Grandi G

References (11)

Title : Sequence type 1 group B Streptococcus, an emerging cause of invasive disease in adults, evolves by small genetic changes - Flores_2015_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_112_6431
Author(s) : Flores AR , Galloway-Pena J , Sahasrabhojane P , Saldana M , Yao H , Su X , Ajami NJ , Holder ME , Petrosino JF , Thompson E , Margarit YRI , Rosini R , Grandi G , Horstmann N , Teatero S , McGeer A , Fittipaldi N , Rappuoli R , Baker CJ , Shelburne SA
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 112 :6431 , 2015
Abstract : The molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen emergence in humans is a critical but poorly understood area of microbiologic investigation. Serotype V group B Streptococcus (GBS) was first isolated from humans in 1975, and rates of invasive serotype V GBS disease significantly increased starting in the early 1990s. We found that 210 of 229 serotype V GBS strains (92%) isolated from the bloodstream of nonpregnant adults in the United States and Canada between 1992 and 2013 were multilocus sequence type (ST) 1. Elucidation of the complete genome of a 1992 ST-1 strain revealed that this strain had the highest homology with a GBS strain causing cow mastitis and that the 1992 ST-1 strain differed from serotype V strains isolated in the late 1970s by acquisition of cell surface proteins and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Whole-genome comparison of 202 invasive ST-1 strains detected significant recombination in only eight strains. The remaining 194 strains differed by an average of 97 SNPs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a temporally dependent mode of genetic diversification consistent with the emergence in the 1990s of ST-1 GBS as major agents of human disease. Thirty-one loci were identified as being under positive selective pressure, and mutations at loci encoding polysaccharide capsule production proteins, regulators of pilus expression, and two-component gene regulatory systems were shown to affect the bacterial phenotype. These data reveal that phenotypic diversity among ST-1 GBS is mainly driven by small genetic changes rather than extensive recombination, thereby extending knowledge into how pathogens adapt to humans.
ESTHER : Flores_2015_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_112_6431
PubMedSearch : Flores_2015_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_112_6431
PubMedID: 25941374

Title : Genomic analysis reveals the molecular basis for capsule loss in the group B Streptococcus population - Rosini_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0125985
Author(s) : Rosini R , Campisi E , De Chiara M , Tettelin H , Rinaudo D , Toniolo C , Metruccio M , Guidotti S , Sorensen UB , Kilian M , Ramirez M , Janulczyk R , Donati C , Grandi G , Margarit I
Ref : PLoS ONE , 10 :e0125985 , 2015
Abstract : The human and bovine bacterial pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) expresses a thick polysaccharide capsule that constitutes a major virulence factor and vaccine target. GBS can be classified into ten distinct serotypes differing in the chemical composition of their capsular polysaccharide. However, non-typeable strains that do not react with anti-capsular sera are frequently isolated from colonized and infected humans and cattle. To gain a comprehensive insight into the molecular basis for the loss of capsule expression in GBS, a collection of well-characterized non-typeable strains was investigated by genome sequencing. Genome based phylogenetic analysis extended to a wide population of sequenced strains confirmed the recently observed high clonality among GBS lineages mainly containing human strains, and revealed a much higher degree of diversity in the bovine population. Remarkably, non-typeable strains were equally distributed in all lineages. A number of distinct mutations in the cps operon were identified that were apparently responsible for inactivation of capsule synthesis. The most frequent genetic alterations were point mutations leading to stop codons in the cps genes, and the main target was found to be cpsE encoding the portal glycosyl transferase of capsule biosynthesis. Complementation of strains carrying missense mutations in cpsE with a wild-type gene restored capsule expression allowing the identification of amino acid residues essential for enzyme activity.
ESTHER : Rosini_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0125985
PubMedSearch : Rosini_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0125985
PubMedID: 25946017
Gene_locus related to this paper: strag-a0a076z217 , strag-a0a0h1ywg1

