibutenylester of low cytotoxicity (NIH 3T3 murine embryonic fibroblasts) was shown to be a good mixed-type inhibitor (Ki=3.39, Ki'=2.26muM) for acetylcholinesterase.
ESTHER : Heller_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_25_2654
PubMedSearch : Heller_2015_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_25_2654
PubMedID: 25980913

Title : Amino derivatives of glycyrrhetinic acid as potential inhibitors of cholinesterases - Schwarz_2014_Bioorg.Med.Chem_22_3370
Author(s) : Schwarz S , Lucas SD , Sommerwerk S , Csuk R
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 22 :3370 , 2014
Abstract : The development of remedies against the Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the biggest challenges in medicinal chemistry nowadays. Although not completely understood, there are several strategies fighting this disease or at least bringing some relief. During the progress of AD, the level of acetylcholine (ACh) decreases; hence, a therapy using inhibitors should be of some benefit to the patients. Drugs presently used for the treatment of AD inhibit the two ACh controlling enzymes, acetylcholinesterase as well as butyrylcholinesterase; hence, the design of selective inhibitors is called for. Glycyrrhetinic acid seems to be an interesting starting point for the development of selective inhibitors. Although its glycon, glycyrrhetinic acid is known for being an AChE activator, several derivatives, altered in position C-3 and C-30, exhibited remarkable inhibition constants in micro-molar range. Furthermore, five representative compounds were subjected to three more enzyme assays (on carbonic anhydrase II, papain and the lipase from Candida antarctica) to gain information about the selectivity of the compounds in comparison to other enzymes. In addition, photometric sulforhodamine B assays using murine embryonic fibroblasts (NiH 3T3) were performed to study the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Two derivatives, bearing either a 1,3-diaminopropyl or a 1H-benzotriazolyl residue, showed a BChE selective inhibition in the single-digit micro-molar range without being cytotoxic up to 30muM. In silico molecular docking studies on the active sites of AChE and BChE were performed to gain a molecular insight into the mode of action of these compounds and to explain the pronounced selectivity for BChE.
ESTHER : Schwarz_2014_Bioorg.Med.Chem_22_3370
PubMedSearch : Schwarz_2014_Bioorg.Med.Chem_22_3370
PubMedID: 24853320

Title : Gypsogenin derivatives: an unexpected class of inhibitors of cholinesterases - Heller_2014_Arch.Pharm.(Weinheim)_347_707
Author(s) : Heller L , Schwarz S , Weber BA , Csuk R
Ref : Arch Pharm (Weinheim) , 347 :707 , 2014
Abstract : Gypsogenin (1) was obtained by acidic hydrolysis from its saponin. While the parent compound 1 acted as a selective inhibitor for butyrylcholinesterase (from equus) possessing a moderate mixed-type inhibition of the enzyme, Ki values as low as 2.67 +/- 0.59 muM were determined for (3beta,4alpha) 3-O-acetyl-olean-12-ene-23,28-dinitrile (11) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE, from electric eel). Thus, 11 possesses one-fifth of the inhibitory activity of the "gold standard" galantamine hydrobromide; this compound is one of the first pentacyclic triterpenoids described as a potent AChE-selective inhibitor.
ESTHER : Heller_2014_Arch.Pharm.(Weinheim)_347_707
PubMedSearch : Heller_2014_Arch.Pharm.(Weinheim)_347_707
PubMedID: 25042600

Title : Microwave-assisted synthesis of novel purine nucleosides as selective cholinesterase inhibitors - Schwarz_2014_Org.Biomol.Chem_12_2446
Author(s) : Schwarz S , Csuk R , Rauter AP
Ref : Org Biomol Chem , 12 :2446 , 2014
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of senile dementia, is characterized by high butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) levels in the brain in later AD stages, for which no treatment is available. Pursuing our studies on selective BChE inhibitors, that may contribute to understand the role of this enzyme in disease progression, we present now microwave-assisted synthesis and anticholinesterase activity of a new nucleoside series embodying 6-chloropurine or 2-acetamido-6-chloropurine linked to d-glucosyl, d-galactosyl and d-mannosyl residues. It was designed to assess the contribution of sugar stereochemistry, purine structure and linkage to the sugar for cholinesterase inhibition efficiency and selectivity. Compounds were subjected to Ellman's assay and their inhibition constants determined. The alpha-anomers were the most active compounds, while selectivity for BChE or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition could be tuned by the purine base, by the glycosyl moiety and by N(7)-ligation. Some of the nucleosides were far more potent than the drug galantamine, and the most promising competitive and selective BChE inhibitor, the N(7)-linked 2-acetamido-alpha-d-mannosylpurine, showed a Ki of 50 nM and a selectivity factor of 340 fold for BChE over AChE.
ESTHER : Schwarz_2014_Org.Biomol.Chem_12_2446
PubMedSearch : Schwarz_2014_Org.Biomol.Chem_12_2446
PubMedID: 24604285

