Tu Z

General

Full name : Tu Zhude

First name : Zhude

Mail : Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110

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Country : USA

Email : tuz@mir.wustl.edu

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References (18)

Title : Sequence-based design and construction of synthetic nanobody library - Liu_2024_Biotechnol.Bioeng__
Author(s) : Liu C , Li Y , He Q , Fu J , Wei Q , Lin H , Luo Y , Tu Z
Ref : Biotechnol Bioeng , : , 2024
Abstract : Nanobody (Nb), the smallest antibody fragments known to bind antigens, is now widely applied to various studies, including protein structure analysis, bioassay, diagnosis, and biomedicine. The traditional approach to generating specific nanobodies involves animal immunization which is time-consuming and expensive. As the understanding of the antibody repertoire accumulation, the synthetic library, which is devoid of animals, has attracted attention widely in recent years. Here, we describe a synthetic phage display library (S-Library), designed based on the systematic analysis of the next-generation sequencing (NGS) of nanobody repertoire. The library consists of a single highly conserved scaffold (IGHV3S65*01-IGHJ4*01) and complementary determining regions of constrained diversity. The S-Library containing 2.19 x 10(8) independent clones was constructed by the one-step assembly and rapid electro-transformation. The S-Library was screened against various targets (Nb G8, fusion protein of Nb G8 and green fluorescent protein, bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, and acetylcholinesterase). In comparison, a naive library (N-Library) from the source of 13 healthy animals was constructed and screened against the same targets as the S-Library. Binders were isolated from both S-Library and N-Library. The dynamic affinity was evaluated by the biolayer interferometry. The data confirms that the feature of the Nb repertoire is conducive to reducing the complexity of library design, thus allowing the S-Library to be built on conventional reagents and primers.
ESTHER : Liu_2024_Biotechnol.Bioeng__
PubMedSearch : Liu_2024_Biotechnol.Bioeng__
PubMedID: 38548653

Title : From Function to Metabolome: Metabolomic Analysis Reveals the Effect of Probiotic Fermentation on the Chemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Perilla frutescens Leaves - Wang_2022_Front.Nutr_9_933193
Author(s) : Wang Z , Jin X , Zhang X , Xie X , Tu Z , He X
Ref : Front Nutr , 9 :933193 , 2022
Abstract : This study aimed to investigate the impact of probiotic fermentation on the active components and functions of Perilla frutescens leaves (PFL). PFL was fermented for 7 days using six probiotics (Lactobacillus Plantarum SWFU D16, Lactobacillus Plantarum ATCC 8014, Lactobacillus Rhamnosus ATCC 53013, Streptococcus Thermophilus CICC 6038, Lactobacillus Casei ATCC 334, and Lactobacillus Bulgaricus CICC 6045). The total phenol and flavonoid contents, antioxidant abilities, as well as alpha-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibition abilities of PFL during the fermentation process were evaluated, and its bioactive compounds were further quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Finally, non-targeted ultra-HPLC-tandem mass spectroscopy was used to identify the metabolites affected by fermentation and explore the possible mechanisms of the action of fermentation. The results showed that most of the active component contents and functional activities of PFL exhibited that it first increased and then decreased, and different probiotics had clearly distinguishable effects from each other, of which fermentation with ATCC 53013 for 1 day showed the highest enhancement effect. The same trend was also confirmed by the result of the changes in the contents of 12 phenolic acids and flavonoids by HPLC analysis. Further metabolomic analysis revealed significant metabolite changes under the best fermentation condition, which involved primarily the generation of fatty acids and their conjugates, flavonoids. A total of 574 and 387 metabolites were identified in positive ion and negative ion modes, respectively. Results of Spearman's analysis indicated that some primary metabolites and secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phenols, and fatty acids might play an important role in the functional activity of PFL. Differential metabolites were subjected to the KEGG database and 97 metabolites pathways were obtained, of which biosyntheses of unsaturated fatty acids, flavonoid, and isoflavonoid were the most enriched pathways. The above results revealed the potential reason for the differences in metabolic and functional levels of PFL after fermentation. This study could provide a scientific basis for the further study of PFL, as well as novel insights into the action mechanism of probiotic fermentation on the chemical composition and biological activity of food/drug.
ESTHER : Wang_2022_Front.Nutr_9_933193
PubMedSearch : Wang_2022_Front.Nutr_9_933193
PubMedID: 35898707