Title : Genome analysis of multiple pathogenic isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae: implications for the microbial pan-genome - Tettelin_2005_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_102_13950
Author(s) : Tettelin H , Masignani V , Cieslewicz MJ , Donati C , Medini D , Ward NL , Angiuoli SV , Crabtree J , Jones AL , Durkin AS , DeBoy RT , Davidsen TM , Mora M , Scarselli M , Margarit y Ros I , Peterson JD , Hauser CR , Sundaram JP , Nelson WC , Madupu R , Brinkac LM , Dodson RJ , Rosovitz MJ , Sullivan SA , Daugherty SC , Haft DH , Selengut J , Gwinn ML , Zhou L , Zafar N , Khouri H , Radune D , Dimitrov G , Watkins K , O'Connor KJ , Smith S , Utterback TR , White O , Rubens CE , Grandi G , Madoff LC , Kasper DL , Telford JL , Wessels MR , Rappuoli R , Fraser CM
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 102 :13950 , 2005
Abstract : The development of efficient and inexpensive genome sequencing methods has revolutionized the study of human bacterial pathogens and improved vaccine design. Unfortunately, the sequence of a single genome does not reflect how genetic variability drives pathogenesis within a bacterial species and also limits genome-wide screens for vaccine candidates or for antimicrobial targets. We have generated the genomic sequence of six strains representing the five major disease-causing serotypes of Streptococcus agalactiae, the main cause of neonatal infection in humans. Analysis of these genomes and those available in databases showed that the S. agalactiae species can be described by a pan-genome consisting of a core genome shared by all isolates, accounting for approximately 80% of any single genome, plus a dispensable genome consisting of partially shared and strain-specific genes. Mathematical extrapolation of the data suggests that the gene reservoir available for inclusion in the S. agalactiae pan-genome is vast and that unique genes will continue to be identified even after sequencing hundreds of genomes.
ESTHER : Tettelin_2005_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_102_13950
PubMedSearch : Tettelin_2005_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_102_13950
PubMedID: 16172379
Gene_locus related to this paper: strag-ESTA , strag-GBS0040 , strag-GBS0107 , strag-GBS1828 , strag-pepx , strag-q3dah6 , strag-SAG0246 , strag-SAG0383 , strag-SAG0679 , strag-SAG0680 , strag-SAG0785 , strag-SAG0912 , strag-SAG1562 , strag-SAG2132

Title : Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of an emerging human pathogen, serotype V Streptococcus agalactiae - Tettelin_2002_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_99_12391
Author(s) : Tettelin H , Masignani V , Cieslewicz MJ , Eisen JA , Peterson S , Wessels MR , Paulsen IT , Nelson KE , Margarit I , Read TD , Madoff LC , Wolf AM , Beanan MJ , Brinkac LM , Daugherty SC , DeBoy RT , Durkin AS , Kolonay JF , Madupu R , Lewis MR , Radune D , Fedorova NB , Scanlan D , Khouri H , Mulligan S , Carty HA , Cline RT , Van Aken SE , Gill J , Scarselli M , Mora M , Iacobini ET , Brettoni C , Galli G , Mariani M , Vegni F , Maione D , Rinaudo D , Rappuoli R , Telford JL , Kasper DL , Grandi G , Fraser CM
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 99 :12391 , 2002
Abstract : The 2,160,267 bp genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae, the leading cause of bacterial sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis in neonates in the U.S. and Europe, is predicted to encode 2,175 genes. Genome comparisons among S. agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and the other completely sequenced genomes identified genes specific to the streptococci and to S. agalactiae. These in silico analyses, combined with comparative genome hybridization experiments between the sequenced serotype V strain 2603 V/R and 19 S. agalactiae strains from several serotypes using whole-genome microarrays, revealed the genetic heterogeneity among S. agalactiae strains, even of the same serotype, and provided insights into the evolution of virulence mechanisms.
ESTHER : Tettelin_2002_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_99_12391
PubMedSearch : Tettelin_2002_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_99_12391
PubMedID: 12200547
Gene_locus related to this paper: strag-ESTA , strag-GBS0040 , strag-GBS1828 , strag-pepx , strag-SAG0108 , strag-SAG0246 , strag-SAG0383 , strag-SAG0521 , strag-SAG0679 , strag-SAG0680 , strag-SAG0681 , strag-SAG0785 , strag-SAG0912 , strag-SAG1040 , strag-SAG1562 , strag-SAG2132

