Physostigmine~Eserine

Carbamate alkaloid purified from the calabar bean: Physostigma venenosum. Physostigmine is a cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.

General

Type : Derivative of physostigmine-eserine, Natural, Carbamate, Drug, Indole

Chemical_Nomenclature : 1'methylpyrrolidino (2':3':2:3) 1,3-dimethylindolin-\%-yl N-methylcarbamate

Canonical SMILES : CC12CCN(C1N(C3=C2C=C(C=C3)OC(=O)NC)C)C || CC12CC[NH+](C1[NH+](C3=C2C=C(C=C3)OC(=O)NC)C)C.C1=CC=C(C(=C1)C(=O)[O-])[O-] || CC12CC[NH+](C1N(C3=C2C=C(C=C3)OC(=O)NC)C)C.CC12CC[NH+](C1N(C3=C2C=C(C=C3)OC(=O)NC)C)C.[O-]S(=O)(=O)[O-] || CC12CCN(C1N(C3=C2C=C(C=C3)OC(=O)NC)C)C.Br

InChI : InChI=1S\/C15H21N3O2\/c1-15-7-8-17(3)13(15)18(4)12-6-5-10(9-11(12)15)20-14(19)16-2\/h5-6,9,13H,7-8H2,1-4H3,(H,16,19) || InChI=1S\/C15H21N3O2\/c1-15-7-8-17(3)13(15)18(4)12-6-5-10(9-11(12)15)20-14(19)16-2\/h5-6,9,13H,7-8H2,1-4H3,(H,16,19)\/t13-,15+\/m1\/s1 || InChI=1S\/C15H21N3O2.C7H6O3\/c1-15-7-8-17(3)13(15)18(4)12-6-5-10(9-11(12)15)20-14(19)16-2\;8-6-4-2-1-3-5(6)7(9)10\/h5-6,9,13H,7-8H2,1-4H3,(H,16,19)\;1-4,8H,(H,9,10)\/t13-,15+\;\/m1.\/s1 || InChI=1S\/2C15H21N3O2.H2O4S\/c2*1-15-7-8-17(3)13(15)18(4)12-6-5-10(9-11(12)15)20-14(19)16-2\;1-5(2,3)4\/h2*5-6,9,13H,7-8H2,1-4H3,(H,16,19)\;(H2,1,2,3,4)\/t2*13-,15+\;\/m11.\/s1 || InChI=1S\/C15H21N3O2.BrH\/c1-15-7-8-17(3)13(15)18(4)12-6-5-10(9-11(12)15)20-14(19)16-2\;\/h5-6,9,13H,7-8H2,1-4H3,(H,16,19)\;1H\/t13-,15+\;\/m1.\/s1

InChIKey : PIJVFDBKTWXHHD-UHFFFAOYSA-N || PIJVFDBKTWXHHD-HIFRSBDPSA-N || HZOTZTANVBDFOF-PBCQUBLHSA-N || YYBNDIVPHIWTPK-KYJQVDHRSA-N || HFIWKRLOGGSAQX-PBCQUBLHSA-N

Other name(s) : Physostigmine  ||  Antilirium  ||  Esromiotin  ||  Physostol  ||  Ezerin  ||  Calabarine  ||  Erserine  ||  Cogmine Erserine  ||  Eserine sulfate  ||  Eserine sulphate  ||  Physostigmine SO4  ||  Physostigmine sulphate  ||  Physostigmine hemisulfate  ||  Physostigmine hydrobromide  ||  Physostigmine monohydrobromide  ||  Isopto Eserine  ||  Eserine salicylate  ||  Isopto P-ES  ||  Physostol salicylate  ||  Physostigmine salicylate  ||  Physostigmine monosalicylate  ||  CCRIS 3405  ||  Physostigmine, salicylate (1:1)  ||  EINECS 228-032-2  ||  6091-13-0  ||  Physotol  ||  Anticholium  ||  Eserine  ||  E-serine