Title : whole-genome sequence of livestock-associated st398 methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Humans in Canada - Golding_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_6627
Author(s) : Golding GR , Bryden L , Levett PN , McDonald RR , Wong A , Graham MR , Tyler S , Van Domselaar G , Mabon P , Kent H , Butaye P , Smith TC , Kadlec K , Schwarz S , Weese SJ , Mulvey MR
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 194 :6627 , 2012
Abstract : Despite reports of high colonization rates of ST398 livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) among pigs and pig farmers, the incidence of LA-MRSA infection in the general population in Canada appears to be rare in comparison to that in some European countries. In this study, the complete genome sequence of a Canadian representative LA-MRSA isolate (08BA02176) from a human postoperative surgical site infection was acquired and compared to the sequenced genome of an LA-MRSA isolate (S0385) from Europe to identify genetic traits that may explain differences in the success of these particular strains in some locales.
ESTHER : Golding_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_6627
PubMedSearch : Golding_2012_J.Bacteriol_194_6627
PubMedID: 23144384
Gene_locus related to this paper: staau-SA2240

Title : ICEPmu1, an integrative conjugative element (ICE) of Pasteurella multocida: structure and transfer - Michael_2012_J.Antimicrob.Chemother_67_91
Author(s) : Michael GB , Kadlec K , Sweeney MT , Brzuszkiewicz E , Liesegang H , Daniel R , Murray RW , Watts JL , Schwarz S
Ref : J Antimicrob Chemother , 67 :91 , 2012
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) have not been detected in Pasteurella multocida. In this study the multiresistance ICEPmu1 from bovine P. multocida was analysed for its core genes and its ability to conjugatively transfer into strains of the same and different genera.
METHODS: ICEPmu1 was identified during whole genome sequencing. Coding sequences were predicted by bioinformatic tools and manually curated using the annotation software ERGO. Conjugation into P. multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Escherichia coli recipients was performed by mating assays. The presence of ICEPmu1 and its circular intermediate in the recipient strains was confirmed by PCR and sequence analysis. Integration sites were sequenced. Susceptibility testing of the ICEPmu1-carrying recipients was conducted by broth microdilution.
RESULTS: The 82 214 bp ICEPmu1 harbours 88 genes. The core genes of ICEPmu1, which are involved in excision/integration and conjugative transfer, resemble those found in a 66 641 bp ICE from Histophilus somni. ICEPmu1 integrates into a tRNA(Leu) and is flanked by 13 bp direct repeats. It is able to conjugatively transfer to P. multocida, M. haemolytica and E. coli, where it also uses a tRNA(Leu) for integration and produces closely related 13 bp direct repeats. PCR assays and susceptibility testing confirmed the presence and the functional activity of the ICEPmu1-associated resistance genes in the recipient strains.
CONCLUSIONS: The observation that the multiresistance ICEPmu1 is present in a bovine P. multocida and can easily spread across strain and genus boundaries underlines the risk of a rapid dissemination of multiple resistance genes, which will distinctly decrease the therapeutic options.
ESTHER : Michael_2012_J.Antimicrob.Chemother_67_91
PubMedSearch : Michael_2012_J.Antimicrob.Chemother_67_91
PubMedID: 22001176
Gene_locus related to this paper: pasmu-PM0055

Title : Pharmacological treatment of dementia - Schwarz_2012_Curr.Opin.Psychiatry_25_542
Author(s) : Schwarz S , Froelich L , Burns A
Ref : Curr Opin Psychiatry , 25 :542 , 2012
Abstract : PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we discuss new data on currently licensed drugs for dementia and novel developments in the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: During the last years, a large body of evidence has been accumulated to support the use of antidementia medication in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease. Combination therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for Alzheimer's disease remains controversial, as controlled trials have yielded conflicting results. Memantine is not indicated in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. Studies on memantine for Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies were inconclusive. In adult patients with dementia in the context of Down syndrome, memantine is not effective, and further studies on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are warranted. There is still no treatment established for patients with vascular or frontotemporal dementia. The efficacy of antidepressants to treat depression associated with dementia is not proven. Treatment of agitation and psychosis in patients with dementia remains a challenge. SUMMARY: Recent systematic clinical reviews and new research on currently available treatment options provide valuable assistance for clinicians to deal with frequent clinical problems in the context of dementia.
ESTHER : Schwarz_2012_Curr.Opin.Psychiatry_25_542
PubMedSearch : Schwarz_2012_Curr.Opin.Psychiatry_25_542
PubMedID: 22992546

