Shi X

General

Full name : Shi Xuerong

First name : Xuerong

Mail : Department of Biochemical Pharmacology\/Division of Biochemistry, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910-7500

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Country : USA

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References (50)

Title : Improved lipase performance by covalent immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B on amino acid modified microcrystalline cellulose as green renewable support - Li_2024_Colloids.Surf.B.Biointerfaces_235_113764
Author(s) : Li J , Shi X , Qin X , Liu M , Wang Q , Zhong J
Ref : Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces , 235 :113764 , 2024
Abstract : Development of immobilized lipase with excellent catalytic performance and low cost is the major challenge for large-scale industrial applications. In this study, green renewable microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) that was hydrophobically modified with D-alanine (Ala) or L-lysine (Lys) was used for immobilizing Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB). The improved catalytic properties were investigated by experimental and computational methods. CALB immobilized on MCC-Ala with higher hydrophobicity showed better catalytic activity than CALB@MCC-Lys because the increased flexibility of the lid region of CALB@MCC-Ala favored the formation of open conformation. Additionally, the low root mean square deviation and the high beta-sheet and alpha-helix contents of CALB@MCC-Ala indicated that the structure became more stable, leading to a significantly enhanced stability (54.80% and 90.90% relative activity at 70 degreesC and pH 9.0, respectively) and good reusability (48.92% activity after 5 cycles). This study provides a promising avenue to develop immobilized lipase with high catalytic properties for industry applications.
ESTHER : Li_2024_Colloids.Surf.B.Biointerfaces_235_113764
PubMedSearch : Li_2024_Colloids.Surf.B.Biointerfaces_235_113764
PubMedID: 38301428

Title : A portable colorimetric sensing platform for rapid and sensitive quantification of dichlorvos pesticide based on Fe-Mn bimetallic oxide nanozyme-participated highly efficient chromogenic catalysis - Liu_2024_Anal.Chim.Acta_1292_342243
Author(s) : Liu SG , Wang H , Zhao Q , Gao W , Shi X , Liu Z
Ref : Anal Chim Acta , 1292 :342243 , 2024
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Dichlorvos (DDVP), as a highly effective insecticide, is widely used in agricultural production. However, DDVP residue in foodstuffs adversely affects human health. Conventional instrumental analysis can provide highly sensitive and accurate detection of DDVP, while the need of bulky and expensive equipment limits their application in resource-poor areas and on-site detection. Therefore, the development of easily portable sensing platforms for convenient, rapid and sensitive quantification of DDVP is very essential for ensuring food safety. RESULT: A portable colorimetric sensing platform for rapid and sensitive quantification of DDVP is developed based on nanozyme-participated highly efficient chromogenic catalysis. The Fe-Mn bimetallic oxide (FeMnOx) nanozyme possesses excellently oxidase-like activity and can efficiently catalyze oxidation of 3, 3', 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) into a blue oxide with a very low Michaelis constant (K(m)) of 0.0522 mM. The nanozyme-catalyzed chromogenic reaction can be mediated by DDVP via inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Thus, trace DDVP concentration-dependent color evolution is achieved and DDVP can be sensitively detected by spectrophotometry. Furthermore, a smartphone-integrated 3D-printed miniature lightbox is fabricated as the colorimetric signal acquisition and processing device. Based on the FeMnOx nanozyme and smartphone-integrated lightbox system, the portable colorimetric sensing platform of DDVP is obtained and it has a wide linear range from 1 to 3000 ng mL(-1) with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 0.267 ng mL(-1) for DDVP quantification. SIGNIFICANCE: This represents a new portable colorimetric sensing platform that can perform detection of DDVP in foodstuffs with simplicity, sensitivity, and low cost. The work not only offers an alternative to rapid and sensitive detection of DDVP, but also provides a new insight for the development of advanced sensors by the combination of nanozyme, 3D-printing and information technologies.
ESTHER : Liu_2024_Anal.Chim.Acta_1292_342243
PubMedSearch : Liu_2024_Anal.Chim.Acta_1292_342243
PubMedID: 38309847

Title : Carboxylesterase and Cytochrome P450 Confer Metabolic Resistance Simultaneously to Azoxystrobin and Some Other Fungicides in Botrytis cinerea - Wang_2024_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
Author(s) : Wang Q , Wang X , Cai D , Yu J , Chen X , Niu W , Wang S , Liu X , Zhou D , Yin F , Wang T , Shi X , Wu Z , Zhang J , Hao J , Liu P
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , : , 2024
Abstract : Plant pathogens have frequently shown multidrug resistance (MDR) in the field, often linked to efflux and sometimes metabolism of fungicides. To investigate the potential role of metabolic resistance in B. cinerea strains showing MDR, the azoxystrobin-sensitive strain B05.10 and -resistant strain Bc242 were treated with azoxystrobin. The degradation half-life of azoxystrobin in Bc242 (9.63 days) was shorter than that in B05.10 (28.88 days). Azoxystrobin acid, identified as a metabolite, exhibited significantly lower inhibition rates on colony and conidia (9.34 and 11.98%, respectively) than azoxystrobin. Bc242 exhibited higher expression levels of 34 cytochrome P450s (P450s) and 11 carboxylesterase genes (CarEs) compared to B05.10 according to RNA-seq analysis. The expression of P450 genes Bcin_02g01260 and Bcin_12g06380, along with the CarEs Bcin_12g06360 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulted in reduced sensitivity to various fungicides, including azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin, iprodione, and carbendazim. Thus, the mechanism of B. cinerea MDR is linked to metabolism mediated by the CarE and P450 genes.
ESTHER : Wang_2024_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
PubMedSearch : Wang_2024_J.Agric.Food.Chem__
PubMedID: 38226868 || 38634420

Title : Astaxanthin activates the Nrf2\/Keap1\/HO-1 pathway to inhibit oxidative stress and ferroptosis, reducing triphenyl phosphate (TPhP)-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity - Zhang_2024_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_271_115960
Author(s) : Zhang Q , Luo C , Li Z , Huang W , Zheng S , Liu C , Shi X , Ma Y , Ni Q , Tan W , Peng J , Chen Y , Wu W , Li J , Wu K
Ref : Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety , 271 :115960 , 2024
Abstract : Triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) serves as a major organophosphorus flame retardant, and its induced neurodevelopmental toxicity has attracted widespread attention, but the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we involved zebrafish to explore the new mechanism of TPhP inducing oxidative stress and ferroptosis to promote neurodevelopmental toxicity. The results suggested that TPhP affected the embryonic development, reduced the number of new neurons, and led to abnormal neural behavior in zebrafish larvae. TPhP also induced ROS accumulation, activated the antioxidant defense signal Nrf2 and Keap1, and significantly changed the activities of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). In addition, TPhP induced ferroptosis in zebrafish, which was reflected in the increase of Fe(2+) content, the abnormal expression of GPX4 protein and genes related to iron metabolism (gpx4a, slc7a11, acsl4b, tfa, slc40a1, fth1b, tfr2, tfr1a, tfr1b and ncoa4). Astaxanthin intervention specifically inhibited ROS levels, and reversed SLC7A11 and GPX4 expression levels and Fe(2+) metabolism thus alleviating ferroptosis induced by TPhP. Astaxanthin also partially reversed the activity of AChE, GST and the expression of neurodevelopmental-related genes (gap43, gfap, neurog1 and syn2a), so as to partially rescue the embryonic developmental abnormalities and motor behavior disorders induced by TPhP. More interestingly, the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis-related protein BAX, anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2, Caspase3 and Caspase9 was significantly altered in the TPhP exposed group, which could be also reversed by Astaxanthin intervention. In summary, our results suggested that TPhP exposure can induce oxidative stress and ferroptosis, thereby causing neurodevelopment toxicity to zebrafish, while Astaxanthin can partially reverse oxidative stress and reduce the neurodevelopmental toxicity of zebrafish larvae by activating Nrf2/Keap1/HO-1 signaling pathway.
ESTHER : Zhang_2024_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_271_115960
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2024_Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf_271_115960
PubMedID: 38219622

Title : Characterization of a Novel Esterase Belonging to Family V from Marinobacter flavimaris - He_2024_J.Ocean.Univ.China_23_221
Author(s) : He J , Zhang Y , Wu L , Wang Y , Zhang H , Liu Z , Shi X
Ref : J. Ocean Univ. China (Oceanic and Coastal Sea Research) , 23 :221 , 2024
Abstract : Lipolytic enzymes have attracted enormous attentions because of their ability in ester hydrolysis, ester synthesis, transesterification and other biochemical reactions. Bacteria are important sources of lipolytic enzymes applied in industry. Here, a novel lipolytic enzyme encoded by esterase gene est1347 was identified in Marinobacter flavimaris WLL162, and was purified and characterized. The lipolytic enzyme Est1347 consisted of 312 amino acid residues and a 21-amino-acids N-terminal signal peptide with a predicted molecular weight of 34.2 kDa. It belongs to family V of bacterial lipolytic enzymes based on the amino acid sequence homology analysis. Est1347 is a mesophilic and alkali-resistant enzyme with the highest activity at 45? and pH 8.5; it is stable at temperatures below 50C and pH 7.511.0. Est1347 showed a preference for middle-length chain substrate p-NPC10 and a wide range of other substrates. The Km, Vmax, Kcat and Kcat/Km values of Est1347 for p-NPC10 in pH 8.5 at 45C were 0.9411 mmol L-1, 1285 micromol min-1 mg-1, 698.91 s-1 and 743.65 s-1 (mmol L-1)-1, respectively. It is also tolerant to the metal ions, organic solvents and detergents. In conclusion, the esterase Est1347 laid a foundation for further study of bacterial lipolytic enzyme family V.
ESTHER : He_2024_J.Ocean.Univ.China_23_221
PubMedSearch : He_2024_J.Ocean.Univ.China_23_221
PubMedID:
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9gamm-g6yq95