MW : 275.34

Formula : C15H21N3O2

CAS_number : 57-47-6

PubChem : 5983,    6150,    656508,    4811,    5992,    111151

UniChem : PIJVFDBKTWXHHD-UHFFFAOYSA-N,    PIJVFDBKTWXHHD-HIFRSBDPSA-N,    HZOTZTANVBDFOF-PBCQUBLHSA-N,    YYBNDIVPHIWTPK-KYJQVDHRSA-N,    HFIWKRLOGGSAQX-PBCQUBLHSA-N

IUPHAR : 6598

Wikipedia : Physostigmine

Target

Families : Physostigmine~Eserine ligand of proteins in family
ACHE BCHE Arylacetamide_deacetylase

References (92)

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Title : Subchronic physostigmine pretreatment in guinea pigs: effective against soman and without side effects - Philippens_1998_Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav_59_1061
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Title : Inhibition of cholinesterase-associated aryl acylamidase activity by anticholinesterase agents: focus on drugs potentially effective in Alzheimer's disease - Costagli_1998_Biochem.Pharmacol_55_1733
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Title : Effects of hexamethonium, phenothiazines, propranolol and ephedrine on acetylcholinesterase carbamylation by physostigmine, aldicarb and carbaryl: interaction between the active site and the functionally distinct peripheral sites in acetylcholinesterase - Singh_1998_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.C.Pharmacol.Toxicol.Endocrinol_119_97
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Title : Total syntheses and anticholinesterase activities of (3aS)-N(8)- norphysostigmine, (3aS)-N(8)-norphenserine, their antipodal isomers, and other N(8)-substituted analogues - Yu_1997_J.Med.Chem_40_2895
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Title : Functional activation of cerebral blood flow abolished by scopolamine is reversed by cognitive enhancers associated with cholinesterase inhibition: a positron emission tomography study in unanesthetized monkeys - Tsukada_1997_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_281_1408
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Title : Latanoprost and physostigmine have mostly additive ocular hypotensive effects in human eyes [see comments] - Linden_1997_Arch.Ophthalmol_115_857
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Title : Central injection of physostigmine attenuates exercise-induced pressor response in conscious cats - Ally_1997_Am.J.Physiol_273_R393
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Ref : American Journal of Physiology , 273 :R393 , 1997
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Title : Combined cholinergic and 5-HT2 receptor activation suppresses thalamocortical oscillations in aged rats - Jakala_1997_Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav_56_713
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Title : Systemic physostigmine increases the antinociceptive effect of spinal morphine - Beilin_1997_Pain_70_217
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Title : Cholinergic stimulation alters performance and task-specific regional cerebral blood flow during working memory - Furey_1997_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_94_6512
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Title : Prejunctional regulation by endogenous and exogenous acetylcholine of adrenergic nerve function in isolated canine mesenteric arteries - Zhang_1997_Hypertens.Res_20_119
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PubMedID: 9220276