Title : Perilla frutescens Leaf Extract and Fractions: Polyphenol Composition, Antioxidant, Enzymes (alpha-Glucosidase, Acetylcholinesterase, and Tyrosinase) Inhibitory, Anticancer, and Antidiabetic Activities - Wang_2021_Foods_10_
Author(s) : Wang Z , Tu Z , Xie X , Cui H , Kong KW , Zhang L
Ref : Foods , 10 : , 2021
Abstract : This study aims to evaluate the bioactive components, in vitro bioactivities, and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of P. frutescens leaf, which is a traditional medicine-food homology plant. P. frutescens methanol crude extract and its fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions, and aqueous phase residue) were prepared by ultrasound-enzyme assisted extraction and liquid-liquid extraction. Among the samples, the ethyl acetate fraction possessed the high total phenolic (440.48 microg GAE/mg DE) and flavonoid content (455.22 microg RE/mg DE), the best antioxidant activity (the DPPH radical, ABTS radical, and superoxide anion scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power were 1.71, 1.14, 2.40, 1.29, and 2.4 times higher than that of control Vc, respectively), the most powerful alpha-glucosidase inhibitory ability with the IC(50) value of 190.03 microg/mL which was 2.2-folds higher than control acarbose, the strongest proliferative inhibitory ability against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell with the IC(50) values of 37.92 and 13.43 microg/mL, which were considerable with control cisplatin, as well as certain inhibition abilities on acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase. HPLC analysis showed that the luteolin, rosmarinic acid, rutin, and catechin were the dominant components of the ethyl acetate fraction. Animal experiments further demonstrated that the ethyl acetate fraction could significantly decrease the serum glucose level, food, and water intake of streptozotocin-induced diabetic SD rats, increase the body weight, modulate their serum levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C, improve the histopathology and glycogen accumulation in liver and intestinal tissue. Taken together, P. frutescens leaf exhibits excellent hypoglycemic activity in vitro and in vivo, and could be exploited as a source of natural antidiabetic agent.
ESTHER : Wang_2021_Foods_10_
PubMedSearch : Wang_2021_Foods_10_
PubMedID: 33546380

Title : One-step orientated immobilization of nanobodies and its application for immunoglobulin purification - Fu_2019_J.Chromatogr.A_1603_15
Author(s) : Fu J , Li J , Wang W , Wu H , Zhou P , Li Y , He Q , Tu Z
Ref : Journal of Chromatography A , 1603 :15 , 2019
Abstract : Affinity chromatography technologies play an important role in the purification of antibodies. To prepare affinity materials, prior isolation and purification of affinity ligands are required before coupling onto solid supports, which is quite expensive and laborious in large-scale applications. In this study, a one-step approach which circumvents the ligand purification procedures was developed to fabricate affinity gel for purifying immunoglobulin G (IgG). A self-labeling tag, haloalkane dehalogenase, was fused to the C-terminal of an anti-Fc variable domain of the heavy chain of the heavy-chain antibody (AFV) which was isolated in previous work. The AFV binds to various sources of IgG and is highly thermal stable. The fusion protein, namely HAFV, was expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble protein. The binding affinity of HAFV to the Fc region of IgG was characterized and compared with the untagged anti-Fc nanobody. Next, the HAFV was immobilized directly from the crude cell lysate of isopropylthio-beta-D-galactoside (IPTG) induced E. coli. The effects of NaCl concentrations and pH on the capacity of the HAFV resin were investigated. In addition, the one-step coupled HAFV resin was compared with the AFV resin and commercial resins (Protein A and Protein G) by evaluating the static capacity and stability. Though the Protein A (8.34+/-0.37mg/ml) and Protein G (9.19+/-0.28mg/ml) showed higher static capacity, the static capacity of HAFV resin (8.21+/-0.30mg/ml) was better than that of the untagged AFV gel (6.48+/-0.56mg/ml). The recovery results calculated for the reusability and stability show that there is no significant difference between the results obtained for the HAFV gel with those of the untagged AFV gel and commercial Protein A and G. After stored at 37 for 7 days and recycled 10 times, the static capacity of HAFV gel remains above 78%. Our strategy is site-specific, cost-effective, reproducible, and has the potential to dramatically cut down the costs of affinity materials for IgG purification.
ESTHER : Fu_2019_J.Chromatogr.A_1603_15
PubMedSearch : Fu_2019_J.Chromatogr.A_1603_15
PubMedID: 31213362
Gene_locus related to this paper: xanau-halo1

Title : Concentration-response relationship of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist FRM-17874 across multiple in vitro and in vivo assays - Stoiljkovic_2015_Biochem.Pharmacol_97(4)_576
Author(s) : Stoiljkovic M , Leventhal L , Chen A , Chen T , Driscoll R , Flood D , Hodgdon H , Hurst R , Nagy D , Piser T , Tang C , Townsend M , Tu Z , Bertrand D , Koenig G , Hajos M
Ref : Biochemical Pharmacology , 97 :576 , 2015
Abstract : Pharmacological activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7 nAChRs) may improve cognition in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The present studies describe an integrated pharmacological analysis of the effects of FRM-17874, an analogue of encenicline, on alpha7 nAChRs in vitro and in behavioral and neurophysiological assays relevant to cognitive function. FRM-17874 demonstrated high affinity binding to human alpha7 nAChRs, displacing [(3)H]-methyllacaconitine (Ki=4.3nM). In Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human alpha7 nAChRs, FRM-17874 acted as an agonist, evoking inward currents with an EC50 of 0.42muM. Lower concentrations of FRM-17874 (0.01-3nM) elicited no detectable current, but primed receptors to respond to sub-maximal concentrations of acetylcholine. FRM-17874 improved novel object recognition in rats, and enhanced memory acquisition and reversal learning in the mouse water T-maze. Neurophysiological correlates of cognitive effects of drug treatment, such as synaptic transmission, long-term potentiation, and hippocampal theta oscillation were also evaluated. Modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity was observed in rat hippocampal slices at concentrations of 3.2 and 5nM. FRM-17874 showed a dose-dependent facilitation of stimulation-induced hippocampal theta oscillation in mice and rats. The FRM-17874 unbound brain concentration-response relationship for increased theta oscillation power was similar in both species, exhibited a biphasic pattern peaking around 3nM, and overlapped with active doses and exposures observed in cognition assays. In summary, behavioral and neurophysiological assays indicate a bell-shaped effective concentration range and this report represents the first attempt to explain the concentration-response function of alpha7 nAChR-mediated pro-cognitive effects in terms of receptor pharmacology.
ESTHER : Stoiljkovic_2015_Biochem.Pharmacol_97(4)_576
PubMedSearch : Stoiljkovic_2015_Biochem.Pharmacol_97(4)_576
PubMedID: 26206187