Title : Neuron-secreted NLGN3 ameliorates ischemic brain injury via activating Galphai1\/3-Akt signaling - Chen_2023_Cell.Death.Dis_14_700
Author(s) : Chen ZG , Shi X , Zhang XX , Yang FF , Li KR , Fang Q , Cao C , Chen XH , Peng Y
Ref : Cell Death Dis , 14 :700 , 2023
Abstract : We here tested the potential activity and the underlying mechanisms of neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) against ischemia-reperfusion-induced neuronal cell injury. In SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and primary murine cortical neurons, NLGN3 activated Akt-mTOR and Erk signalings, and inhibited oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)/re-oxygenation (OGD/R)-induced cytotoxicity. Akt activation was required for NLGN3-induced neuroprotection. Galphai1/3 mediated NLGN3-induced downstream signaling activation. NLGN3-induced Akt-S6K1 activation was largely inhibited by Galphai1/3 silencing or knockout. Significantly, NLGN3-induced neuroprotection against OGD/R was almost abolished by Galphai1/3 silencing or knockout. In vivo, the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) procedure induced NLGN3 cleavage and secretion, and increased its expression and Akt activation in mouse brain tissues. ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 10) inhibition blocked MCAO-induced NLGN3 cleavage and secretion, exacerbating ischemic brain injury in mice. Neuronal silencing of NLGN3 or Galphai1/3 in mice also inhibited Akt activation and intensified MCAO-induced ischemic brain injury. Conversely, neuronal overexpression of NLGN3 increased Akt activation and alleviated MCAO-induced ischemic brain injury. Together, NLGN3 activates Galphai1/3-Akt signaling to protect neuronal cells from ischemia-reperfusion injury.
ESTHER : Chen_2023_Cell.Death.Dis_14_700
PubMedSearch : Chen_2023_Cell.Death.Dis_14_700
PubMedID: 37880221

Title : The role of s-palmitoylation in neurological diseases: implication for zDHHC family - Liao_2023_Front.Pharmacol_14_1342830
Author(s) : Liao D , Huang Y , Liu D , Zhang H , Shi X , Li X , Luo P
Ref : Front Pharmacol , 14 :1342830 , 2023
Abstract : S-palmitoylation is a reversible posttranslational modification, and the palmitoylation reaction in human-derived cells is mediated by the zDHHC family, which is composed of S-acyltransferase enzymes that possess the DHHC (Asp-His-His-Cys) structural domain. zDHHC proteins form an autoacylation intermediate, which then attaches the fatty acid to cysteine a residue in the target protein. zDHHC proteins sublocalize in different neuronal structures and exert dif-ferential effects on neurons. In humans, many zDHHC proteins are closely related to human neu-rological disor-ders. This review focuses on a variety of neurological disorders, such as AD (Alz-heimer's disease), HD (Huntington's disease), SCZ (schizophrenia), XLID (X-linked intellectual disability), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and glioma. In this paper, we will discuss and summarize the research progress regarding the role of zDHHC proteins in these neu-rological disorders.
ESTHER : Liao_2023_Front.Pharmacol_14_1342830
PubMedSearch : Liao_2023_Front.Pharmacol_14_1342830
PubMedID: 38293675

Title : Identification of a 2-phenylthiazole derivative acetylcholinesterase modulator with in vitro antitumor activity in breast cancer cells - Shi_2023_Chem.Biol.Drug.Des__
Author(s) : Shi X , Liu P , Ma Y , Li M , Zhang Z , Zhang X , Shi D , Si X
Ref : Chemical Biology Drug Des , : , 2023
Abstract : Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) is a serine hydrolase with classical function to degrade acetylcholine and terminate neurotransmission. While "nonclassical" functions of AchE were involved in cell growth, death, invasion, etc. The expression and activity of AchE is changed in tumors, suggesting AChE inhibitors (AchEIs) may serve as potential antitumor drugs. In this study, the antitumor activity of a series of 2-phenylthiazole derivatives originally designed and synthesized as AchEIs were investigated. One compound named A6, was screened out with superior antitumor efficacy, especially against breast cancer MCF-7 cells. A6 significantly disrupted the amino acid metabolism and inhibited migration of MCF-7. In addition, A6 induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. To clarify how A6 affected on MCF-7 cells, RNA-seq analysis was conducted to evaluate the whole genome effect of A6 on gene expression. A total of 153 genes were increased, and the expression of 81 genes was decreased. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed A6 treatment mainly disrupted sterol/cholesterol pathway, Ras signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, etc. Moreover, bioinformatic analysis and cell viability test showed A6 plays anticancer role by regulating Best1 and HIST1H2BJ. These results indicate that AchEI A6 could be a potential antitumor agent for breast cancer patients and could help the development of novel therapies.
ESTHER : Shi_2023_Chem.Biol.Drug.Des__
PubMedSearch : Shi_2023_Chem.Biol.Drug.Des__
PubMedID: 38009562

Title : Design, Synthesis, Calculation and Biological Activity Studies Based on Privileged Coumarin Derivatives as Multifunctional Anti-AD Lead Compound - Wang_2022_Chem.Biodivers__
Author(s) : Wang H , Su M , Shi X , Li X , Zhang X , Yang A , Shen R
Ref : Chem Biodivers , : , 2022
Abstract : Coumarins and their derivatives possessed a variety of biological activities and some of coumarin-based drugs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Alzheimer's disease (AD) has caused great losses to human society. However, due to its complex pathogenesis, the ideal therapeutic approach has not been found yet. Free radical scavenging activity which is one of the main activities of coumarin core structure is closely related to other anti-AD activities. Therefore, in this work coumarins was chosen as privileged lead compounds for the development of anti-AD drugs based on strategy of multi-target directed ligands (MTDLs). Derivatives 1-3 which could modulate multiple targets simultaneously, including ROS, cholinesterase, beta amyloid (Abeta) aggregation, and metal ions were designed and for the first time synthesized. Their anti-AD activities were studied both in vitro and in silico. Results showed that 1-3 possessed potent antioxidant activities and 7-OH group did change the electron distribution of the molecule and enhance the antioxidant activities. They also have good inhibition activities on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Abeta aggregation and compound 1 had the strongest AChE inhibitory effect among the three compounds (AChE IC 50 =11.15 microM). Compound 1-3 could also selectively chelate with Cu 2+ and Al 3+ to regulate the metal homeostasis. In silico simulations, including molecular docking and prediction of ADMET performance, indicated that 1-3 could interact with target proteins and cross the blood brain barrier. In conclusion, 1-3 could be promising MTDLs applied as anti-AD candidate drugs.
ESTHER : Wang_2022_Chem.Biodivers__
PubMedSearch : Wang_2022_Chem.Biodivers__
PubMedID: 36461922

Title : Comparative efficacy and acceptability of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine based on dosage in patients with vascular cognitive impairment: a network meta-analysis - Shi_2022_Curr.Alzheimer.Res__
Author(s) : Shi X , Ren G , Cui Y , Xu Z
Ref : Curr Alzheimer Res , : , 2022
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Considering the lack of direct comparison between cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine in patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), determining how to choose the best treatment plan remains inconclusive. Hence, we conducted the network meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and acceptability of these drugs. METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase and Web of Science were searched for double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the treatment of VCI, which involved donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, and memantine, from database inception to January 1, 2020. Then, a network meta-analysis based on the frequency method was conducted. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were included. Compared with the placebo, in terms of efficacy donepezil 5 mg (standardized mean difference = -1.11, 95% confidence interval = -1.88 to -0.34), donepezil 10 mg (-1.44, -2.31 to -0.56), galantamine 24 mg (-1.99, -3.03 to -0.95), and memantine 20 mg (-1.89, -2.93 to -0.86) were more effective on the cognition of ADAS-cog; and donepezil 5 mg (0.46, 0.12 to 0.81), donepezil 10 mg (0.76, 0.34 to 1.17), and rivastigmine 12mg (0.60, 0.10 to 1.10) exhibited superior benefits on the cognition of MMSE. Donepezil 10 mg (-0.25, -0.44 to -0.06; -1.47, -2.79 to -0.15) exhibited improvements on CDR-SB and EXIT25, respectively. In terms of acceptability, the memantine behaved as the best. CONCLUSIONS: Donepezil 5 mg, donepezil 10 mg, galantamine 24 mg, memantine 20 mg, and rivastigmine 12 mg have beneficial effects on cognition, and donepezil 10mg provides beneficial effects on executive function and global status. Based on the network meta-analysis, donepezil 10 mg might be the best choice, considering the benefits on cognition function, executive function and global status, but dose-related adverse reactions need to be noted. In the meantime, memantine is a better comprehensive choice, in terms of efficacy and safety acceptability.
ESTHER : Shi_2022_Curr.Alzheimer.Res__
PubMedSearch : Shi_2022_Curr.Alzheimer.Res__
PubMedID: 35048806

Title : Unexpected role for IGF-1 in starvation: Maintenance of blood glucose - Fang_2022_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_119_e2208855119
Author(s) : Fang F , Goldstein JL , Shi X , Liang G , Brown MS
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 119 :e2208855119 , 2022
Abstract : Wild-type (WT) mice maintain viable levels of blood glucose even when adipose stores are depleted by 6 d of 60% calorie restriction followed by a 23-h fast (hereafter designated as "starved" mice). Survival depends on ghrelin, an octanoylated peptide hormone. Mice that lack ghrelin suffer lethal hypoglycemia when subjected to the same starvation regimen. Ghrelin is known to stimulate secretion of growth hormone (GH), which in turn stimulates secretion of IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1). In the current study, we found that starved ghrelin-deficient mice had a 90% reduction in plasma IGF-1 when compared with starved WT mice. Injection of IGF-1 in starved ghrelin-deficient mice caused a twofold increase in glucose production and raised blood glucose to levels seen in starved WT mice. Increased glucose production was accompanied by increases in plasma glycerol, fatty acids and ketone bodies, and hepatic triglycerides. All of these increases were abolished when the mice were treated with atglistatin, an inhibitor of adipose tissue triglyceride lipase. We conclude that IGF-1 stimulates adipose tissue lipolysis in starved mice and that this lipolysis supplies energy and substrates that restore hepatic gluconeogenesis. This action of IGF-1 in starved mice is in contrast to its known action in inhibiting adipose tissue lipase in fed mice. Surprisingly, the ghrelin-dependent maintenance of plasma IGF-1 in starved mice was not mediated by GH. Direct injection of GH into starved ghrelin-deficient mice failed to increase plasma IGF-1. These data call attention to an unsuspected role of IGF-1 in the adaptation to starvation.
ESTHER : Fang_2022_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_119_e2208855119
PubMedSearch : Fang_2022_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_119_e2208855119
PubMedID: 35914126