Title : Effects of cholinesterase inhibitors on the secretion of beta-amyloid precursor protein in cell cultures - Lahiri_1997_Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci_826_416
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Title : Acetylcholinesterase in Dendrobaena veneta (Oligochaeta: Opisthopora) is present with forms sensitive and insensitive to phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C. Biochemical characterization and histochemical localization in the nervous system - Talesa_1996_Eur.J.Biochem_238_538
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Title : Anticholinesterase drugs stimulate phosphatidylinositol response in rat tracheal slices - Shibata_1996_Anesth.Analg_82_1211
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Title : Allosteric regulation of the binding of [3H]acetylcholine to m2 muscarinic receptors - Gnagey_1996_Biochem.Pharmacol_52_1767
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Title : Histochemical demonstration of acetylcholinesterase activity in human Meibomian glands - Perra_1996_Eur.J.Histochem_40_39
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Title : Solubilization, molecular forms, purification and substrate specificity of two acetylcholinesterases in the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) - Talesa_1995_Biochem.J_306_687
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Title : Cholinesterase inhibitors proposed for treating dementia in Alzheimer's disease: selectivity toward human brain acetylcholinesterase compared with butyrylcholinesterase - Pacheco_1995_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_274_767
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Title : Effect of physostigmine on cholinesterase activity in different parts of rat brain - Osman_1995_Arzneimittelforschung_45_663
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Title : Oxime effects on the rate constants of carbamylation and decarbamylation of acetylcholinesterase for pyridostigmine, physostigmine and insecticidal carbamates - Dawson_1995_Neurochem.Int_26_643
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Ref : Neurochem Int , 26 :643 , 1995
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Title : Acetylcholinesterase in tentacles of Octopus vulgaris (Cephalopoda). Histochemical localization and characterization of a specific high salt-soluble and heparin-soluble fraction of globular forms - Talesa_1995_Neurochem.Int_27_201
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Title : Prophylactic transdermal treatment with physostigmine and scopolamine against soman intoxication in guinea-pigs - Meshulam_1995_J.Appl.Toxicol_15_263
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Title : Interaction of chlorphenvinphos with cholinergic receptors in the rabbit hypothalamus - Gralewicz_1995_Neurotoxicol.Teratol_17_289
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Title : Comparison of the effects of natural and synthetic huperzine-A on rat brain cholinergic function in vitro and in vivo - Tang_1994_J.Ethnopharmacol_44_147
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Title : [A kinetic study of the blood serum cholinesterase activity in the freshwater fish Abramis ballerus] - Zhukovskii_1994_Zh.Evol.Biokhim.Fiziol_30_177
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Title : [Aminostigmine as a cholinesterase inhibitor and as an agent for treating poisonings by cholinergic blockers]. [Russian] - Prozorovskii_1994_Eksp.Klin.Farmakol_57_13
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Title : The molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase from Necator americanus (Nematoda), a hookworm parasite of the human intestine - Pritchard_1994_Eur.J.Biochem_219_317
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Title : The effects of physostigmine and scopolamine on memory for food caches in the black-capped chickadee - Mineau_1994_Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav_49_363
Author(s) : Mineau P , Boag PT , Beninger RJ
Ref : Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior , 49 :363 , 1994
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Title : Tissue distribution of human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase messenger RNA - Jbilo_1994_Toxicon_32_1445
Author(s) : Jbilo O , Bartels CF , Chatonnet A , Toutant JP , Lockridge O
Ref : Toxicon , 32 :1445 , 1994
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PubMedSearch : Jbilo_1994_Toxicon_32_1445
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Title : Continuous administration of low dose rates of physostigmine and hyoscine to guinea-pigs prevents the toxicity and reduces the incapacitation produced by soman poisoning - Wetherell_1994_J.Pharm.Pharmacol_46_1023
Author(s) : Wetherell JR
Ref : J Pharm Pharmacol , 46 :1023 , 1994
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Title : Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase expression in adult rabbit tissues and during development - Jbilo_1994_Eur.J.Biochem_225_115
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Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 225 :115 , 1994
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PubMedID: 7925428
Gene_locus related to this paper: rabit-ACHE , rabit-BCHE

Title : Cholinesterase inhibitor effects on neurotransmitters in rat cortex in vivo - Cuadra_1994_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_270_277
Author(s) : Cuadra G , Summers K , Giacobini E
Ref : Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics , 270 :277 , 1994
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PubMedSearch : Cuadra_1994_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_270_277
PubMedID: 7913496

Title : Histochemical distribution of esterases in adult Onchocerca fasciata (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) - Omar_1993_Trop.Med.Parasitol_4_295
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Ref : Trop Med Parasitol , 44 :295 , 1993
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PubMedID: 8134770

Title : Phenserine: a physostigmine derivative that is a long-acting inhibitor of cholinesterase and demonstrates a wide dose range for attenuating a scopolamine-induced learning impairment of rats in a 14-unit T-maze - Iijima_1993_Psychopharmacology_112_415
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Ref : Psychopharmacology , 112 :415 , 1993
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PubMedID: 7871051