Title : Genome analysis of a major urban malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi - Jiang_2014_Genome.Biol_15_459
Author(s) : Jiang X , Peery A , Hall AB , Sharma A , Chen XG , Waterhouse RM , Komissarov A , Riehle MM , Shouche Y , Sharakhova MV , Lawson D , Pakpour N , Arensburger P , Davidson VL , Eiglmeier K , Emrich S , George P , Kennedy RC , Mane SP , Maslen G , Oringanje C , Qi Y , Settlage R , Tojo M , Tubio JM , Unger MF , Wang B , Vernick KD , Ribeiro JM , James AA , Michel K , Riehle MA , Luckhart S , Sharakhov IV , Tu Z
Ref : Genome Biol , 15 :459 , 2014
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Anopheles stephensi is the key vector of malaria throughout the Indian subcontinent and Middle East and an emerging model for molecular and genetic studies of mosquito-parasite interactions. The type form of the species is responsible for the majority of urban malaria transmission across its range.
RESULTS: Here, we report the genome sequence and annotation of the Indian strain of the type form of An. stephensi. The 221 Mb genome assembly represents more than 92% of the entire genome and was produced using a combination of 454, Illumina, and PacBio sequencing. Physical mapping assigned 62% of the genome onto chromosomes, enabling chromosome-based analysis. Comparisons between An. stephensi and An. gambiae reveal that the rate of gene order reshuffling on the X chromosome was three times higher than that on the autosomes. An. stephensi has more heterochromatin in pericentric regions but less repetitive DNA in chromosome arms than An. gambiae. We also identify a number of Y-chromosome contigs and BACs. Interspersed repeats constitute 7.1% of the assembled genome while LTR retrotransposons alone comprise more than 49% of the Y contigs. RNA-seq analyses provide new insights into mosquito innate immunity, development, and sexual dimorphism.
CONCLUSIONS: The genome analysis described in this manuscript provides a resource and platform for fundamental and translational research into a major urban malaria vector. Chromosome-based investigations provide unique perspectives on Anopheles chromosome evolution. RNA-seq analysis and studies of immunity genes offer new insights into mosquito biology and mosquito-parasite interactions.
ESTHER : Jiang_2014_Genome.Biol_15_459
PubMedSearch : Jiang_2014_Genome.Biol_15_459
PubMedID: 25244985
Gene_locus related to this paper: anoga-Q7PVF9 , anoga-q7q837 , anost-a0a1a9thh9 , anost-a0a182xxz0 , anost-a0a182xzf1 , anost-a0a182xxy9 , anoga-q7q887

Title : Heteroaromatic and aniline derivatives of piperidines as potent ligands for vesicular acetylcholine transporter - Li_2013_J.Med.Chem_56_6216
Author(s) : Li J , Zhang X , Zhang Z , Padakanti PK , Jin H , Cui J , Li A , Zeng D , Rath NP , Flores H , Perlmutter JS , Parsons SM , Tu Z
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 56 :6216 , 2013
Abstract : To identify suitable lipophilic compounds having high potency and selectivity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), a heteroaromatic ring or a phenyl group was introduced into the carbonyl-containing scaffold for VAChT ligands. Twenty new compounds with ALogD values between 0.53 and 3.2 were synthesized, and their in vitro binding affinities were assayed. Six of them (19a, 19e, 19g, 19k, and 24a-b) displayed high affinity for VAChT (Ki = 0.93-18 nM for racemates) and moderate to high selectivity for VAChT over sigma1 and sigma2 receptors (Ki = 44-4400-fold). These compounds have a methyl or a fluoro substitution that provides the position for incorporating PET radioisotopes C-11 or F-18. Compound (-)-[(11)C]24b (Ki = 0.78 nM for VAChT, 1200-fold over sigma receptors) was successfully synthesized and evaluated in vivo in rats and nonhuman primates. The data revealed that (-)-[(11)C]24b has highest binding in striatum and has favorable pharmacokinetics in the brain.
ESTHER : Li_2013_J.Med.Chem_56_6216
PubMedSearch : Li_2013_J.Med.Chem_56_6216
PubMedID: 23802889