Title : Two polyurethanases PueA and PueB are major extracellular lipases partly secreted by the mediation of their cognate ABC exporter AprDEF in Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 - Zha_2021_Lett.Appl.Microbiol__
Author(s) : Zha DM , Wang XL , Xiao XH , Shi HQ , Yang YW , Shi X , Kang YB
Ref : Lett Appl Microbiol , : , 2021
Abstract : Two polyurethanases PueA and PueB from P. protegens Pf-5 have been reported to have hydrolytic activity against synthetic p-nitrophenyl palmitate of lipase substrate, and PueA may play a more effective role in this activity. However, it is still unknown whether PueA and PueB play similar parts in the lipase activity against natural acylglycerols and achieve the extracellular secretion via their cognate ABC exporter AprDEF. In this study, we investigated these questions through the construction of four markerless deletion mutants in Pf5139 (deltaupp derivative of Pf-5), two heterologous co-expression strains and their three control strains in lipase-free Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), and detected their lipase activities by the tributyrin plate assay and the liquid culture assay. The results showed that PueA and PueB, classified as subfamily I.3 lipases, are major extracellular lipases involved in the uptake of oil in Pf-5, and PueA plays a leading role in extracellular lipase activity. In addition, the extracellular secretion of PueA and PueB can be partly mediated via AprDEF in Pf-5 and BL21(DE3). Finally, PueA and PueB are also able to achieve the extracellular secretion without the assistance of AprDEF in Pf-5 and BL21(DE3).
ESTHER : Zha_2021_Lett.Appl.Microbiol__
PubMedSearch : Zha_2021_Lett.Appl.Microbiol__
PubMedID: 34342880

Title : The Efficacy and Safety of Alzheimer's Disease Therapies: An Updated Umbrella Review - Fan_2021_J.Alzheimers.Dis__
Author(s) : Fan F , Liu H , Shi X , Ai Y , Liu Q , Cheng Y
Ref : J Alzheimers Dis , : , 2021
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Evidence summaries for efficacy and safety of frequently employed treatments of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to perform an updated umbrella review to identify an efficacious and safe treatment for AD patients. METHODS: We conducted a search for meta-analyses and systematic reviews on the Embase, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and Web of Science to address this knowledge gap. We examined the cognitive functions, behavioral symptoms, global clinical assessment, and Activities of Daily Living as efficacy endpoints, and the incidence of adverse events as safety profiles. RESULTS: Sixteen eligible papers including 149 studies were included in the umbrella review. The results showed that AChE inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, Huperzine A), Ginkgo biloba, and cerebrolysin appear to be beneficial for cognitive, global performances, and activities of daily living in patients with AD. Furthermore, anti-Abeta agents are unlikely to have an important effect on slowing cognitive or functional impairment in mild to moderate AD. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that AChE inhibitors, Ginkgo biloba, and cerebrolysin are the optimum cognitive and activities of daily living medication for patients with AD.
ESTHER : Fan_2021_J.Alzheimers.Dis__
PubMedSearch : Fan_2021_J.Alzheimers.Dis__
PubMedID: 34924395

Title : Characterization of a carboxylesterase with hyper-thermostability and alkali-stability from Streptomyces lividans TK24 - Chang_2021_Extremophiles__
Author(s) : Chang X , Wu S , Chen J , Xiong S , Wang P , Shi X , Wang A , Wang B
Ref : Extremophiles , : , 2021
Abstract : A gene (estA', 804 bp) from Streptomyces lividans TK24 was artificially synthesized and successfully overexpressed as a 6His-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli. It encoded a carboxylesterase (EstA) that composed of 267 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 28.56 kDa. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that EstA has typical characteristics of esterases, including a catalytic triad (Ser93-Asp194-His224) and a conserved pentapeptide motif (Gly91-Leu92-Ser93-Met94-Gly95). Simultaneously, phylogenetic analysis indicated that EstA belongs to family VI. Biochemical characterization displayed its optimum enzyme activity was at 55 and pH 8.5. Additionally, EstA exhibited higher activity towards short carbon substrates and showed the outstanding catalytic efficiency for pNPA2 with k(cat)/K(m) of 2296.14 +/- 10.35 s(-1) mM(-1). Notably, EstA has hyper-thermostability and good alkali stability. The activity of EstA did not change obviously when incubated at 50 and 100 for 337 and 1 h, independently. Besides, by incubating at 100 for 6 h, EstA remained about half of its initial activity. Moreover, EstA showed stability at pH ranging from 8.0 to 11.0, and about 90% residual enzyme activity was reserved by being treated at pH 8.0 or 9.0 for 80 h, especially. Such multiple features prepare EstA for a potential candidate in the field of biological catalysis of some industrial applications under harsh conditions.
ESTHER : Chang_2021_Extremophiles__
PubMedSearch : Chang_2021_Extremophiles__
PubMedID: 33515353
Gene_locus related to this paper: strco-SCO2123

Title : Inhibition of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Attenuates Bosutinib-Induced Blood Pressure Elevation -
Author(s) : Cui Z , Li B , Zhang Y , He J , Shi X , Wang H , Zhao Y , Yao L , Ai D , Zhang X , Zhu Y
Ref : Hypertension , 78 :1527 , 2021
PubMedID: 34601968

Title : The overexpression of three cytochrome P450 genes CYP6CY14, CYP6CY22 and CYP6UN1 contributed to metabolic resistance to dinotefuran in melon\/cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover - Chen_2020_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_167_104601
Author(s) : Chen A , Zhang H , Shan T , Shi X , Gao X
Ref : Pestic Biochem Physiol , 167 :104601 , 2020
Abstract : Dinotefuran, the third-generation neonicotinoid, has been applied against melon/cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover in China. The risk of resistance development, cross-resistance pattern and potential resistance mechanism of dinotefuran in A. gossypii were investigated. A dinotefuran-resistant strain of A. gossypii (DinR) with 74.7-fold resistance was established by continuous selection using dinotefuran. The DinR strain showed a medium level of cross resistance to thiamethoxam (15.2-fold), but no cross resistance to imidacloprid. The synergism assay indicated that piperonyl butoxide and triphenyl phosphate showed synergistic effects on dinotefuran toxicity to the DinR strain with a synergistic ratio of 8.3 and 2.5, respectively, while diethyl maleate showed no synergistic effect. The activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and carboxylesterase were significantly higher in DinR strain than in susceptible strain (SS). Moreover, the gene expression results showed that CYP6CY14, CYP6CY22 and CYP6UN1 were significantly overexpressed in DinR strain compared with SS strain. The expression of CYP6CY14 was 5.8-fold higher in DinR strain than in SS strain. Additionally, the transcription of CYP6CY14, CYP6CY22 and CYP6UN1 in A. gossypii showed dose- and time-dependent responses to dinotefuran exposure. Furthermore, knockdown of CYP6CY14, CYP6CY22 and CYP6UN1 via RNA interference (RNAi) significantly increased mortality of A. gossypii, when A. gossypii was treated with dinotefuran. These results demonstrated the overexpression of CYP6CY14, CYP6CY22 and CYP6UN1 contributed to dinotefuran resistance in A. gossypii.
ESTHER : Chen_2020_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_167_104601
PubMedSearch : Chen_2020_Pestic.Biochem.Physiol_167_104601
PubMedID: 32527429

Title : Esterase-mediated spinosad resistance in house flies Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) - Zhang_2020_Ecotoxicology_29_35
Author(s) : Zhang Y , Guo M , Ma Z , You C , Gao X , Shi X
Ref : Ecotoxicology , 29 :35 , 2020
Abstract : Although esterase-mediated spinosad resistance has been proposed for several insects, the associated molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of esterase-based spinosad resistance in house flies using a susceptible strain (SSS) and a spinosad-resistant, near-isogenic line (N-SRS). Combined with the synergistic effect of DEF on spinosad in the N-SRS strain, decreased ali-esterase activity in the spinosad-resistant strain has implicated the involvement of mutant esterase in spinosad resistance in house flies. Examination of the carboxylesterase gene MdalphaE7 in the two strains revealed that four non-synonymous mutations (Trp(251)-Leu, Asp(273)-Glu, Ala(365)-Val, and Ile(396)-Val) may be associated with spinosad resistance in house flies. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis further indicated a strong relationship between these four mutations and spinosad resistance. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR revealed a female-linked MdalphaE7 expression pattern in the N-SRS strain, which may contribute to sex-differential spinosad resistance in house flies.
ESTHER : Zhang_2020_Ecotoxicology_29_35
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2020_Ecotoxicology_29_35
PubMedID: 31749037
Gene_locus related to this paper: musdo-EST23aes07

Title : Evaluation of physiological and biochemical effects of two Sophora alopecuroides alkaloids on pea aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum - Ma_2020_Pest.Manag.Sci_76_4000
Author(s) : Ma T , Shi X , Ma S , Ma Z , Zhang X
Ref : Pest Manag Sci , 76 :4000 , 2020
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Sophora alopecuroides alkaloids are the main constituents for the broad bioactivities on insect pests, especially on aphids. However, the aphicidal mode of action of S. alopecuroides alkaloids remains unclear. To clarify the aphicidal action, avermectin was selected as a positive control, and matrine, sophocarpine were chosen as the representative alkaloids to determine the physiological and biochemical effects on pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum). RESULTS: The aphids treated by matrine and sophocarpine developed the intoxication symptoms of convulsions, paralysis, and death. However, avermectin showed no convulsions. Moreover, the two alkaloids had a significant inducing effect on glutamic acid decarboxylase, and the specific enzyme activity was 1.14-1.22 times of the control group. In the meanwhile, both matrine and sophocarpine possessed a dose-response and time-response inhibitory effect on alanine aminotransferase in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, the glutamate content in pea aphids treated with the two alkaloids increased significantly with time, which was about 1.5-2.0 times that of the control group. Similarly, the GABA content elevated significantly, with an increase of 1.0-1.3 times. In addition, all the treatments, except avermectin, presented inhibitory effects on Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) -ATPase, with dose-response and time-response effect. However, the three treatments had no significant effect on acetylcholinesterase and acetylcholine content. CONCLUSION: The toxicological action of matrine and sophocarpine is related to the regulation on glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid systems and has certain similarities to that of avermectin. These findings would provide a basis for further mechanism elucidation. 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
ESTHER : Ma_2020_Pest.Manag.Sci_76_4000
PubMedSearch : Ma_2020_Pest.Manag.Sci_76_4000
PubMedID: 32506722