Title : Solubilization and biochemical characterization of the melatonin deacetylase from Xenopus laevis retina - Grace_1993_J.Neurochem_60_990
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Ref : Journal of Neurochemistry , 60 :990 , 1993
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Title : Differentiation of esterases reacting with organophosphorus compounds - Reiner_1993_Chem.Biol.Interact_87_77
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Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 87 :77 , 1993
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Title : Wuchereria bancrofti: identification of parasitic acetylcholinesterase in microfilariae infected human serum - Misra_1993_Trop.Med.Parasitol_44_75
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Ref : Trop Med Parasitol , 44 :75 , 1993
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Title : Acetylcholinesterase activity is associated with efferent endings in the sensory epithelia of the utricle and semicircular canals of the rainbow trout inner ear - Khan_1993_Anat.Rec_237_141
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Ref : Anatomical Record , 237 :141 , 1993
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Title : Triiodothyronine (T3) modifies cholinergic-induced hypothermia and tremor in rats - Almeida_1993_Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav_46_729
Author(s) : Almeida OM , Santos R
Ref : Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior , 46 :729 , 1993
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Title : [The nervous system of Fibricola seoulensis by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry]. [Korean] - Cheon_1993_Korean.J.Parasitol_31_321
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Title : Cholinesterase inhibitor effects on extracellular acetylcholine in rat cortex - Messamore_1993_Neuropharmacol_32_745
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Ref : Neuropharmacology , 32 :745 , 1993
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PubMedSearch : Messamore_1993_Neuropharmacol_32_745
PubMedID: 8413838

Title : Esterases in quail (Coturnix coturnix). Physicochemical and developmental aspects - Tsitsiloni_1993_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.B_106_1009
Author(s) : Tsitsiloni OE , Veini M , Haritos AA
Ref : Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology B Biochem Mol Biol , 106 :1009 , 1993
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Title : Concurrent acute exercise alters central and peripheral responses to physostigmine - Dube_1993_Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav_46_827
Author(s) : Dube SN , Somani SM , Babu SR
Ref : Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior , 46 :827 , 1993
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Title : Preferential inhibition of acetylcholinesterase molecular forms in rat brain - Ogane_1992_Neurochem.Res_17_489
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Title : Vascular effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the rabbit eye: a study with fasciculin and physostigmine - Silveira_1992_J.Ocul.Pharmacol_8_129
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Ref : J Ocul Pharmacol , 8 :129 , 1992
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PubMedID: 1506754

Title : Effects of combined acetylcholinesterase inhibition and serotonergic receptor blockade on age-associated memory impairments in rats - Normile_1992_Neurobiol.Aging_13_735
Author(s) : Normile HJ , Altman HJ
Ref : Neurobiology of Aging , 13 :735 , 1992
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PubMedID: 1491739

Title : In vitro protection of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase by tetrahydroaminoacridine. Comparison with physostigmine - Galli_1992_Biochem.Pharmacol_43_2427
Author(s) : Galli A , Mori F , Gori I , Lucherini M
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 43 :2427 , 1992
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PubMedSearch : Galli_1992_Biochem.Pharmacol_43_2427
PubMedID: 1610407

Title : Acetylcholinesterases of the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae. Characterization of two types of amphiphilic forms differing in their mode of membrane association - Arpagaus_1992_Eur.J.Biochem_207_1101
Author(s) : Arpagaus M , Richier P , Berge JB , Toutant JP
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 207 :1101 , 1992
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PubMedID: 1323459

Title : Physostigmine (alone and together with adjunct) pretreatment against soman, sarin, tabun and VX intoxication - Harris_1991_Drug.Chem.Toxicol_14_265
Author(s) : Harris LW , Talbot BG , Lennox WJ , Anderson DR , Solana RP
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Title : Effects of subacute pretreatment with carbamate together with acute adjunct pretreatment against nerve agent exposure - Anderson_1991_Drug.Chem.Toxicol_14_1
Author(s) : Anderson DR , Harris LW , Lennox WJ , Solana RP
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Title : Genetic variants of human serum cholinesterase influence metabolism of the muscle relaxant succinylcholine. - Lockridge_1990_Pharmacol.Ther_47_35
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Gene_locus related to this paper: human-BCHE