Title : Novel pyrrolopyrimidine analogues as potent dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors based on pharmacokinetic property-driven optimization - Xie_2012_Eur.J.Med.Chem_52_205
Author(s) : Xie H , Zeng L , Zeng S , Lu X , Zhang G , Zhao X , Cheng N , Tu Z , Li Z , Xu H , Yang L , Zhang X , Huang M , Zhao J , Hu W
Ref : Eur Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 52 :205 , 2012
Abstract : We previously reported a highly potent DPP-IV inhibitor 6 with low in vivo efficacy. While trying to maintain consistent in vitro and in vivo biological activity, we initiated a pharmacokinetic property-driven optimization to improve the metabolic stability and permeability of inhibitor 6. A simple scaffold replacement of thienopyrimidine with pyrrolopyrimidine (21a) led to significantly improved metabolic stability (4% vs. 65% remaining). Further modification of the pyrrolopyrimidine scaffold to produce compound 21j resulted in much better oral bioavailability than 6. Importantly, compound 21j exhibits greater in vivo efficacy than does 6 and Alogliptin and is worthy of further development.
ESTHER : Xie_2012_Eur.J.Med.Chem_52_205
PubMedSearch : Xie_2012_Eur.J.Med.Chem_52_205
PubMedID: 22475866

Title : Synthesis and evaluation of in vitro bioactivity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter inhibitors containing two carbonyl groups - Tu_2012_Bioorg.Med.Chem_20_4422
Author(s) : Tu Z , Wang W , Cui J , Zhang X , Lu X , Xu J , Parsons SM
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry , 20 :4422 , 2012
Abstract : To identify selective high-affinity ligands for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), we have incorporated a carbonyl group into the structures of trozamicol and prezamicol scaffolds, and also converted the secondary amines of the piperidines of trozamicols and prezamicols into amides. Of 18 new racemic compounds, 4 compounds displayed high affinity for VAChT (K(i)=10-20 nM) and greater than 300-fold selectivity for VAChT over sigma(1) and sigma(2) receptors, namely (4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-4'-hydroxy-[1,3'-bipiperidin]-1'-yl)(3-methylthiophen-2-yl)m ethanone oxalate (9g) (K(i-VAChT)=11.4 nM, VAChT/sigma(1)=1063, VAChT/sigma(2)=370), (1'-benzoyl-4'-hydroxy-[1,3'-bipiperidin]-4-yl)(4-methoxyphenyl)methanone oxalate (10c) (K(i-VAChT)=15.4 nM, VAChT/sigma(1)=374, VAChT/sigma(2)=315), (4'-hydroxy-1'-(thiophene-2-carbonyl)-[1,3'-bipiperidin]-4-yl)(4-methoxyphenyl)me thanone oxalate (10e) (K(i-VAChT)=19.0 nM, VAChT/sigma(1)=1787, VAChT/sigma(2)=335), and (4'-hydroxy-1'-(3-methylthiophene-2-carbonyl)-[1,3'-bipiperidin]-4-yl)(4-methoxyp henyl)methanone oxalate (10g) (K(i-VAChT)=10.2 nM, VAChT/sigma(1)=1500, VAChT/sigma(2)=2030). These four compounds can be radiosynthesized with C-11 or F-18 to validate their possibilities of serving as PET probes for quantifying the levels of VAChT in vivo.
ESTHER : Tu_2012_Bioorg.Med.Chem_20_4422
PubMedSearch : Tu_2012_Bioorg.Med.Chem_20_4422
PubMedID: 22739089

Title : Synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of carbonyl group-containing analogues for sigma1 receptors - Wang_2011_J.Med.Chem_54_5362
Author(s) : Wang W , Cui J , Lu X , Padakanti PK , Xu J , Parsons SM , Luedtke RR , Rath NP , Tu Z
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 54 :5362 , 2011
Abstract : To identify the ligands for sigma(1) receptors that are potent and selective, analogues of prezamicol and trozamicol scaffolds of carbonyl-containing vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) inhibitors were explored. Of the 23 analogues synthesized and tested, 5 displayed very high affinity for sigma(1) (K(i) = 0.48-4.05 nM) and high selectivity for sigma(1) relative to sigma(2) receptors (sigma(1)/sigma(2) selectivity of >749-fold). Four of the five compounds (14a, 14b, 14c, and 14e) showed very low affinity for VAChT (K(i) > 290 nM), and the fifth compound (14g) showed moderate affinity for VAChT (K(i) = 44.2 nM). The compound [1'-(4-fluorobenzyl)-3'-hydroxy[1,4']bipiperidinyl-4-yl]-(4-fluorophenyl)methanon e (14a) displayed very high affinity and selectivity for sigma(1) receptor (K(i) = 0.48 nM, sigma(1)/sigma(2) > 3600). All four of these most promising compounds (14a, 14b, 14c, and 14e) can be radiosynthesized with fluorine-18 or carbon-11, which will allow further evaluation of their properties as PET probes for imaging sigma(1) receptor in vivo.
ESTHER : Wang_2011_J.Med.Chem_54_5362
PubMedSearch : Wang_2011_J.Med.Chem_54_5362
PubMedID: 21732626