Title : Genome sequencing of the Australian wild diploid species Gossypium australe highlights disease resistance and delayed gland morphogenesis - Cai_2020_Plant.Biotechnol.J_18_814
Author(s) : Cai Y , Cai X , Wang Q , Wang P , Zhang Y , Cai C , Xu Y , Wang K , Zhou Z , Wang C , Geng S , Li B , Dong Q , Hou Y , Wang H , Ai P , Liu Z , Yi F , Sun M , An G , Cheng J , Shi Q , Xie Y , Shi X , Chang Y , Huang F , Chen Y , Hong S , Mi L , Sun Q , Zhang L , Zhou B , Peng R , Zhang X , Liu F
Ref : Plant Biotechnol J , 18 :814 , 2020
Abstract : The diploid wild cotton species Gossypium australe possesses excellent traits including resistance to disease and delayed gland morphogenesis, and has been successfully used for distant breeding programmes to incorporate disease resistance traits into domesticated cotton. Here, we sequenced the G. australe genome by integrating PacBio, Illumina short read, BioNano (DLS) and Hi-C technologies, and acquired a high-quality reference genome with a contig N50 of 1.83 Mb and a scaffold N50 of 143.60 Mb. We found that 73.5% of the G. australe genome is composed of various repeat sequences, differing from those of G. arboreum (85.39%), G. hirsutum (69.86%) and G. barbadense (69.83%). The G. australe genome showed closer collinear relationships with the genome of G. arboreum than G. raimondii and has undergone less extensive genome reorganization than the G. arboreum genome. Selection signature and transcriptomics analyses implicated multiple genes in disease resistance responses, including GauCCD7 and GauCBP1, and experiments revealed induction of both genes by Verticillium dahliae and by the plant hormones strigolactone (GR24), salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Experiments using a Verticillium-resistant domesticated G. barbadense cultivar confirmed that knockdown of the homologues of these genes caused a significant reduction in resistance against Verticillium dahliae. Moreover, knockdown of a newly identified gland-associated gene GauGRAS1 caused a glandless phenotype in partial tissues using G. australe. The G. australe genome represents a valuable resource for cotton research and distant relative breeding as well as for understanding the evolutionary history of crop genomes.
ESTHER : Cai_2020_Plant.Biotechnol.J_18_814
PubMedSearch : Cai_2020_Plant.Biotechnol.J_18_814
PubMedID: 31479566
Gene_locus related to this paper: gosra-a0a0d2pzd7

Title : Cross-resistance and Fitness Cost Analysis of Resistance to Thiamethoxam in Melon and Cotton Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) - Zhang_2020_J.Econ.Entomol__
Author(s) : Zhang H , Chen A , Shan T , Dong W , Shi X , Gao X
Ref : J Econ Entomol , : , 2020
Abstract : The melon/cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a notorious pest in many crops. The neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam is widely used for A. gossypii control. To evaluate thiamethoxam resistance risk, a melon/cotton aphid strain with an extremely high level of resistance to thiamethoxam (>2,325.6-fold) was established after selection with thiamethoxam for 24 generations. Additionally, the cross-resistance pattern to other neonicotinoids and fitness were analyzed. The cross-resistance results showed the thiamethoxam-resistant strain had extremely high levels of cross-resistance against clothianidin (>311.7-fold) and nitenpyram (299.9-fold), high levels of cross-resistance against dinotefuran (142.3-fold) and acetamiprid (76.6-fold), and low cross-resistance against imidacloprid (9.3-fold). Compared with the life table of susceptible strain, the thiamethoxam-resistant strain had a relative fitness of 0.950, with significant decreases in oviposition days and fecundity and prolonged developmental duration. The molecular mechanism for fitness costs was studied by comparing the mRNA expression levels of juvenile hormone acid O-methyltransferase (JHAMT), juvenile hormone-binding protein (JHBP), juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH), ecdysone receptor (EcR), ultraspiracle protein (USP), and Vitellogenin (Vg) in the susceptible and thiamethoxam-resistant strains. Significant overexpression of JHEH and JHBP and downregulation of EcR and Vg expression were found in the thiamethoxam-resistant strain. These results indicate that A. gossypii has the potential to develop extremely high resistance to thiamethoxam after continuous exposure, with a considerable fitness cost and cross-resistance to other neonicotinoids.
ESTHER : Zhang_2020_J.Econ.Entomol__
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2020_J.Econ.Entomol__
PubMedID: 32372079

Title : Single intranasal immunization with chimpanzee adenovirus-based vaccine induces sustained and protective immunity against MERS-CoV infection - Jia_2019_Emerg.Microbes.Infect_8_760
Author(s) : Jia W , Channappanavar R , Zhang C , Li M , Zhou H , Zhang S , Zhou P , Xu J , Shan S , Shi X , Wang X , Zhao J , Zhou D , Perlman S , Zhang L
Ref : Emerg Microbes Infect , 8 :760 , 2019
Abstract : The recently identified Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe and fatal acute respiratory illness in humans. However, no approved prophylactic and therapeutic interventions are currently available. The MERS-CoV envelope spike protein serves as a crucial target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development, as it plays a critical role in mediating viral entry through interactions with the cellular receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). Here, we constructed a recombinant rare serotype of the chimpanzee adenovirus 68 (AdC68) that expresses full-length MERS-CoV S protein (AdC68-S). Single intranasal immunization with AdC68-S induced robust and sustained neutralizing antibody and T cell responses in BALB/c mice. In a human DPP4 knock-in (hDPP4-KI) mouse model, it completely protected against lethal challenge with a mouse-adapted MERS-CoV (MERS-CoV-MA). Passive transfer of immune sera to naive hDPP4-KI mice also provided survival advantages from lethal MERS-CoV-MA challenge. Analysis of sera absorption and isolated monoclonal antibodies from immunized mice demonstrated that the potent and broad neutralizing activity was largely attributed to antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein. These results show that AdC68-S can induce protective immune responses in mice and represent a promising candidate for further development against MERS-CoV infection in both dromedaries and humans.
ESTHER : Jia_2019_Emerg.Microbes.Infect_8_760
PubMedSearch : Jia_2019_Emerg.Microbes.Infect_8_760
PubMedID: 31130102

Title : The blood parameters and liver function changed inconsistently among children between burns and traumatic injuries - Nie_2019_PeerJ_7_e6415
Author(s) : Nie C , Wang T , Yu H , Wang X , Zeng X , Wei Z , Shi X
Ref : PeerJ , 7 :e6415 , 2019
Abstract : Objective: Burn and traumatic injury are two kinds of injury by modality. They cause acute phase response and lead to a series of pathological and physiological changes. In this study, we explored whether there are differences in routine blood parameters and liver enzyme levels between burned and traumatically injured children. Methods: Patients under 18 years old with injuries were recruited. Their demographic and clinical data were recorded. Collected clinical data included routine blood parameters (white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), platelets (PLT), hemoglobin (HB)), serological enzyme levels (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholinesterase (CHE)), and total protein (TP) levels (albumin (ALB), globulin (GLB)). A generalized linear model and multivariate analysis of variance were used to conduct comparisons. Results: A total of 162 children (109 with burns and 53 with traumatic injuries) with a mean age of 4.36 +/- 4.29 years were enrolled in the study. Burned children had higher levels of RBC, HB, WBC, AST and lower levels of TP, CHE, ALB than traumatically injured children (P < 0.05). Moreover, the concentration of WBC and HB was higher in males compared to females (P < 0.001). Conversely, the level of AST and TP in males was lower, AST levels were significantly lower in males (P = 0.005). Age positively correlated with the levels of HB, AST and TP (P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with WBC (P < 0.001). With decreasing body mass index (BMI), the levels of WBC, HB, AST and TP significantly increased in both groups of injured children (P < 0.001). In addition, ISS was positively correlated with WBC and HB levels (P < 0.001), but negatively correlated with AST and TP levels (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Children with burn injuries suffered a greater acute response and liver damage than traumatically injured children. This may in part underlie clinical observations of differences in children morbidity and mortality in response to different injury types.
ESTHER : Nie_2019_PeerJ_7_e6415
PubMedSearch : Nie_2019_PeerJ_7_e6415
PubMedID: 30775182

Title : Structural Definition of a Unique Neutralization Epitope on the Receptor-Binding Domain of MERS-CoV Spike Glycoprotein - Zhang_2018_Cell.Rep_24_441
Author(s) : Zhang S , Zhou P , Wang P , Li Y , Jiang L , Jia W , Wang H , Fan A , Wang D , Shi X , Fang X , Hammel M , Wang S , Wang X , Zhang L
Ref : Cell Rep , 24 :441 , 2018
Abstract : The major mechanism of antibody-mediated neutralization of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) involves competition with the cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) for binding to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) glycoprotein. Here, we report a unique epitope and unusual neutralizing mechanism of the isolated human antibody MERS-4. Structurally, MERS-4 approached the RBD from the outside of the RBD-DPP4 binding interface. Such binding resulted in the folding of the beta5-beta6 loop toward a shallow groove on the RBD interface critical for accommodating DPP4. The key residues for binding are identified through site-directed mutagenesis. Structural modeling revealed that MERS-4 binds to RBD only in the "up" position in the S trimer. Furthermore, MERS-4 demonstrated synergy with several reported antibodies. These results indicate that MERS-4 neutralizes MERS-CoV by indirect rather than direct competition with DPP4. This mechanism provides a valuable addition for the combined use of antibodies against MERS-CoV infection.
ESTHER : Zhang_2018_Cell.Rep_24_441
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2018_Cell.Rep_24_441
PubMedID: 29996104

Title : A pooled analysis of mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy for liver disease - Zhao_2018_Stem.Cell.Res.Ther_9_72
Author(s) : Zhao L , Chen S , Shi X , Cao H , Li L
Ref : Stem Cell Res Ther , 9 :72 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Liver disease is a major cause of death and disability. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) show promise for the treatment of liver disease. However, whether MSC-based therapy is more effective than conventional treatment is unclear, as are the optimal MSC source, the administration frequency, and the most effective MSC delivery route. We therefore undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs against liver disease and the related factors. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline (PubMed), Cochrane Library, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and SinoMed CBM to identify studies published up to June 2017 involving liver disease patients receiving MSC-based therapy and which reported estimates of liver function during the follow-up period. RESULTS: Thirty-nine studies were selected from 672 publications. According to a meta-analysis of 23 controlled studies, compared with conventional treatment MSC therapy significantly improves liver function in patients with liver disease in terms of the model of end-stage liver disease score, albumin, alanine aminotransferase, and total bilirubin levels, and prothrombin time, up to 6 months after administration. However, it has no beneficial effects in terms of prothrombin activity, international normalized ratio, or cholinesterase level. Considerable heterogeneity was identified at most time points. Subgroup analyses showed that a single MSC injection was more effective than multiple injections, MSC administration was more effective via the hepatic artery than the peripheral vein, and MSCs derived from bone marrow were more effective than those derived from the umbilical cord. CONCLUSIONS: MSC-based therapy is relatively safe and improves liver function during the first 6 months after administration. A single injection administration via the hepatic artery and MSCs derived from bone marrow are optimal in terms of improving liver function. However the significant heterogeneity among studies and discontinuous results of the subgroup meta-analysis should be addressed; moreover the long-term efficacy of MSC therapy warrants further investigation.
ESTHER : Zhao_2018_Stem.Cell.Res.Ther_9_72
PubMedSearch : Zhao_2018_Stem.Cell.Res.Ther_9_72
PubMedID: 29562935