Title : Complete genome sequence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B strain MC58 - Tettelin_2000_Science_287_1809
Author(s) : Tettelin H , Saunders NJ , Heidelberg J , Jeffries AC , Nelson KE , Eisen JA , Ketchum KA , Hood DW , Peden JF , Dodson RJ , Nelson WC , Gwinn ML , Deboy R , Peterson JD , Hickey EK , Haft DH , Salzberg SL , White O , Fleischmann RD , Dougherty BA , Mason T , Ciecko A , Parksey DS , Blair E , Cittone H , Clark EB , Cotton MD , Utterback TR , Khouri H , Qin H , Vamathevan J , Gill J , Scarlato V , Masignani V , Pizza M , Grandi G , Sun L , Smith HO , Fraser CM , Moxon ER , Rappuoli R , Venter JC
Ref : Science , 287 :1809 , 2000
Abstract : The 2,272,351-base pair genome of Neisseria meningitidis strain MC58 (serogroup B), a causative agent of meningitis and septicemia, contains 2158 predicted coding regions, 1158 (53.7%) of which were assigned a biological role. Three major islands of horizontal DNA transfer were identified; two of these contain genes encoding proteins involved in pathogenicity, and the third island contains coding sequences only for hypothetical proteins. Insights into the commensal and virulence behavior of N. meningitidis can be gleaned from the genome, in which sequences for structural proteins of the pilus are clustered and several coding regions unique to serogroup B capsular polysaccharide synthesis can be identified. Finally, N. meningitidis contains more genes that undergo phase variation than any pathogen studied to date, a mechanism that controls their expression and contributes to the evasion of the host immune system.
ESTHER : Tettelin_2000_Science_287_1809
PubMedSearch : Tettelin_2000_Science_287_1809
PubMedID: 10710307
Gene_locus related to this paper: neigo-pip , neima-metx , neimb-q9k0t9 , neime-ESD , neime-NMA2216 , neime-NMB0276 , neime-NMB0868 , neime-NMB1828 , neime-NMB1877

Title : Characterization of the syringomycin synthetase gene cluster. A link between prokaryotic and eukaryotic peptide synthetases - Guenzi_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_32857
Author(s) : Guenzi E , Galli G , Grgurina I , Gross DC , Grandi G
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 273 :32857 , 1998
Abstract : With this work we have completed the characterization of the syringomycin synthetase gene cluster. In particular, by sequencing additional 28.5 kilobase pairs we show that the nine modules involved in the binding of the nine amino acids of syringomycin are localized on SyrB and SyrE, with SyrE carrying eight modules. The recombinant SyrB and the first and second modules of SyrE (SyrE1 and SyrE2) have been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The biochemical data indicate that SyrB binds threonine, the putative precursor of the last amino acid of syringomycin, whereas SyrE1 and SyrE2 bind serine, the first and the second amino acids of syringomycin, respectively. On the basis of the sequence analysis and the biochemical data presented here, it appears that syringomycin synthetase is unique among peptide synthetases in that its genetic organization does not respect the "colinearity rule" according to which the order of the amino acid binding modules along the chromosome parallels the order of the amino acids on the peptide. This feature, together with the absence of a single transcription unit and the absence of epimerase-like domains make syringomycin synthetase more related to the eukaryotic peptide synthetases than to the bacterial counterparts.
ESTHER : Guenzi_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_32857
PubMedSearch : Guenzi_1998_J.Biol.Chem_273_32857
PubMedID: 9830033
Gene_locus related to this paper: psesy-syrc , psesy-SYRE