Title : Synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of carbonyl group-containing inhibitors of vesicular acetylcholine transporter - Efange_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_2825
Author(s) : Efange SM , Khare AB , von Hohenberg K , Mach RH , Parsons SM , Tu Z
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 53 :2825 , 2010
Abstract : To identify selective high-affinity inhibitors of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), we have interposed a carbonyl group between the phenyl and piperidyl groups of the prototypical VAChT ligand vesamicol and its more potent analogues benzovesamicol and 5-aminobenzovesamicol. Of 33 compounds synthesized and tested, 6 display very high affinity for VAChT (K(i), 0.25-0.66 nM) and greater than 500-fold selectivity for VAChT over sigma(1) and sigma(2) receptors. Twelve compounds have high affinity (K(i), 1.0-10 nM) and good selectivity for VAChT. Furthermore, 3 halogenated compounds, namely, trans-3-[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)piperidinyl]-2-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (28b) (K(i) = 2.7 nM, VAChT/sigma selectivity index = 70), trans-3-[4-(5-iodothienylcarbonyl)piperidinyl]-2-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphth alene (28h) (K(i) = 0.66 nM, VAChT/sigma selectivity index = 294), and 5-amino-3-[4-(p-fluorobenzoyl)piperidinyl]-2-hydroxy-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthale ne (30b) (K(i) = 2.40 nM, VAChT/sigma selectivity index = 410) display moderate to high selectivity for VAChT. These three compounds can be synthesized with the corresponding radioisotopes so as to serve as PET/SPECT probes for imaging the VAChT in vivo.
ESTHER : Efange_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_2825
PubMedSearch : Efange_2010_J.Med.Chem_53_2825
PubMedID: 20218624

Title : Synthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of 18F-labeled positron emission tomography (PET) ligands for imaging the vesicular acetylcholine transporter - Tu_2009_J.Med.Chem_52_1358
Author(s) : Tu Z , Efange SM , Xu J , Li S , Jones LA , Parsons SM , Mach RH
Ref : Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , 52 :1358 , 2009
Abstract : A new class of vesicular acetylcholine transporter inhibitor that incorporates a carbonyl group into the benzovesamicol structure was synthesized, and analogues were evaluated in vitro. (+/-)-trans-2-Hydroxy-3-(4-(4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoyl)piperidino)tetralin (9e) has K(i) values of 2.70 nM for VAChT, 191 nM for sigma(1), and 251 nM for sigma(2). The racemic precursor (9d) was resolved via chiral HPLC, and (+/-)-[(18)F]9e, (-)-[(18)F]9e, and (+)-[(18)F]9e were respectively radiolabeled via microwave irradiation of the appropriate precursors with [(18)F]/F(-) and Kryptofix/K(2)CO(3) in DMSO with radiochemical yields of approximately 50-60% and specific activities of >2000 mCi/micromol. (-)-[(18)F]9e uptake in rat brain was consistent with in vivo selectivity for the VAChT with an initial uptake of 0.911 %ID/g in rat striatum and a striatum/cerebellum ratio of 1.88 at 30 min postinjection (p.i.). MicroPET imaging of macaques demonstrated a 2.1 ratio of (-)-[(18)F]9e in putamen versus cerebellum at 2 h p.i. (-)-[(18)F]9e has potential to be a PET tracer for clinical imaging of the VAChT.
ESTHER : Tu_2009_J.Med.Chem_52_1358
PubMedSearch : Tu_2009_J.Med.Chem_52_1358
PubMedID: 19203271