Title : Compound but non-linked heterozygous p.W14X and p.L279 V LPL gene mutations in a Chinese patient with long-term severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent acute pancreatitis - Li_2018_Lipids.Health.Dis_17_144
Author(s) : Li X , Yang Q , Shi X , Chen W , Pu N , Li W , Li J
Ref : Lipids Health Dis , 17 :144 , 2018
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Variants in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2), apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5), GPIHBP1 and LMF1 genes may cause severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), which is now the second-leading aetiology of acute pancreatitis in China. METHODS: The patient and his family were assessed for gene variants by Sanger sequencing of exons and exon-intron junctions of the LPL, GPIHBP1, APOA5, APOC2, and LMF1 genes. Post-heparin blood was collected for LPL mass and activity detection. RESULTS: The patient had suffered from long-term severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent abdominal pain for over 30 years, since age 26, and 3 bouts of acute pancreatitis. Two heterozygous LPL single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compound but dislinked: a single-nucleotide substitution (c.42G > A) resulting in the substitution of tryptophan with a stop codon (p.W14X) in one allele, and a single-nucleotide substitution (c.835C > G) resulting in a leucine-to-valine substitution (p.L279 V) in another allele. Only one SNP, p.L279 V, was detected in his son. Post-heparin LPL activity and mass were also lower in the patient. CONCLUSION: Two heterozygous LPL SNPs, W14X and L279 V, were newly found to be compound but dislinked, which may cause long-term severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent acute pancreatitis.
ESTHER : Li_2018_Lipids.Health.Dis_17_144
PubMedSearch : Li_2018_Lipids.Health.Dis_17_144
PubMedID: 29921298
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-LPL

Title : Stereoselective Hydrolysis of Epoxides by reVrEH3, a Novel Vigna radiata Epoxide Hydrolase with High Enantioselectivity or High and Complementary Regioselectivity - Hu_2017_J.Agric.Food.Chem_65_9861
Author(s) : Hu D , Tang C , Li C , Kan T , Shi X , Feng L , Wu M
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 65 :9861 , 2017
Abstract : To provide more options for the stereoselective hydrolysis of epoxides, an epoxide hydrolase (VrEH3) gene from Vigna radiata was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant VrEH3 displayed the maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 45 degrees C and high stability at pH 4.5-7.5 and 55 degrees C. Notably, reVrEH3 exhibited high and complementary regioselectivity toward styrene oxides 1a-3a and high enantioselectivity (E = 48.7) toward o-cresyl glycidyl ether 9a. To elucidate these interesting phenomena, the interactions of the three-dimensional structure between VrEH3 and enantiomers of 1a and 9a were analyzed by molecular docking simulation. Using E. coli/vreh3 whole cells, gram-scale preparations of (R)-1b and (R)-9a were performed by enantioconvergent hydrolysis of 100 mM rac-1a and kinetic resolution of 200 mM rac-9a in the buffer-free water system at 25 degrees C. These afforded (R)-1b with >99% eep and 78.7% overall yield after recrystallization and (R)-9a with >99% ees, 38.7% overall yield, and 12.7 g/L/h space-time yield.
ESTHER : Hu_2017_J.Agric.Food.Chem_65_9861
PubMedSearch : Hu_2017_J.Agric.Food.Chem_65_9861
PubMedID: 29058432
Gene_locus related to this paper: vigra-Vreh3

Title : Elevated carboxylesterase activity contributes to the lambda-cyhalothrin insensitivity in quercetin fed Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) - Chen_2017_PLoS.One_12_e0183111
Author(s) : Chen C , Liu Y , Shi X , Desneux N , Han P , Gao X
Ref : PLoS ONE , 12 :e0183111 , 2017
Abstract : Quercetin as one of the key plant secondary metabolite flavonol is ubiquitous in terrestrial plants. In this study, the decrease in sensitivity to lambda-cyhalothrin was observed in quercetin-fed Helicoverpa armigera larvae. In order to figure out the mechanisms underlying the decreased sensitivity of H. armigera larvae to lambda-cyhalothrin by quercetin induction, the changes in carboxylesterase activity and in-vitro hydrolytic metabolic capacity to lambda-cyhalothrin were examined. The LC50 value of quercetin-fed H. armigera larvae to lambda-cyhalothrin showed 2.41-fold higher than that of the control. S, S, S-Tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) treatment showed a synergism effect on lambda-cyhalothrin toxicity to quercetin-fed H. armigera. Moreover, the activity of carboxylesterase was significantly higher in quercetin-fed H. armigera larvae after fed on quercetin for 48 h. The in-vitro hydrolytic metabolic capacity to lambda-cyhalothrin in quercetin-fed H. armigera larvae midgut was 289.82 nmol 3-PBA/mg protein/min, which is significant higher than that in the control group (149.60 nmol 3-PBA/mg protein/min). The elevated CarE enzyme activity and corresponding increased hydrolytic metabolic capacity to lambda-cyhalothrin in quercetin-fed H. armigera contributed to the enhanced tolerance to lambda-cyhalothrin.
ESTHER : Chen_2017_PLoS.One_12_e0183111
PubMedSearch : Chen_2017_PLoS.One_12_e0183111
PubMedID: 28817718

Title : Effects of spirotetramat treatments on fecundity and carboxylesterase expression of Aphis gossypii Glover - Gong_2016_Ecotoxicology_25_655
Author(s) : Gong Y , Shi X , Desneux N , Gao X
Ref : Ecotoxicology , 25 :655 , 2016
Abstract : Spirotetramat is a novel tetramic acid-based insecticide, belonging to keto-enol pesticide family, with a novel mode of action; it interferes with lipid biosynthesis. Its insecticide activity against various agricultural pest insects have been demonstrated (e.g. on Myzus persicae, Bemisia tabaci and Tetranychus urticae). However, information available is currently limited on the efficacy of spirotetramat on the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, a key cotton pest worldwide. We assessed the spirotetramat toxicity on A. gossypii and evaluated its effects on aphid fecundity when exposed to a sublethal concentration (LC10) and to increasing lethal concentrations (LC25, LC50, and LC75). A key mechanism involved in insecticide resistance in aphids relates to esterase activity. We estimated the CarE activity and a CarE gene expression in aphids in response to spirotetramat exposure, then we tested tolerance of offspring to spirotetramat when the parents were exposed to the highest concentration tested in our study (LC75). Results showed that spirotetramat showed increasing toxicity to A. gossypii with exposure duration to treated leaves; LC50 ranged from 23,675.68 to 12.27 mg/L for 1 to 5-days exposure. In addition, spirotetramat reduced aphid daily fecundity, in all concentration treatments, especially with up to 90 % reduction in case of exposure to LC75. Total CarE activity increased dramatically and CarE mRNA expression was also up regulated in aphids after exposure to LC75 spirotetramat. Finally, the tolerance to spirotetramat in offspring (when parents were exposed to the LC75) showed a 2.5-fold increase when compared to control aphids. Consequently, spiroteramat showed potential for pest management of cotton aphids owing to both lethal and sublethal activities, notably strong impact on aphid fecundity. However, we also demonstrated that increased tolerance of A. gossypii to spirotetramat may happen through increased CarE- activity and subsequent metabolic degradation of the insecticide in aphids' body.
ESTHER : Gong_2016_Ecotoxicology_25_655
PubMedSearch : Gong_2016_Ecotoxicology_25_655
PubMedID: 26898726

Title : Toxicological Differences Between NMDA Receptor Antagonists and Cholinesterase Inhibitors - Shi_2016_Am.J.Alzheimers.Dis.Other.Demen_31_405
Author(s) : Shi X , Lin X , Hu R , Sun N , Hao J , Gao C
Ref : Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen , 31 :405 , 2016
Abstract : Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), represented by donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine, used to be the only approved class of drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. After the approval of memantine by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been recognized by authorities and broadly used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Along with complementary mechanisms of action, NMDA antagonists and ChEIs differ not only in therapeutic effects but also in adverse reactions, which is an important consideration in clinical drug use. And the number of patients using NMDA antagonists and ChEIs concomitantly has increased, making the matter more complicated. Here we used the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System for statistical analysis , in order to compare the adverse events of memantine and ChEIs. In general, the clinical evidence confirmed the safety advantages of memantine over ChEIs, reiterating the precautions of clinical drug use and the future direction of antidementia drug development.
ESTHER : Shi_2016_Am.J.Alzheimers.Dis.Other.Demen_31_405
PubMedSearch : Shi_2016_Am.J.Alzheimers.Dis.Other.Demen_31_405
PubMedID: 26769920

Title : An overview on therapeutics attenuating amyloid beta level in Alzheimer's disease: targeting neurotransmission, inflammation, oxidative stress and enhanced cholesterol levels - Zhou_2016_Am.J.Transl.Res_8_246
Author(s) : Zhou X , Li Y , Shi X , Ma C
Ref : Am J Transl Res , 8 :246 , 2016
Abstract : Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common underlying cause of dementia, and novel drugs for its treatment are needed. Of the different theories explaining the development and progression of AD, "amyloid hypothesis" is the most supported by experimental data. This hypothesis states that the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to the formation of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides that congregate with formation and deposition of Abeta plaques in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Risk factors including neurotransmitter modulation, chronic inflammation, metal-induced oxidative stress and elevated cholesterol levels are key contributors to the disease progress. Current therapeutic strategies abating AD progression are primarily based on anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors as cognitive enhancers. The AChE inhibitor, donepezil, is proven to strengthen cognitive functions and appears effective in treating moderate to severe AD patients. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine, is also useful, and its combination with donepezil demonstrated a strong stabilizing effect in clinical studies on AD. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs delayed the onset and progression of AD and attenuated cognitive dysfunction. Based upon epidemiological evidence and animal studies, antioxidants emerged as potential AD preventive agents; however, clinical trials revealed inconsistencies. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiling demonstrated pleiotropic functions of the hypolipidemic class of drugs, statins, potentially contributing towards the prevention of AD. In addition, targeting the APP processing pathways, stimulating neuroprotective signaling mechanisms, using the amyloid anti-aggregants and Abeta immunotherapy surfaced as well-tested strategies in reducing the AD-like pathology. Overall, this review covers mechanism of inducing the Abeta formation, key risk factors and major therapeutics prevalent in the AD treatment nowadays. It also delineates the need for novel screening approaches towards identifying drugs that may prevent or at least limit the progression of this devastating disease.
ESTHER : Zhou_2016_Am.J.Transl.Res_8_246
PubMedSearch : Zhou_2016_Am.J.Transl.Res_8_246
PubMedID: 27158324