Title : Helicobacter pylori toxin VacA induces vacuole formation by acting in the cell cytosol - de Bernard_1997_Mol.Microbiol_26_665
Author(s) : de Bernard M , Arico B , Papini E , Rizzuto R , Grandi G , Rappuoli R , Montecucco C
Ref : Molecular Microbiology , 26 :665 , 1997
Abstract : Cells exposed to Helicobacter pylori toxin VacA develop large vacuoles that originate from massive swelling of membranous compartments of late stages of the endocytic pathway. To determine if the toxin is active from the cell cytosol, cells were either microinjected with toxin or transfected with plasmids encoding VacA. Both procedures cause formation of intracellular vacuoles. Cytosolic localization of the toxin was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence with specific antibodies and by expression of an active green fluorescence protein (GFP)-VacA chimera. Vacuoles induced by internally produced VacA are morphologically and functionally identical to those induced by externally added toxin. It is concluded that VacA is a toxin acting intracellularly by altering a cytosol-exposed target, possibly involved in the control of membrane trafficking.
ESTHER : de Bernard_1997_Mol.Microbiol_26_665
PubMedSearch : de Bernard_1997_Mol.Microbiol_26_665
PubMedID: 9427397

Title : Engineering of peptide synthetases. Key role of the thioesterase-like domain for efficient production of recombinant peptides - de Ferra_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_25304
Author(s) : de Ferra F , Rodriguez F , Tortora O , Tosi C , Grandi G
Ref : Journal of Biological Chemistry , 272 :25304 , 1997
Abstract : Peptide synthetases are large enzymatic complexes that catalyze the synthesis of biologically active peptides in microorganisms and fungi and typically have an unusual structure and sequence. Peptide synthetases have recently been engineered to modify the substrate specificity to produce peptides of a new sequence. In this study we show that surfactin synthetase can also be modified by moving the carboxyl-terminal intrinsic thioesterase region to the end of the internal amino acid binding domains, thus generating strains that produce new truncated peptides of the predicted sequence. Omission of the thioesterase domain results in nonproducing strains, thus showing the essential role of this region and the possibility of obtaining peptides of different lengths by genetic engineering. Secretion of the peptides depends on the presence of a functional sfp gene.
ESTHER : de Ferra_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_25304
PubMedSearch : de Ferra_1997_J.Biol.Chem_272_25304
PubMedID: 9312148