Title : The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum - Richards_2008_Nature_452_949
Author(s) : Richards S , Gibbs RA , Weinstock GM , Brown SJ , Denell R , Beeman RW , Gibbs R , Bucher G , Friedrich M , Grimmelikhuijzen CJ , Klingler M , Lorenzen M , Roth S , Schroder R , Tautz D , Zdobnov EM , Muzny D , Attaway T , Bell S , Buhay CJ , Chandrabose MN , Chavez D , Clerk-Blankenburg KP , Cree A , Dao M , Davis C , Chacko J , Dinh H , Dugan-Rocha S , Fowler G , Garner TT , Garnes J , Gnirke A , Hawes A , Hernandez J , Hines S , Holder M , Hume J , Jhangiani SN , Joshi V , Khan ZM , Jackson L , Kovar C , Kowis A , Lee S , Lewis LR , Margolis J , Morgan M , Nazareth LV , Nguyen N , Okwuonu G , Parker D , Ruiz SJ , Santibanez J , Savard J , Scherer SE , Schneider B , Sodergren E , Vattahil S , Villasana D , White CS , Wright R , Park Y , Lord J , Oppert B , Brown S , Wang L , Weinstock G , Liu Y , Worley K , Elsik CG , Reese JT , Elhaik E , Landan G , Graur D , Arensburger P , Atkinson P , Beidler J , Demuth JP , Drury DW , Du YZ , Fujiwara H , Maselli V , Osanai M , Robertson HM , Tu Z , Wang JJ , Wang S , Song H , Zhang L , Werner D , Stanke M , Morgenstern B , Solovyev V , Kosarev P , Brown G , Chen HC , Ermolaeva O , Hlavina W , Kapustin Y , Kiryutin B , Kitts P , Maglott D , Pruitt K , Sapojnikov V , Souvorov A , Mackey AJ , Waterhouse RM , Wyder S , Kriventseva EV , Kadowaki T , Bork P , Aranda M , Bao R , Beermann A , Berns N , Bolognesi R , Bonneton F , Bopp D , Butts T , Chaumot A , Denell RE , Ferrier DE , Gordon CM , Jindra M , Lan Q , Lattorff HM , Laudet V , von Levetsow C , Liu Z , Lutz R , Lynch JA , da Fonseca RN , Posnien N , Reuter R , Schinko JB , Schmitt C , Schoppmeier M , Shippy TD , Simonnet F , Marques-Souza H , Tomoyasu Y , Trauner J , Van der Zee M , Vervoort M , Wittkopp N , Wimmer EA , Yang X , Jones AK , Sattelle DB , Ebert PR , Nelson D , Scott JG , Muthukrishnan S , Kramer KJ , Arakane Y , Zhu Q , Hogenkamp D , Dixit R , Jiang H , Zou Z , Marshall J , Elpidina E , Vinokurov K , Oppert C , Evans J , Lu Z , Zhao P , Sumathipala N , Altincicek B , Vilcinskas A , Williams M , Hultmark D , Hetru C , Hauser F , Cazzamali G , Williamson M , Li B , Tanaka Y , Predel R , Neupert S , Schachtner J , Verleyen P , Raible F , Walden KK , Angeli S , Foret S , Schuetz S , Maleszka R , Miller SC , Grossmann D
Ref : Nature , 452 :949 , 2008
Abstract : Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors, as well as P450 and other detoxification enzymes. Development in Tribolium is more representative of other insects than is Drosophila, a fact reflected in gene content and function. For example, Tribolium has retained more ancestral genes involved in cell-cell communication than Drosophila, some being expressed in the growth zone crucial for axial elongation in short-germ development. Systemic RNA interference in T. castaneum functions differently from that in Caenorhabditis elegans, but nevertheless offers similar power for the elucidation of gene function and identification of targets for selective insect control.
ESTHER : Richards_2008_Nature_452_949
PubMedSearch : Richards_2008_Nature_452_949
PubMedID: 18362917
Gene_locus related to this paper: trica-ACHE1 , trica-ACHE2 , trica-d2a0g9 , trica-d2a0h0 , trica-d2a0w9 , trica-d2a0x0 , trica-d2a0x1 , trica-d2a0x3 , trica-d2a0x4.1 , trica-d2a0x4.2 , trica-d2a0x6 , trica-d2a2b8 , trica-d2a2h1 , trica-d2a3c3 , trica-d2a3g9 , trica-d2a5y5 , trica-d2a309 , trica-d2a514 , trica-d2a515 , trica-d2a516 , trica-d2a577 , trica-d2a578 , trica-d6w6x8 , trica-d6w7f9 , trica-d6w7h2 , trica-d6w8e7 , trica-d6w9c0 , trica-d6w855 , trica-d6wac8 , trica-d6wan4 , trica-d6wd50 , trica-d6wd73 , trica-d6wd74 , trica-A0A139WM97 , trica-d6wfu3 , trica-d6wgl2 , trica-d6wj57 , trica-d6wj59 , trica-d6wjs3 , trica-d6wl31 , trica-d6wnv1 , trica-d6wpl0 , trica-d6wqd6 , trica-d6wqr4 , trica-d6ws52 , trica-d6wsm0 , trica-d6wu38 , trica-d6wu39 , trica-d6wu40 , trica-d6wu41 , trica-d6wu44 , trica-d6wvk5 , trica-d6wvz7 , trica-d6wwu9 , trica-d6wwv0 , trica-d6wxz0 , trica-d6wyy1 , trica-d6wyy2 , trica-d6x0z2 , trica-d6x0z5 , trica-d6x0z6 , trica-d6x4b2 , trica-d6x4e8 , trica-d6x4e9 , trica-d6x197 , trica-d7eip7 , trica-d7eld3 , trica-d7us45 , trica-q5wm43 , trica-q5zex9 , trica-d6wie5 , trica-d6w7t0 , trica-d6x4h0 , trica-d6x4h1 , trica-a0a139wae8 , trica-a0a139wc96 , trica-d6x325 , trica-d2a4s2 , trica-d6wvw8

Title : Identification of cytochrome P450 1A2 as enzyme involved in the microsomal metabolism of Huperzine A - Ma_2003_Eur.J.Pharmacol_461_89
Author(s) : Ma X , Wang H , Xin J , Zhang T , Tu Z
Ref : European Journal of Pharmacology , 461 :89 , 2003
Abstract : Huperzine A is a reversible and selective cholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. To identify which cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes are involved in the metabolism of Huperzine A, an in vitro study was performed with rat liver microsomes and immunoinhibition and chemical inhibition methods. Huperzine A metabolism was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and expressed as Huperzine A disappearance rate. Result showed that 76.2% of Huperzine A metabolism was inhibited by CYP1A2 antibody and 17.8% by CYP3A1/2 antibody. Inhibitory effects produced by CYP2C11 and 2E1 antibodies were minor. The CYP1A2 substrate phenacetin showed an inhibitory effect of 70.3%. In conclusion, Huperzine A metabolism in rat liver microsomes is mediated primarily by CYP1A2, with a probable secondary contribution of CYP3A1/2. CYP2C11 and 2E1 are likely not involved in Huperzine A metabolism.
ESTHER : Ma_2003_Eur.J.Pharmacol_461_89
PubMedSearch : Ma_2003_Eur.J.Pharmacol_461_89
PubMedID: 12586202