Title : The complete genome of Teredinibacter turnerae T7901: an intracellular endosymbiont of marine wood-boring bivalves (shipworms) - Yang_2009_PLoS.One_4_e6085
Author(s) : Yang JC , Madupu R , Durkin AS , Ekborg NA , Pedamallu CS , Hostetler JB , Radune D , Toms BS , Henrissat B , Coutinho PM , Schwarz S , Field L , Trindade-Silva AE , Soares CA , Elshahawi S , Hanora A , Schmidt EW , Haygood MG , Posfai J , Benner J , Madinger C , Nove J , Anton B , Chaudhary K , Foster J , Holman A , Kumar S , Lessard PA , Luyten YA , Slatko B , Wood N , Wu B , Teplitski M , Mougous JD , Ward N , Eisen JA , Badger JH , Distel DL
Ref : PLoS ONE , 4 :e6085 , 2009
Abstract : Here we report the complete genome sequence of Teredinibacter turnerae T7901. T. turnerae is a marine gamma proteobacterium that occurs as an intracellular endosymbiont in the gills of wood-boring marine bivalves of the family Teredinidae (shipworms). This species is the sole cultivated member of an endosymbiotic consortium thought to provide the host with enzymes, including cellulases and nitrogenase, critical for digestion of wood and supplementation of the host's nitrogen-deficient diet. T. turnerae is closely related to the free-living marine polysaccharide degrading bacterium Saccharophagus degradans str. 2-40 and to as yet uncultivated endosymbionts with which it coexists in shipworm cells. Like S. degradans, the T. turnerae genome encodes a large number of enzymes predicted to be involved in complex polysaccharide degradation (>100). However, unlike S. degradans, which degrades a broad spectrum (>10 classes) of complex plant, fungal and algal polysaccharides, T. turnerae primarily encodes enzymes associated with deconstruction of terrestrial woody plant material. Also unlike S. degradans and many other eubacteria, T. turnerae dedicates a large proportion of its genome to genes predicted to function in secondary metabolism. Despite its intracellular niche, the T. turnerae genome lacks many features associated with obligate intracellular existence (e.g. reduced genome size, reduced %G+C, loss of genes of core metabolism) and displays evidence of adaptations common to free-living bacteria (e.g. defense against bacteriophage infection). These results suggest that T. turnerae is likely a facultative intracellular ensosymbiont whose niche presently includes, or recently included, free-living existence. As such, the T. turnerae genome provides insights into the range of genomic adaptations associated with intracellular endosymbiosis as well as enzymatic mechanisms relevant to the recycling of plant materials in marine environments and the production of cellulose-derived biofuels.
ESTHER : Yang_2009_PLoS.One_4_e6085
PubMedSearch : Yang_2009_PLoS.One_4_e6085
PubMedID: 19568419
Gene_locus related to this paper: tertt-c5bif5 , tertt-c5bkb0 , tertt-c5bkv2 , tertt-c5bmq4 , tertt-c5bmw5 , tertt-c5bmx1 , tertt-c5bmz8 , tertt-c5bn23 , tertt-c5bn62 , tertt-c5bpb2 , tertt-c5bpu2 , tertt-c5bru8 , tertt-c5btp6 , tertt-c5buc2 , tertt-metx , tertt-c5br42 , tertt-c5bpt0 , tertt-c5btk3