Title : The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis - Kunst_1997_Nature_390_249
Author(s) : Kunst F , Ogasawara N , Moszer I , Albertini AM , Alloni G , Azevedo V , Bertero MG , Bessieres P , Bolotin A , Borchert S , Borriss R , Boursier L , Brans A , Braun M , Brignell SC , Bron S , Brouillet S , Bruschi CV , Caldwell B , Capuano V , Carter NM , Choi SK , Cordani JJ , Connerton IF , Cummings NJ , Daniel RA , Denziot F , Devine KM , Dusterhoft A , Ehrlich SD , Emmerson PT , Entian KD , Errington J , Fabret C , Ferrari E , Foulger D , Fritz C , Fujita M , Fujita Y , Fuma S , Galizzi A , Galleron N , Ghim SY , Glaser P , Goffeau A , Golightly EJ , Grandi G , Guiseppi G , Guy BJ , Haga K , Haiech J , Harwood CR , Henaut A , Hilbert H , Holsappel S , Hosono S , Hullo MF , Itaya M , Jones L , Joris B , Karamata D , Kasahara Y , Klaerr-Blanchard M , Klein C , Kobayashi Y , Koetter P , Koningstein G , Krogh S , Kumano M , Kurita K , Lapidus A , Lardinois S , Lauber J , Lazarevic V , Lee SM , Levine A , Liu H , Masuda S , Mauel C , Medigue C , Medina N , Mellado RP , Mizuno M , Moestl D , Nakai S , Noback M , Noone D , O'Reilly M , Ogawa K , Ogiwara A , Oudega B , Park SH , Parro V , Pohl TM , Portelle D , Porwollik S , Prescott AM , Presecan E , Pujic P , Purnelle B , Rapoport G , Rey M , Reynolds S , Rieger M , Rivolta C , Rocha E , Roche B , Rose M , Sadaie Y , Sato T , Scanlan E , Schleich S , Schroeter R , Scoffone F , Sekiguchi J , Sekowska A , Seror SJ , Serror P , Shin BS , Soldo B , Sorokin A , Tacconi E , Takagi T , Takahashi H , Takemaru K , Takeuchi M , Tamakoshi A , Tanaka T , Terpstra P , Togoni A , Tosato V , Uchiyama S , Vandebol M , Vannier F , Vassarotti A , Viari A , Wambutt R , Wedler H , Weitzenegger T , Winters P , Wipat A , Yamamoto H , Yamane K , Yasumoto K , Yata K , Yoshida K , Yoshikawa HF , Zumstein E , Yoshikawa H , Danchin A
Ref : Nature , 390 :249 , 1997
Abstract : Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large proportion of the genetic capacity is devoted to the utilization of a variety of carbon sources, including many plant-derived molecules. The identification of five signal peptidase genes, as well as several genes for components of the secretion apparatus, is important given the capacity of Bacillus strains to secrete large amounts of industrially important enzymes. Many of the genes are involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, that are more typically associated with Streptomyces species. The genome contains at least ten prophages or remnants of prophages, indicating that bacteriophage infection has played an important evolutionary role in horizontal gene transfer, in particular in the propagation of bacterial pathogenesis.
ESTHER : Kunst_1997_Nature_390_249
PubMedSearch : Kunst_1997_Nature_390_249
PubMedID: 9384377
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacsu-CAH , bacsu-cbxnp , bacsu-lip , bacsu-LIPB , bacsu-PKSR , bacsu-pnbae , bacsu-PPSE , bacsu-srf4 , bacsu-srfac , bacsu-YBAC , bacsu-YBDG , bacsu-ybfk , bacsu-ycgS , bacsu-yczh , bacsu-YDEN , bacsu-ydjp , bacsu-yfhM , bacsu-yisY , bacsu-YITV , bacsu-yjau , bacsu-YJCH , bacsu-MHQD , bacsu-yqjl , bacsu-yqkd , bacsu-YRAK , bacsu-YTAP , bacsu-YTMA , bacsu-YTPA , bacsu-ytxm , bacsu-yugF , bacsu-YUII , bacsu-YUKL , bacsu-YVAK , bacsu-YvaM , bacsu-RsbQ

Title : A putative new peptide synthase operon in Bacillus subtilis: partial characterization. -
Author(s) : Tognoni A , Franchi E , Magistrelli C , Colombo E , Cosmina P , Grandi G
Ref : Microbiology , 141 :645 , 1995
PubMedID: 7711903
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacsu-PPSE

Title : Sequence and analysis of the genetic locus responsible for surfactin synthesis in Bacillus subtilis - Cosmina_1993_Mol.Microbiol_8_821
Author(s) : Cosmina P , Rodriguez F , de Ferra F , Grandi G , Perego M , Venema G , van Sinderen D
Ref : Molecular Microbiology , 8 :821 , 1993
Abstract : The chromosomal region of Bacillus subtilis comprising the entire srfA operon, sfp and about four kilobases in between have been completely sequenced and functionally characterized. The srfA gene codes for three large subunits of surfactin synthetase, 402, 401 and 144 kDa, respectively, arranged in a series of seven amino acid activating domains which, as shown in the accompanying communication, recognize and bind the seven amino acids of the surfactin peptide. The srfA amino acid activating domains share homologies with similar domains of other peptide synthetases; in particular, regions can be identified which are more homologous in domains activating the same amino acid. A fourth gene in srfA encodes a polypeptide homologous to grsT. Four genes are positioned between srfA and sfp, the disruption of which does not affect surfactin biosynthesis.
ESTHER : Cosmina_1993_Mol.Microbiol_8_821
PubMedSearch : Cosmina_1993_Mol.Microbiol_8_821
PubMedID: 8355609
Gene_locus related to this paper: bacsu-srf4 , bacsu-srfac