Title : The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae - Holt_2002_Science_298_129
Author(s) : Holt RA , Subramanian GM , Halpern A , Sutton GG , Charlab R , Nusskern DR , Wincker P , Clark AG , Ribeiro JM , Wides R , Salzberg SL , Loftus B , Yandell M , Majoros WH , Rusch DB , Lai Z , Kraft CL , Abril JF , Anthouard V , Arensburger P , Atkinson PW , Baden H , de Berardinis V , Baldwin D , Benes V , Biedler J , Blass C , Bolanos R , Boscus D , Barnstead M , Cai S , Center A , Chaturverdi K , Christophides GK , Chrystal MA , Clamp M , Cravchik A , Curwen V , Dana A , Delcher A , Dew I , Evans CA , Flanigan M , Grundschober-Freimoser A , Friedli L , Gu Z , Guan P , Guigo R , Hillenmeyer ME , Hladun SL , Hogan JR , Hong YS , Hoover J , Jaillon O , Ke Z , Kodira C , Kokoza E , Koutsos A , Letunic I , Levitsky A , Liang Y , Lin JJ , Lobo NF , Lopez JR , Malek JA , McIntosh TC , Meister S , Miller J , Mobarry C , Mongin E , Murphy SD , O'Brochta DA , Pfannkoch C , Qi R , Regier MA , Remington K , Shao H , Sharakhova MV , Sitter CD , Shetty J , Smith TJ , Strong R , Sun J , Thomasova D , Ton LQ , Topalis P , Tu Z , Unger MF , Walenz B , Wang A , Wang J , Wang M , Wang X , Woodford KJ , Wortman JR , Wu M , Yao A , Zdobnov EM , Zhang H , Zhao Q , Zhao S , Zhu SC , Zhimulev I , Coluzzi M , della Torre A , Roth CW , Louis C , Kalush F , Mural RJ , Myers EW , Adams MD , Smith HO , Broder S , Gardner MJ , Fraser CM , Birney E , Bork P , Brey PT , Venter JC , Weissenbach J , Kafatos FC , Collins FH , Hoffman SL
Ref : Science , 298 :129 , 2002
Abstract : Anopheles gambiae is the principal vector of malaria, a disease that afflicts more than 500 million people and causes more than 1 million deaths each year. Tenfold shotgun sequence coverage was obtained from the PEST strain of A. gambiae and assembled into scaffolds that span 278 million base pairs. A total of 91% of the genome was organized in 303 scaffolds; the largest scaffold was 23.1 million base pairs. There was substantial genetic variation within this strain, and the apparent existence of two haplotypes of approximately equal frequency ("dual haplotypes") in a substantial fraction of the genome likely reflects the outbred nature of the PEST strain. The sequence produced a conservative inference of more than 400,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms that showed a markedly bimodal density distribution. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed strong evidence for about 14,000 protein-encoding transcripts. Prominent expansions in specific families of proteins likely involved in cell adhesion and immunity were noted. An expressed sequence tag analysis of genes regulated by blood feeding provided insights into the physiological adaptations of a hematophagous insect.
ESTHER : Holt_2002_Science_298_129
PubMedSearch : Holt_2002_Science_298_129
PubMedID: 12364791
Gene_locus related to this paper: anoga-a0nb77 , anoga-a0nbp6 , anoga-a0neb7 , anoga-a0nei9 , anoga-a0nej0 , anoga-a0ngj1 , anoga-a7ut12 , anoga-a7uuz9 , anoga-ACHE1 , anoga-ACHE2 , anoga-agCG44620 , anoga-agCG44666 , anoga-agCG45273 , anoga-agCG45279 , anoga-agCG45511 , anoga-agCG46741 , anoga-agCG47651 , anoga-agCG47655 , anoga-agCG47661 , anoga-agCG47690 , anoga-agCG48797 , anoga-AGCG49362 , anoga-agCG49462 , anoga-agCG49870 , anoga-agCG49872 , anoga-agCG49876 , anoga-agCG50851 , anoga-agCG51879 , anoga-agCG52383 , anoga-agCG54954 , anoga-AGCG55021 , anoga-agCG55401 , anoga-agCG55408 , anoga-agCG56978 , anoga-ebiG239 , anoga-ebiG2660 , anoga-ebiG5718 , anoga-ebiG5974 , anoga-ebiG8504 , anoga-ebiG8742 , anoga-glita , anoga-nrtac , anoga-q5tpv0 , anoga-Q5TVS6 , anoga-q7pm39 , anoga-q7ppw9 , anoga-q7pq17 , anoga-Q7PQT0 , anoga-q7q8m4 , anoga-q7q626 , anoga-q7qa14 , anoga-q7qa52 , anoga-q7qal7 , anoga-q7qbj0 , anoga-f5hl20 , anoga-q7qkh2 , anoga-a0a1s4h1y7 , anoga-q7q887