Title : Analysis and distribution of class 1 and class 2 integrons and associated gene cassettes among Escherichia coli isolates from swine, horses, cats and dogs collected in the BfT-GermVet monitoring study - Kadlec_2008_J.Antimicrob.Chemother_62_469
Author(s) : Kadlec K , Schwarz S
Ref : J Antimicrob Chemother , 62 :469 , 2008
Abstract : OBJECTIVES: In the BfT-GermVet monitoring study, 417 Escherichia coli isolates collected during 2004-06 in Germany from various disease conditions of pigs (n = 87), horses (n = 102) or cats/dogs (n = 228) were investigated for their susceptibility to 24 antimicrobial agents. This study dealt with the identification of integron-associated resistance genes among these isolates.
METHODS: Class 1 and class 2 integrons were detected by PCR. The variable parts of the integrons were cloned and sequenced. Transformation and conjugation experiments were conducted to confirm a plasmid location of the integrons.
RESULTS: Class 1 and/or class 2 integrons, alone or in different combinations, were detected in 79 of the 417 E. coli isolates. Four trimethoprim resistance genes (dfrA1/12/14/17), five streptomycin/spectinomycin resistance genes (aadA1/2/4/5/6), two streptothricin resistance genes (estX, sat2), one gentamicin/tobramycin/kanamycin resistance gene (aadB) and one chloramphenicol resistance gene (catB3) were detected. Seven different cassette arrangements were identified within class 1 integrons: aadA1 (21 isolates), dfrA1 + aadA1 (18 isolates), dfrA17 + aadA5 (9 isolates), dfrA12 + orfF + aadA2 (8 isolates), aadB + aadA1 (1 isolate), dfrA14 + recombined aadA6 (1 isolate) and dfrA1 + catB3 + aadA4 (1 isolate). Three different cassette arrangements in class 2 integrons, dfrA1 + sat2 + aadA1 (24 isolates), estX + sat2 + aadA1 (6 isolates) and estX + sat2 + DeltaaadA1 (1 isolate), were identified. The plasmid location of class 1 and/or class 2 integrons was confirmed in 37 isolates.
CONCLUSIONS: Class 1 and/or class 2 integrons carrying resistance gene cassettes were detected in 18.9% of the isolates tested. This molecular analysis complements the phenotypic susceptibility testing conducted in the BfT-GermVet monitoring study and helps to explain the persistence of resistance genes even without direct selective pressure.
ESTHER : Kadlec_2008_J.Antimicrob.Chemother_62_469
PubMedSearch : Kadlec_2008_J.Antimicrob.Chemother_62_469
PubMedID: 18550679
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-estX

Title : Point mutant mice with hypersensitive alpha 4 nicotinic receptors show dopaminergic deficits and increased anxiety - Labarca_2001_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_98_2786
Author(s) : Labarca C , Schwarz J , Deshpande P , Schwarz S , Nowak MW , Fonck C , Nashmi R , Kofuji P , Dang H , Shi W , Fidan M , Khakh BS , Chen Z , Bowers BJ , Boulter J , Wehner JM , Lester HA
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 98 :2786 , 2001
Abstract : Knock-in mice were generated that harbored a leucine-to-serine mutation in the alpha4 nicotinic receptor near the gate in the channel pore. Mice with intact expression of this hypersensitive receptor display dominant neonatal lethality. These mice have a severe deficit of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, possibly because the hypersensitive receptors are continuously activated by normal extracellular choline concentrations. A strain that retains the neo selection cassette in an intron has reduced expression of the hypersensitive receptor and is viable and fertile. The viable mice display increased anxiety, poor motor learning, excessive ambulation that is eliminated by very low levels of nicotine, and a reduction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic function upon aging. These knock-in mice provide useful insights into the pathophysiology of sustained nicotinic receptor activation and may provide a model for Parkinson's disease.
ESTHER : Labarca_2001_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_98_2786
PubMedSearch : Labarca_2001_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_98_2786
PubMedID: 11226318