Title : Phleghenrines A-D and Neophleghenrine A, Bioactive and Structurally Rigid Lycopodium Alkaloids from Phlegmariurus henryi - Dong_2016_Org.Lett_18_4498
Author(s) : Dong LB , Wu XD , Shi X , Zhang ZJ , Yang J , Zhao QS
Ref : Org Lett , 18 :4498 , 2016
Abstract : Five new Lycopodium alkaloids, phleghenrines A-D (1-4) and neophleghenrine A (5), were isolated from Phlegmariurus henryi (Baker) Ching. The structures and absolute configurations of 1-5 were determined using extensive spectroscopic data coupled with computational calculations and revealed 1-4 possess a bicyclo[3.2.2]nonane core, whereas 5 possesses an unprecedented 9-azaprotoadamantane core. Compounds 1 and 4 showed potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities, and 4 is a good lead natural product for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
ESTHER : Dong_2016_Org.Lett_18_4498
PubMedSearch : Dong_2016_Org.Lett_18_4498
PubMedID: 27583693

Title : In vitro and in vivo metabolism and inhibitory activities of vasicine, a potent acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor - Liu_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0122366
Author(s) : Liu W , Shi X , Yang Y , Cheng X , Liu Q , Han H , Yang B , He C , Wang Y , Jiang B , Wang Z , Wang C
Ref : PLoS ONE , 10 :e0122366 , 2015
Abstract : Vasicine (VAS), a potential natural cholinesterase inhibitor, exhibited promising anticholinesterase activity in preclinical models and has been in development for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study systematically investigated the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of VAS in rat using ultra performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 72 metabolites were found based on a detailed analysis of their 1H- NMR and 13C NMR data. Six key metabolites were isolated from rat urine and elucidated as vasicinone, vasicinol, vasicinolone, 1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo [2,1-b] quinazolin-3-yl hydrogen sulfate, 9-oxo-1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo [2,1-b] quinazolin-3-yl hydrogen sulfate, and 1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo [2,1-b] quinazolin-3-beta-D-glucuronide. The metabolic pathway of VAS in vivo and in vitro mainly involved monohydroxylation, dihydroxylation, trihydroxylation, oxidation, desaturation, sulfation, and glucuronidation. The main metabolic soft spots in the chemical structure of VAS were the 3-hydroxyl group and the C-9 site. All 72 metabolites were found in the urine sample, and 15, 25, 45, 18, and 11 metabolites were identified from rat feces, plasma, bile, rat liver microsomes, and rat primary hepatocyte incubations, respectively. Results indicated that renal clearance was the major excretion pathway of VAS. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of VAS and its main metabolites were also evaluated. The results indicated that although most metabolites maintained potential inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE, but weaker than that of VAS. VAS undergoes metabolic inactivation process in vivo in respect to cholinesterase inhibitory activity.
ESTHER : Liu_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0122366
PubMedSearch : Liu_2015_PLoS.One_10_e0122366
PubMedID: 25849329

Title : Acetylcholine modulates the immune response in Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri - Shi_2014_Fish.Shellfish.Immunol_38_204
Author(s) : Shi X , Wang L , Zhou Z , Liu R , Li Y , Song L
Ref : Fish Shellfish Immunol , 38 :204 , 2014
Abstract : Acetylcholine (ACh) is an indispensable neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the cholinergic nervous system and it is implicated in the dynamic modulation of immune response in vertebrates. Although ACh has also been identified in most invertebrates, the knowledge about its immunomodulation is still limited. In the present study, the immunoreactivities of ACh and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were observed in all the tested tissues of scallop Chlamys farreri, including adductor muscle, mantle, gill, hepatopancreas, kidney and gonad. The ACh concentration in the supernate of scallop hemolymph increased from 11.59 +/- 0.27 to 14.36 +/- 0.17 muM L-1 at 6 h after LPS (0.5 mg ml-1) stimulation, and increased to 15.51 +/- 1.20 muM L-1 at 3 h after the stimulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) (50 ng ml-1). After LPS stimulation, the mRNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase (CfSOD), catalase (CfCAT) and lysozyme (CfLYZ) in hemocytes increased significantly at 3 h (P < 0.05), 6 h (P < 0.05) and 12 h (P < 0.05), respectively. Compared with the LPS treatment, the induction of CfSOD, CfCAT and CfLYZ expression in hemocytes was repressed effectively (P < 0.05) by the co-stimulation of LPS and ACh (5 x 10-7 M) at 3 h (P < 0.05), 6 h (P < 0.05) and 12 h (P < 0.05), respectively. Furthermore, the expression level of CfCAT in hemocytes increased significantly after 12 h by the co-stimulation with LPS and ACh (P < 0.05). These results indicated collectively that the scallop cholinergic nervous system could be activated by immune stimulations, and it might play an essential role in immunomodulation of scallops.
ESTHER : Shi_2014_Fish.Shellfish.Immunol_38_204
PubMedSearch : Shi_2014_Fish.Shellfish.Immunol_38_204
PubMedID: 24680755

Title : Identification of residues on human receptor DPP4 critical for MERS-CoV binding and entry - Song_2014_Virology_471-473C_49
Author(s) : Song W , Wang Y , Wang N , Wang D , Guo J , Fu L , Shi X
Ref : Virology , 471-473C :49 , 2014
Abstract : Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects host cells through binding the receptor binding domain (RBD) on its spike glycoprotein to human receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4). Here, we report identification of critical residues on hDPP4 for RBD binding and virus entry through analysis of a panel of hDPP4 mutants. Based on the RBD-hDPP4 crystal structure we reported, the mutated residues were located at the interface between RBD and hDPP4, which potentially changed the polarity, hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties of hDPP4, thereby interfering or disrupting their interaction with RBD. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding analysis and pseudovirus infection assay, we showed that several residues in hDPP4-RBD binding interface were important on hDPP4-RBD binding and viral entry. These results provide atomic insights into the features of interactions between hDPP4 and MERS-CoV RBD, and also provide potential explanation for cellular and species tropism of MERS-CoV infection.
ESTHER : Song_2014_Virology_471-473C_49
PubMedSearch : Song_2014_Virology_471-473C_49
PubMedID: 25461530
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DPP4

Title : Duplication of acetylcholinesterase gene in diamondback moth strains with different sensitivities to acephate - Sonoda_2014_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_48_83
Author(s) : Sonoda S , Shi X , Song D , Liang P , Gao X , Zhang Y , Li J , Liu Y , Li M , Matsumura M , Sanada-Morimura S , Minakuchi C , Tanaka T , Miyata T
Ref : Insect Biochemistry & Molecular Biology , 48 :83 , 2014
Abstract : This study examined the acetylcholinesterase 1 gene (AChE1) in Plutella xylostella strains with different sensitivities to acephate. Multiple haplotypes of the gene were found in the field-collected strains including distinct haplotypes carrying one or both previously reported mutations (A298S and G324A). Moreover, sequencing results indicated the presence of duplicated copies of the gene in the field-collected strains. No correlation was found between copy numbers of AChE1 and levels of resistance to acephate suggesting that extensive AChE1 duplication is not a major resistance factor at least in some P. xylostella strains. Proportions of the A298S and G324A mutations showed no correlation with levels of resistance to acephate. This suggests that acephate resistance of P. xylostella is complex and cannot be evaluated based on the AChE1 copy number or proportions of the resistance mutations alone.
ESTHER : Sonoda_2014_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_48_83
PubMedSearch : Sonoda_2014_Insect.Biochem.Mol.Biol_48_83
PubMedID: 24632376

Title : Molecular mechanism of strigolactone perception by DWARF14 - Nakamura_2013_Nat.Commun_4_2613
Author(s) : Nakamura H , Xue YL , Miyakawa T , Hou F , Qin HM , Fukui K , Shi X , Ito E , Ito S , Park SH , Miyauchi Y , Asano A , Totsuka N , Ueda T , Tanokura M , Asami T
Ref : Nat Commun , 4 :2613 , 2013
Abstract : Strigolactones (SLs) are phytohormones that inhibit shoot branching and function in the rhizospheric communication with symbiotic fungi and parasitic weeds. An alpha/beta-hydrolase protein, DWARF14 (D14), has been recognized to be an essential component of plant SL signalling, although its precise function remains unknown. Here we present the SL-dependent interaction of D14 with a gibberellin signalling repressor SLR1 and a possible mechanism of phytohormone perception in D14-mediated SL signalling. D14 functions as a cleavage enzyme of SLs, and the cleavage reaction induces the interaction with SLR1. The crystal structure of D14 shows that 5-hydroxy-3-methylbutenolide (D-OH), which is a reaction product of SLs, is trapped in the catalytic cavity of D14 to form an altered surface. The D14 residues recognizing D-OH are critical for the SL-dependent D14-SLR1 interaction. These results provide new insight into crosstalk between gibberellin and SL signalling pathways.
ESTHER : Nakamura_2013_Nat.Commun_4_2613
PubMedSearch : Nakamura_2013_Nat.Commun_4_2613
PubMedID: 24131983
Gene_locus related to this paper: orysj-Q10QA5

Title : Membrane phospholipid bilayer as a determinant of monoacylglycerol lipase kinetic profile and conformational repertoire - Nasr_2013_Protein.Sci_22_774
Author(s) : Nasr ML , Shi X , Bowman AL , Johnson M , Zvonok N , Janero DR , Vemuri VK , Wales TE , Engen JR , Makriyannis A
Ref : Protein Science , 22 :774 , 2013
Abstract : The membrane-associated serine hydrolase, monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), is a well-recognized therapeutic target that regulates endocannabinoid signaling. Crystallographic studies, while providing structural information about static MGL states, offer no direct experimental insight into the impact of MGL's membrane association upon its structure-function landscape. We report application of phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs as biomembrane models with which to evaluate the effect of a membrane system on the catalytic properties and conformational dynamics of human MGL (hMGL). Anionic and charge-neutral phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs enhanced hMGL's kinetic properties [apparent maximum velocity (Vmax ) and substrate affinity (Km )]. Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX MS) was used as a conformational analysis method to profile experimentally the extent of hMGL-nanodisc interaction and its impact upon hMGL structure. We provide evidence that significant regions of hMGL lid-domain helix alpha4 and neighboring helix alpha6 interact with the nanodisc phospholipid bilayer, anchoring hMGL in a more open conformation to facilitate ligand access to the enzyme's substrate-binding channel. Covalent modification of membrane-associated hMGL by the irreversible carbamate inhibitor, AM6580, shielded the active site region, but did not increase solvent exposure of the lid domain, suggesting that the inactive, carbamylated enzyme remains intact and membrane associated. Molecular dynamics simulations generated conformational models congruent with the open, membrane-associated topology of active and inhibited, covalently-modified hMGL. Our data indicate that hMGL interaction with a phospholipid membrane bilayer induces regional changes in the enzyme's conformation that favor its recruiting lipophilic substrate/inhibitor from membrane stores to the active site via the lid, resulting in enhanced hMGL catalytic activity and substrate affinity.
ESTHER : Nasr_2013_Protein.Sci_22_774
PubMedSearch : Nasr_2013_Protein.Sci_22_774
PubMedID: 23553709