Title : Chromaproline and Chromaperidine, nicotine agonists, and Donepezil, cholinesterase inhibitor, enhance performance of memory tasks in ovariectomized rats - Luine_2002_Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav_74_213
Author(s) : Luine V , Mohan G , Tu Z , Efange S
Ref : Pharmacol Biochem Behav , 74 :213 , 2002
Abstract : Chromaproline and Chromaperidine, two recently synthesized and pharmacologically characterized nicotinic agonists, and Donepezil (Aricept), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of memory loss, were evaluated for effects on performance of a visual recognition memory task (object recognition) and a spatial memory task (object placement). Ovariectomized female rats received the drugs chronically via subcutaneous Alzet minipumps. None of the drugs altered activity in the open field or the time spent exploring objects in the field. One week following initiation of treatment, all three drugs enhanced performance of the visual recognition task, but only Donepezil enhanced performance of the spatial memory task. With a longer period of treatment (3 weeks), the nicotinic agonist Chromaproline also enhanced object placement performance. Current results show the memory-enhancing efficacy of Donepezil in two additional memory tasks in rats and suggest that the novel nicotinic agonists, Chromaproline and Chromaperidine, may also be useful new drugs for the treatment of memory impairments/loss.
ESTHER : Luine_2002_Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav_74_213
PubMedSearch : Luine_2002_Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav_74_213
PubMedID: 12376170

Title : Synthesis and biological characterization of stable and radioiodinated (+\/-)-trans-2-hydroxy-3-P[4-(3-iodophenyl)piperidyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen e (3'-IBVM) - Efange_2000_Nucl.Med.Biol_27_749
Author(s) : Efange SM , von Hohenberg K , Khare AB , Tu Z , Mach RH , Parsons SM
Ref : Nucl Med Biol , 27 :749 , 2000
Abstract : The vesamicol analogue (+/-)-trans-2-Hydroxy-3-[4-(3-iodophenyl)piperidyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (3'-IBVM), a potent ligand for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), was evaluated as a potential radiotracer for studying VAChT density in vivo. In radioligand binding experiments, 3'-IBVM displays subnanomolar affinity for VAChT and 100-fold selectivity for VAChT over sigma1 and sigma2 receptors. Consistent with this profile, radioiodinated (+/-)-3'-IBVM distributed heterogenously in the rat brain following a bolus IV injection, displaying high concentrations in the striatum and moderate to low concentrations in the cortex and cerebellum, respectively. However, co-injection of the radiotracer with the sigma ligand haloperidol resulted in significant reductions of radiotracer levels in all brain regions examined. Therefore, radioiodinated (+/-)-IBVM appears to bind to both VAChT and sigma receptors in vivo.
ESTHER : Efange_2000_Nucl.Med.Biol_27_749
PubMedSearch : Efange_2000_Nucl.Med.Biol_27_749
PubMedID: 11150707

Title : Analysis of a vitellogenin gene of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti and comparisons to vitellogenins from other organisms - Romans_1995_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_25_939
Author(s) : Romans P , Tu Z , Ke Z , Hagedorn HH
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 25 :939 , 1995
Abstract : A genomic clone of the Aedes aegypti vitellogenin A1 gene was sequenced including 2015 bp of 5' untranscribed sequence, 6369 bp of open reading frame interrupted by two introns, and a short 3' untranslated region. Primer extension was used to identify the transcription initiation site. The amino termini of the large and small subunits were located by N-terminal sequencing of vitellin purified from eggs. The length of the signal sequence and the position of the cleavage site between the two subunits were also determined. Three sequential imperfect repeats were found near the beginning of the small subunit. The sequence of the coding region appears to be polymorphic. Comparison of the signal sequences of seven insect vitellogenin genes revealed several conserved leucines, and a conserved position of an intron. However, the signal sequences are not conserved between these genes and the yolk protein genes of Cyclorraphid Dipteran insects. The cleavage sites between the small and large subunits in the vitellogenins of the mosquito, A. aegypti, sawfly, Athalia rosae, boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, and silkworm, Bombyx mori are flanked by sequences rich in serine. Pairwise dot matrix analysis at the protein level showed that the mosquito, boll weevil and silkworm vitellogenins are significantly related with approx. 50% similarity. One region of the three insect vitellogenin genes, near the N-terminal of the large subunit, showed the highest levels of similarity, from 57.5 to 64.4%. The position of cysteines in insect vitellogenins is conserved, particularly in the C-terminus of the large subunit. Dot matrix comparison of the mosquito vitellogenin with that of Xenopus laevis and Caenorhabditis elegans showed much lower, but still significant degrees of relationship. Pairwise comparisons of the mosquito vitellogenin and the Drosophila melanogaster yolk proteins did not show significant similarities. Potential regulatory regions in the mosquito VgA1 gene were identified by comparison to regulatory elements known from other organisms, especially D. melanogaster, which could provide useful information for further functional analysis.
ESTHER : Romans_1995_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_25_939
PubMedSearch : Romans_1995_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_25_939
PubMedID: 7550249