Title : Sequence and analysis of chromosome 4 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana - Mayer_1999_Nature_402_769
Author(s) : Mayer K , Schuller C , Wambutt R , Murphy G , Volckaert G , Pohl T , Dusterhoft A , Stiekema W , Entian KD , Terryn N , Harris B , Ansorge W , Brandt P , Grivell L , Rieger M , Weichselgartner M , de Simone V , Obermaier B , Mache R , Muller M , Kreis M , Delseny M , Puigdomenech P , Watson M , Schmidtheini T , Reichert B , Portatelle D , Perez-Alonso M , Boutry M , Bancroft I , Vos P , Hoheisel J , Zimmermann W , Wedler H , Ridley P , Langham SA , McCullagh B , Bilham L , Robben J , Van der Schueren J , Grymonprez B , Chuang YJ , Vandenbussche F , Braeken M , Weltjens I , Voet M , Bastiaens I , Aert R , Defoor E , Weitzenegger T , Bothe G , Ramsperger U , Hilbert H , Braun M , Holzer E , Brandt A , Peters S , van Staveren M , Dirske W , Mooijman P , Klein Lankhorst R , Rose M , Hauf J , Kotter P , Berneiser S , Hempel S , Feldpausch M , Lamberth S , Van den Daele H , De Keyser A , Buysshaert C , Gielen J , Villarroel R , De Clercq R , van Montagu M , Rogers J , Cronin A , Quail M , Bray-Allen S , Clark L , Doggett J , Hall S , Kay M , Lennard N , McLay K , Mayes R , Pettett A , Rajandream MA , Lyne M , Benes V , Rechmann S , Borkova D , Blocker H , Scharfe M , Grimm M , Lohnert TH , Dose S , de Haan M , Maarse A , Schafer M , Muller-Auer S , Gabel C , Fuchs M , Fartmann B , Granderath K , Dauner D , Herzl A , Neumann S , Argiriou A , Vitale D , Liguori R , Piravandi E , Massenet O , Quigley F , Clabauld G , Mundlein A , Felber R , Schnabl S , Hiller R , Schmidt W , Lecharny A , Aubourg S , Chefdor F , Cooke R , Berger C , Montfort A , Casacuberta E , Gibbons T , Weber N , Vandenbol M , Bargues M , Terol J , Torres A , Perez-Perez A , Purnelle B , Bent E , Johnson S , Tacon D , Jesse T , Heijnen L , Schwarz S , Scholler P , Heber S , Francs P , Bielke C , Frishman D , Haase D , Lemcke K , Mewes HW , Stocker S , Zaccaria P , Bevan M , Wilson RK , de la Bastide M , Habermann K , Parnell L , Dedhia N , Gnoj L , Schutz K , Huang E , Spiegel L , Sehkon M , Murray J , Sheet P , Cordes M , Abu-Threideh J , Stoneking T , Kalicki J , Graves T , Harmon G , Edwards J , Latreille P , Courtney L , Cloud J , Abbott A , Scott K , Johnson D , Minx P , Bentley D , Fulton B , Miller N , Greco T , Kemp K , Kramer J , Fulton L , Mardis E , Dante M , Pepin K , Hillier L , Nelson J , Spieth J , Ryan E , Andrews S , Geisel C , Layman D , Du H , Ali J , Berghoff A , Jones K , Drone K , Cotton M , Joshu C , Antonoiu B , Zidanic M , Strong C , Sun H , Lamar B , Yordan C , Ma P , Zhong J , Preston R , Vil D , Shekher M , Matero A , Shah R , Swaby IK , O'Shaughnessy A , Rodriguez M , Hoffmann J , Till S , Granat S , Shohdy N , Hasegawa A , Hameed A , Lodhi M , Johnson A , Chen E , Marra M , Martienssen R , McCombie WR
Ref : Nature , 402 :769 , 1999
Abstract : The higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is an important model for identifying plant genes and determining their function. To assist biological investigations and to define chromosome structure, a coordinated effort to sequence the Arabidopsis genome was initiated in late 1996. Here we report one of the first milestones of this project, the sequence of chromosome 4. Analysis of 17.38 megabases of unique sequence, representing about 17% of the genome, reveals 3,744 protein coding genes, 81 transfer RNAs and numerous repeat elements. Heterochromatic regions surrounding the putative centromere, which has not yet been completely sequenced, are characterized by an increased frequency of a variety of repeats, new repeats, reduced recombination, lowered gene density and lowered gene expression. Roughly 60% of the predicted protein-coding genes have been functionally characterized on the basis of their homology to known genes. Many genes encode predicted proteins that are homologous to human and Caenorhabditis elegans proteins.
ESTHER : Mayer_1999_Nature_402_769
PubMedSearch : Mayer_1999_Nature_402_769
PubMedID: 10617198
Gene_locus related to this paper: arath-AT4G00500 , arath-AT4G16690 , arath-AT4G17480 , arath-AT4G24380 , arath-AT4g30610 , arath-o65513 , arath-o65713 , arath-LPAAT , arath-f4jt64