Title : Structure of MERS-CoV spike receptor-binding domain complexed with human receptor DPP4 - Wang_2013_Cell.Res_23_986
Author(s) : Wang N , Shi X , Jiang L , Zhang S , Wang D , Tong P , Guo D , Fu L , Cui Y , Liu X , Arledge KC , Chen YH , Zhang L , Wang X
Ref : Cell Res , 23 :986 , 2013
Abstract : The spike glycoprotein (S) of recently identified Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) targets the cellular receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). Sequence comparison and modeling analysis have revealed a putative receptor-binding domain (RBD) on the viral spike, which mediates this interaction. We report the 3.0 A-resolution crystal structure of MERS-CoV RBD bound to the extracellular domain of human DPP4. Our results show that MERS-CoV RBD consists of a core and a receptor-binding subdomain. The receptor-binding subdomain interacts with DPP4 beta-propeller but not its intrinsic hydrolase domain. MERS-CoV RBD and related SARS-CoV RBD share a high degree of structural similarity in their core subdomains, but are notably divergent in the receptor-binding subdomain. Mutagenesis studies have identified several key residues in the receptor-binding subdomain that are critical for viral binding to DPP4 and entry into the target cell. The atomic details at the interface between MERS-CoV RBD and DPP4 provide structural understanding of the virus and receptor interaction, which can guide development of therapeutics and vaccines against MERS-CoV infection.
ESTHER : Wang_2013_Cell.Res_23_986
PubMedSearch : Wang_2013_Cell.Res_23_986
PubMedID: 23835475
Gene_locus related to this paper: human-DPP4

Title : Pyrene exposure influences the thyroid development of Sebastiscus marmoratus embryos - He_2012_Aquat.Toxicol_124-125_28
Author(s) : He C , Zuo Z , Shi X , Sun L , Wang C
Ref : Aquat Toxicol , 124-125 :28 , 2012
Abstract : Thyroid hormones play crucial roles in regulating development, morphogenesis, growth, and behavior in fishes. Some environmental pollutants have adverse effects on either development or function of the thyroid gland in fish. However, there are few reports on the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on fish thyroid. In the present study, rockfish (Sebastiscus marmoratus) embryos were exposed to pyrene (Py) for 5 days at the concentrations of 0.5, 5, and 50 nmol/L. The results showed that Py exposure decreased the expression of thyroid primordium markers, Pax2.1 and Nk2.1a as detected by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization, and reduced the concentration of T(3), but not T(4). Thyroid receptor genes (TRalpha and TRbeta) expression was down-regulated by Py. At the same time, Py exposure impaired the expression of thyroid development related genes, Fgfr2 and Hoxa3a expression, and altered the mRNA levels of thyroid function related genes, Deio1, Ttr, and Tg. In conclusion, the results demonstrated Py exposure inhibited thyroid development and influenced the function of thyroid system in rockfish embryos.
ESTHER : He_2012_Aquat.Toxicol_124-125_28
PubMedSearch : He_2012_Aquat.Toxicol_124-125_28
PubMedID: 22885797

Title : The immunomodulation of acetylcholinesterase in zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri - Shi_2012_PLoS.One_7_e30828
Author(s) : Shi X , Zhou Z , Wang L , Yue F , Wang M , Yang C , Song L
Ref : PLoS ONE , 7 :e30828 , 2012
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Acetycholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) is an essential hydrolytic enzyme in the cholinergic nervous system, which plays an important role during immunomodulation in vertebrates. Though AChEs have been identified in most invertebrates, the knowledge about immunomodulation function of AChE is still quite meagre in invertebrates. METHODOLOGY: A scallop AChE gene was identified from Chlamys farreri (designed as CfAChE), and its open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 522 amino acids. A signal peptide, an active site triad, the choline binding site and the peripheral anionic sites (PAS) were identified in CfAChE. The recombinant mature polypeptide of CfAChE (rCfAChE) was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115, and its activity was 71.3+/-1.3 U mg(-1) to catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine iodide. The mRNA transcripts of CfAChE were detected in haemocytes, hepatopancreas, adductor muscle, mantle, gill, kidney and gonad, with the highest expression level in hepatopancreas. The relative expression level of CfAChE mRNA in haemocytes was both up-regulated after LPS (0.5 mg mL(-1)) and human TNF-alpha (50 ng mL(-1)) stimulations, and it reached the highest level at 12 h (10.4-fold, P<0.05) and 1 h (3.2-fold, P<0.05), respectively. After Dichlorvos (DDVP) (50 mg L(-1)) stimulation, the CfAChE activity in the supernatant of haemolymph decreased significantly from 0.16 U mg(-1) at 0 h to 0.03 U mg(-1) at 3 h, while the expression level of lysozyme in the haemocytes was up-regulated and reached the highest level at 6 h, which was 3.0-fold (P<0.05) of that in the blank group. CONCLUSIONS: The results collectively indicated that CfAChE had the acetylcholine-hydrolyzing activity, which was in line with the potential roles of AChE in the neuroimmune system of vertebrates which may help to re-balance the immune system after immune response.
ESTHER : Shi_2012_PLoS.One_7_e30828
PubMedSearch : Shi_2012_PLoS.One_7_e30828
PubMedID: 22292052
Gene_locus related to this paper: 9biva-h6u1i3

Title : Genome sequence of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Dickeya dadantii 3937 - Glasner_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_2076
Author(s) : Glasner JD , Yang CH , Reverchon S , Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N , Condemine G , Bohin JP , Van Gijsegem F , Yang S , Franza T , Expert D , Plunkett G, 3rd , San Francisco MJ , Charkowski AO , Py B , Bell K , Rauscher L , Rodriguez-Palenzuela P , Toussaint A , Holeva MC , He SY , Douet V , Boccara M , Blanco C , Toth I , Anderson BD , Biehl BS , Mau B , Flynn SM , Barras F , Lindeberg M , Birch PR , Tsuyumu S , Shi X , Hibbing M , Yap MN , Carpentier M , Dassa E , Umehara M , Kim JF , Rusch M , Soni P , Mayhew GF , Fouts DE , Gill SR , Blattner FR , Keen NT , Perna NT
Ref : Journal of Bacteriology , 193 :2076 , 2011
Abstract : Dickeya dadantii is a plant-pathogenic enterobacterium responsible for the soft rot disease of many plants of economic importance. We present here the sequence of strain 3937, a strain widely used as a model system for research on the molecular biology and pathogenicity of this group of bacteria.
ESTHER : Glasner_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_2076
PubMedSearch : Glasner_2011_J.Bacteriol_193_2076
PubMedID: 21217001
Gene_locus related to this paper: dicd3-e0scu7 , dicd3-e0sjp0 , erwch-INDC , dicd3-e0sgk0 , dicze-c6cmc7 , 9entr-u6zcq0 , dicd3-e0sg49

Title : An electrochemical platform for acetylcholinesterase activity assay and inhibitors screening based on Michael addition reaction between thiocholine and catechol-terminated SAMs - Tian_2011_Analyst_136_5084
Author(s) : Tian Y , Ye S , Shi X , Jing L , Liang C , Xian Y
Ref : Analyst , 136 :5084 , 2011
Abstract : An electrochemical platform for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity assay and its inhibitors screening is developed based on the Michael addition reaction of thiocholine, the hydrolysis product of acetylthiocholine (AsCh) in the presence of AChE, with the electrogenerated o-quinone of catechol-terminated SAMs on a gold electrode. For understanding and confirming the mechanism of the reaction, the electrochemical behaviors of Michael addition reaction of two model compounds, cysteine (CYS) and glutathione (GSH), towards the catechol-terminated SAMs have been studied. The enzyme kinetics and the inhibition effects of three types of AChE inhibitors, which are tacrine, carbofuran and parathion-methyl, have been investigated using an amperometric method. Among these three inhibitors, tacrine exhibits the strongest inhibiting effect, which is reinforced by the resulting data of kinetic studies on each inhibitor's influence upon the enzyme activity.
ESTHER : Tian_2011_Analyst_136_5084
PubMedSearch : Tian_2011_Analyst_136_5084
PubMedID: 21994917

Title : [Selective isolation and diversity of cold-adapted lipase-producing strains from permafrost soil at the terminus of a glacier in the Tianshan Mountains] - Xu_2011_Wei.Sheng.Wu.Xue.Bao_51_233
Author(s) : Xu Y , Wang D , Shi X , Zheng X , Zhou H , Liu Y , Ni Y
Ref : Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao , 51 :233 , 2011
Abstract : OBJECTIVE: The diversity of culturable lipase-producing bacterial strains from permafrost soils at the terminus of a glacier in the Tianshan Mountains was investigated. Isolation and molecular phylogenetic analysis were performed to expand our knowledge on diversity of psychrotrophic and psychrophilic bacteria. In addition, efforts were made focusing on screening for cold active lipases. METHODS: Lipase-producing bacterial strains were detected on tween 80 and olive oil plates, respectively. Identity and genetic diversity of strains isolated were determined by spatial 16S rRNA gene sequences and rep-PCR fingerprint. The physiological tests were carried out to determine the phonotypic differences between strains showing high similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequences. RESULTS: Of the total 17 bacterial stains exhibiting cold-adapted lipase activity, we found that only 8 stains were able to hydrolyze olive oil. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the lipase-producing bacterial isolates fell in five phylogenetic groups: subclasses (, ( and ( of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) phylum. Nearly 59% of the isolates were affiliated with the genus Pseudomonas. CONCLUSION: The results enrich our knowledge on the psychrotrophic bacterial diversity and biogeographic distribution of cold active lipases-producing bacteria in cold environments.
ESTHER : Xu_2011_Wei.Sheng.Wu.Xue.Bao_51_233
PubMedSearch : Xu_2011_Wei.Sheng.Wu.Xue.Bao_51_233
PubMedID: 21574385