Title : Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of physostigmine in the rat after oral administration - Somani_1989_Biopharm.Drug.Dispos_10_187
Author(s) : Somani SM
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Title : Comparative inhibitory effects of various physostigmine analogs against acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterases - Atack_1989_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_249_194
Author(s) : Atack JR , Yu QS , Soncrant TT , Brossi A , Rapoport SI
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Title : The relationship between oxime-induced reactivation of carbamylated acetylcholinesterase and antidotal efficacy against carbamate intoxication - Harris_1989_Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol_98_128
Author(s) : Harris LW , Talbot BG , Lennox WJ , Anderson DR
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Title : An investigation of the in vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by the carbamate inhibitor eserine sulphate in eserine resistant strains of Drosophila melanogaster - Burnell_1988_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.C_90_215
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Title : Cholinesterases in rabbit serum - Simeon_1988_Gen.Pharmacol_19_849
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Title : Interaction between bambuterol and physostigmine: aspects on cholinesterase inhibition and neuromuscular transmission in the smooth and skeletal muscles of the guinea-pig - Jeppsson_1988_Pharmacol.Toxicol_63_211
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Title : Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of physostigmine in the rat after intravenous administration - Somani_1987_Drug.Metab.Dispos_15_627
Author(s) : Somani SM , Khalique A
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Title : A peptidase activity exhibited by human serum pseudocholinesterase - Boopathy_1987_Eur.J.Biochem_162_191
Author(s) : Boopathy R , Balasubramanian AS
Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 162 :191 , 1987
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Title : Kinetic investigations into the interactions of aprophen with cholinesterases and a carboxylesterase - Rush_1986_Biochem.Pharmacol_35_4167
Author(s) : Rush RS , Doctor BP , Wolfe AD
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Title : Distribution and pharmacokinetics of physostigmine in rat after intramuscular administration - Somani_1986_Fundam.Appl.Toxicol_6_327
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Title : Single-mosquito test to determine genotypes with an acetylcholinesterase insensitive to inhibition to propoxur insecticide - Raymond_1985_J.Am.Mosquito.Control.Assoc_1_425
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Title : Polymorphism of pseudocholinesterase in Torpedo marmorata tissues: comparative study of the catalytic and molecular properties of this enzyme with acetylcholinesterase - Toutant_1985_J.Neurochem_44_580
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Title : The reversible cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine has channel-blocking and agonist effects on the acetylcholine receptor-ion channel complex - Shaw_1985_Mol.Pharmacol_28_527
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PubMedID: 2417099

Title : In-vitro and in-vivo protection of acetylcholinesterase by eseroline against inactivation by diisopropyl fluorophosphate and carbamates - Galli_1985_J.Pharm.Pharmacol_37_42
Author(s) : Galli A , Malmberg-Aiello P , Renzi G , Bartolini A
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Title : Efficacy and toxicity of drug combinations in treatment of physostigmine toxicosis - Klemm_1983_Toxicology_27_41
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Title : [Multiple molecular forms of esterases from grass aphids inhibitory identification and stereospecificity] - Volkova_1983_Biokhimiia_48_1634
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Ref : Biokhimiia , 48 :1634 , 1983
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Title : Activation and blockade of cardiac muscarinic receptors by endogenous acetylcholine and cholinesterase inhibitors - Brown_1982_J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther_223_20
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PubMedID: 6288918

Title : Serotonin-sensitive aryl acylamidase activity of platelet acetylcholinesterase - Majumdar_1982_Biochem.Pharmacol_31_2319
Author(s) : Majumdar R , George ST , Balasubramanian AS
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 31 :2319 , 1982
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Title : Differential inhibition of plasma cholinesterase variants using the dibutyrate analogue of pancuronium bromide - Whittaker_1981_Hum.Hered_31_242
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Title : The aryl acylamidases and their relationship to cholinesterases in human serum, erythrocyte and liver - George_1981_Eur.J.Biochem_121_177
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Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 121 :177 , 1981
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Title : The identity of the serotonin-sensitive aryl acylamidase with acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocytes, sheep basal ganglia and electric eel - George_1980_Eur.J.Biochem_111_511
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Ref : European Journal of Biochemistry , 111 :511 , 1980
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Title : Isolation and characterization of a butyrylesterase from human erythrocytes - Axenfors_1979_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_570_74
Author(s) : Axenfors B , Andersson I , Augustinsson KB
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Title : The inhibition of frog tissue cholinesterases and the influence of eserine and prostigmine on the action of acetylcholine on the frog heart - Majcen_1975_Biochem.Pharmacol_24_1599
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Title : The synthesis and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities of (plus)-physostigmine and (plus)-physovenine -
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Title : On the calabar bean as a new agent in opthalmic medicine -
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