Title : The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome IV - Jacq_1997_Nature_387_75
Author(s) : Jacq C , Alt-Morbe J , Andre B , Arnold W , Bahr A , Ballesta JP , Bargues M , Baron L , Becker A , Biteau N , Blocker H , Blugeon C , Boskovic J , Brandt P , Bruckner M , Buitrago MJ , Coster F , Delaveau T , del Rey F , Dujon B , Eide LG , Garcia-Cantalejo JM , Goffeau A , Gomez-Peris AC , Granotier C , Hanemann V , Hankeln T , Hoheisel JD , Jager W , Jimenez A , Jonniaux JL , Kramer C , Kuster H , Laamanen P , Legros Y , Louis E , Muller-Rieker S , Monnet A , Moro M , Muller-Auer S , Nussbaumer B , Paricio N , Paulin L , Perea J , Perez-Alonso M , Perez-Ortin JE , Pohl TM , Prydz H , Purnelle B , Rasmussen SW , Remacha M , Revuelta JL , Rieger M , Salom D , Saluz HP , Saiz JE , Saren AM , Schafer M , Scharfe M , Schmidt ER , Schneider C , Scholler P , Schwarz S , Soler-Mira A , Urrestarazu LA , Verhasselt P , Vissers S , Voet M , Volckaert G , Wagner G , Wambutt R , Wedler E , Wedler H , Wolfl S , Harris DE , Bowman S , Brown D , Churcher CM , Connor R , Dedman K , Gentles S , Hamlin N , Hunt S , Jones L , McDonald S , Murphy L , Niblett D , Odell C , Oliver K , Rajandream MA , Richards C , Shore L , Walsh SV , Barrell BG , Dietrich FS , Mulligan J , Allen E , Araujo R , Aviles E , Berno A , Carpenter J , Chen E , Cherry JM , Chung E , Duncan M , Hunicke-Smith S , Hyman R , Komp C , Lashkari D , Lew H , Lin D , Mosedale D , Nakahara K , Namath A , Oefner P , Oh C , Petel FX , Roberts D , Schramm S , Schroeder M , Shogren T , Shroff N , Winant A , Yelton M , Botstein D , Davis RW , Johnston M , Hillier L , Riles L , Albermann K , Hani J , Heumann K , Kleine K , Mewes HW , Zollner A , Zaccaria P
Ref : Nature , 387 :75 , 1997
Abstract : The complete DNA sequence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome IV has been determined. Apart from chromosome XII, which contains the 1-2 Mb rDNA cluster, chromosome IV is the longest S. cerevisiae chromosome. It was split into three parts, which were sequenced by a consortium from the European Community, the Sanger Centre, and groups from St Louis and Stanford in the United States. The sequence of 1,531,974 base pairs contains 796 predicted or known genes, 318 (39.9%) of which have been previously identified. Of the 478 new genes, 225 (28.3%) are homologous to previously identified genes and 253 (32%) have unknown functions or correspond to spurious open reading frames (ORFs). On average there is one gene approximately every two kilobases. Superimposed on alternating regional variations in G+C composition, there is a large central domain with a lower G+C content that contains all the yeast transposon (Ty) elements and most of the tRNA genes. Chromosome IV shares with chromosomes II, V, XII, XIII and XV some long clustered duplications which partly explain its origin.
ESTHER : Jacq_1997_Nature_387_75
PubMedSearch : Jacq_1997_Nature_387_75
PubMedID: 9169867
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-dlhh , yeast-ECM18 , yeast-YDL109C , yeast-YDR428C , yeast-YDR444W

Title : The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XII - Johnston_1997_Nature_387_87
Author(s) : Johnston M , Hillier L , Riles L , Albermann K , Andre B , Ansorge W , Benes V , Bruckner M , Delius H , Dubois E , Dusterhoft A , Entian KD , Floeth M , Goffeau A , Hebling U , Heumann K , Heuss-Neitzel D , Hilbert H , Hilger F , Kleine K , Kotter P , Louis EJ , Messenguy F , Mewes HW , Miosga T , Mostl D , Muller-Auer S , Nentwich U , Obermaier B , Piravandi E , Pohl TM , Portetelle D , Purnelle B , Rechmann S , Rieger M , Rinke M , Rose M , Scharfe M , Scherens B , Scholler P , Schwager C , Schwarz S , Underwood AP , Urrestarazu LA , Vandenbol M , Verhasselt P , Vierendeels F , Voet M , Volckaert G , Voss H , Wambutt , Wedler E , Wedler H , Zimmermann FK , Zollner A , Hani J , Hoheisel JD
Ref : Nature , 387 :87 , 1997
Abstract : The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the pre-eminent organism for the study of basic functions of eukaryotic cells. All of the genes of this simple eukaryotic cell have recently been revealed by an international collaborative effort to determine the complete DNA sequence of its nuclear genome. Here we describe some of the features of chromosome XII.
ESTHER : Johnston_1997_Nature_387_87
PubMedSearch : Johnston_1997_Nature_387_87
PubMedID: 9169871
Gene_locus related to this paper: yeast-ict1 , yeast-YLR118c