Title : Quantitative and qualitative changes of the carboxylesterase associated with beta-cypermethrin resistance in the housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) - Zhang_2010_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.B.Biochem.Mol.Biol_156_6
Author(s) : Zhang L , Shi J , Shi X , Liang P , Gao J , Gao X
Ref : Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology B Biochem Mol Biol , 156 :6 , 2010
Abstract : Mechanisms of esterase-mediated pyrethroid resistance were analyzed based on our previous works in a strain of the housefly, Musca domestica. The carboxylesterase gene, MdalphaE7, was cloned and sequenced from susceptible (CSS) and resistant (CRR) strains, and a total of nine amino acid substitutions were found. The mutation, Trp(251)-Ser appeared to play a role in beta-cypermethrin resistance and cross-resistance between organophosphates (OPs) and pyrethroids in the CRR strain. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that MdalphaE7 was over-expressed in the CRR strain, the reciprocal cross progeny F(1) and back-cross progeny BC(2) compared with the CSS strain, respectively. Two alpha-cynaoester substrates as surrogates for beta-cypermethrin and deltamethrin, were synthesized to determine the pyrethroid hydrolase activity. Results showed that carboxylesterases from the CRR strain hydrolyzed cypermethrin/deltamethrin-like substrate 9.05- and 13.53-fold more efficiently than those from the CSS strain, respectively. Our studies suggested that quantitative and qualitative changes in the carboxylesterase might contribute together to pyrethroid resistance in the CRR strain.
ESTHER : Zhang_2010_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.B.Biochem.Mol.Biol_156_6
PubMedSearch : Zhang_2010_Comp.Biochem.Physiol.B.Biochem.Mol.Biol_156_6
PubMedID: 20117228
Gene_locus related to this paper: musdo-EST23aes07

Title : Enzymes and inhibitors in neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism - Shi_2009_J.Agric.Food.Chem_57_4861
Author(s) : Shi X , Dick RA , Ford KA , Casida JE
Ref : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry , 57 :4861 , 2009
Abstract : Neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism involves considerable substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the relevant CYP450, aldehyde oxidase, and phase II enzymes. Human CYP450 recombinant enzymes carry out the following conversions: CYP3A4, 2C19, and 2B6 for thiamethoxam (TMX) to clothianidin (CLO); 3A4, 2C19, and 2A6 for CLO to desmethyl-CLO; 2C19 for TMX to desmethyl-TMX. Human liver aldehyde oxidase reduces the nitro substituent of CLO to nitroso much more rapidly than it does that of TMX. Imidacloprid (IMI), CLO, and several of their metabolites do not give detectable N-glucuronides but 5-hydroxy-IMI, 4,5-diol-IMI, and 4-hydroxythiacloprid are converted to O-glucuronides in vitro with mouse liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronic acid or in vivo in mice. Mouse liver cytosol with S-adenosylmethionine converts desmethyl-CLO to CLO but not desmethyl-TMX to TMX. Two organophosphorus CYP450 inhibitors partially block IMI, thiacloprid, and CLO metabolism in vivo in mice, elevating brain and liver levels of the parent compounds while reducing amounts of the hydroxylated metabolites.
ESTHER : Shi_2009_J.Agric.Food.Chem_57_4861
PubMedSearch : Shi_2009_J.Agric.Food.Chem_57_4861
PubMedID: 19391582

Title : Un-nicked BoNT\/B activity in human SHSY-5Y neuronal cells - Shi_2008_J.Cell.Biochem_105_129
Author(s) : Shi X , Garcia GE , Nambiar MP , Gordon RK
Ref : Journal of Cellular Biochemistry , 105 :129 , 2008
Abstract : BoNT/B holotoxin (HT) from the native source is a mixture of nicked and un-nicked forms. A previous study showed that while un-nicked HT could be transcytosed by intestinal epithelial cells, they did not correlate this with proteolytic activity or biological effect(s). Un-nicked HT is likely to be present in BoNT biological warfare agents (BWA), so it is important to investigate the relative toxicity of un-nicked HT in this BWA. To address this issue, we purified un-nicked HT from commercial sources and evaluated its ability to cleave substrates both in vitro and in vivo, and its effects on vesicle trafficking. The un-nicked HT was unable to cleave VAMPTide substrate used for in vitro proteolytic assays. Brief digestion of the un-nicked toxin with trypsin resulted in significant activation of the toxin proteolytic ability. SHSY-5Y human neuroblastoma cells were used to examine HT uptake and activation in vivo. Vesicle trafficking can be measured following K(+) stimulation of cells preloaded with [(3)H]-noradrenaline (NA). We found that highly purified un-nicked HT did inhibit NA release but at much reduced levels compared to the nicked toxin. That the reduction in NA release was due to BoNT effects on SNARE proteins was supported by the finding that VAMP-2 protein levels in un-nicked toxin treated cells was greater than those treated with nicked toxin. These results demonstrate that although un-nicked HT has markedly reduced toxicity than the nicked form, due to the preponderance in BoNT/B preparations from the native bacteria, it is a major source of toxicity.
ESTHER : Shi_2008_J.Cell.Biochem_105_129
PubMedSearch : Shi_2008_J.Cell.Biochem_105_129
PubMedID: 18459116

Title : [+]-Huperzine A treatment protects against N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced seizure\/status epilepticus in rats - Coleman_2008_Chem.Biol.Interact_175_387
Author(s) : Coleman BR , Ratcliffe RH , Oguntayo SA , Shi X , Doctor BP , Gordon RK , Nambiar MP
Ref : Chemico-Biological Interactions , 175 :387 , 2008
Abstract : The toxicity of organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents is attributed to their irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which leads to excessive accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) and is followed by the release of excitatory amino acids (EAA). EAAs sustain seizure activity and induce neuropathology due to over-stimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Huperzine A (Hup A), a blood-brain barrier permeable selective reversible inhibitor of AChE, has been shown to reduce EAA-induced cell death by interfering with glutamate receptor-gated ion channels in primary neuronal cultures. Although [-]-Hup A, the natural isomer, inhibits AChE approximately 38-fold more potently than [+]-Hup A, both [-]- and [+]-Hup A block the NMDA channel similarly. Here, we evaluated the protective efficacy of [+]-Hup A for NMDA-induced seizure in a rat model. Rats implanted with radiotelemetry probes to record electroencephalography (EEG), electrocardiography (ECG), body temperature, and physical activity were administered various doses of [+]-Hup A (intramuscularly) and treated with 20 microg/kg NMDA (intracerebroventricular) 20-30 min later. For post-exposure, rats were treated with [+]-Hup A (3 mg/kg, intramuscularly) 1 min after NMDA (20 microg/kg). Our data showed that pre- and post-exposure, [+]-Hup A (3 mg/kg) protects animals against NMDA-induced seizures. Also, NMDA-administered animals showed increased survival following [+]-Hup A treatment. [+]-Hup A has no visible effect on EEG, heart-rate, body temperature, or physical activity, indicating a reduced risk of side effects, toxicity, or associated pathology. Our results suggest that [+]-Hup A protects against seizure and status epilepticus (SE) by blocking NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in vivo. We propose that [+]-Hup A, or a unique combination of [+]- and [-]-Hup A, may prove to be effective for pre- and post-exposure treatment of lethal doses of OP-induced neurotoxicity.
ESTHER : Coleman_2008_Chem.Biol.Interact_175_387
PubMedSearch : Coleman_2008_Chem.Biol.Interact_175_387
PubMedID: 18588864

Title : Purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a Penicillium expansum lipase - Bian_2005_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1752_99
Author(s) : Bian C , Yuan C , Lin L , Lin J , Shi X , Ye X , Huang Z , Huang M
Ref : Biochimica & Biophysica Acta , 1752 :99 , 2005
Abstract : PF898 is a strain of Penicillium expansum optimized for the high level production of Penicillium expansum lipase (PEL). This PEL is unique compared with other lipases in several aspects, For example, the PEL shows low sequence identities (<30%) to all other known lipases, and high percentage of hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal region. The PEL was purified to homogeneity and shown to be 28 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis were obtained by the sitting-drop method of vapor diffusion with ammonia sulfate as the precipitating agent at 298 K. The crystals have tetragonal lattice and unit-cell parameters of a=b=88.09 A, c=126.54 A. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.08 A on an in-house rotating-anode generator.
ESTHER : Bian_2005_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1752_99
PubMedSearch : Bian_2005_Biochim.Biophys.Acta_1752_99
PubMedID: 16112629

Title : The Genomes of Oryza sativa: a history of duplications - Yu_2005_PLoS.Biol_3_e38
Author(s) : Yu J , Wang J , Lin W , Li S , Li H , Zhou J , Ni P , Dong W , Hu S , Zeng C , Zhang J , Zhang Y , Li R , Xu Z , Li X , Zheng H , Cong L , Lin L , Yin J , Geng J , Li G , Shi J , Liu J , Lv H , Li J , Deng Y , Ran L , Shi X , Wang X , Wu Q , Li C , Ren X , Li D , Liu D , Zhang X , Ji Z , Zhao W , Sun Y , Zhang Z , Bao J , Han Y , Dong L , Ji J , Chen P , Wu S , Xiao Y , Bu D , Tan J , Yang L , Ye C , Xu J , Zhou Y , Yu Y , Zhang B , Zhuang S , Wei H , Liu B , Lei M , Yu H , Li Y , Xu H , Wei S , He X , Fang L , Huang X , Su Z , Tong W , Tong Z , Ye J , Wang L , Lei T , Chen C , Chen H , Huang H , Zhang F , Li N , Zhao C , Huang Y , Li L , Xi Y , Qi Q , Li W , Hu W , Tian X , Jiao Y , Liang X , Jin J , Gao L , Zheng W , Hao B , Liu S , Wang W , Yuan L , Cao M , McDermott J , Samudrala R , Wong GK , Yang H
Ref : PLoS Biol , 3 :e38 , 2005
Abstract : We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the other genome. We introduce a gene identification procedure for plants that does not rely on similarity to known genes to remove erroneous predictions resulting from transposable elements. Using the available EST data to adjust for residual errors in the predictions, the estimated gene count is at least 38,000-40,000. Only 2%-3% of the genes are unique to any one subspecies, comparable to the amount of sequence that might still be missing. Despite this lack of variation in gene content, there is enormous variation in the intergenic regions. At least a quarter of the two sequences could not be aligned, and where they could be aligned, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rates varied from as little as 3.0 SNP/kb in the coding regions to 27.6 SNP/kb in the transposable elements. A more inclusive new approach for analyzing duplication history is introduced here. It reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication, a recent segmental duplication on Chromosomes 11 and 12, and massive ongoing individual gene duplications. We find 18 distinct pairs of duplicated segments that cover 65.7% of the genome; 17 of these pairs date back to a common time before the divergence of the grasses. More important, ongoing individual gene duplications provide a never-ending source of raw material for gene genesis and are major contributors to the differences between members of the grass family.
ESTHER : Yu_2005_PLoS.Biol_3_e38
PubMedSearch : Yu_2005_PLoS.Biol_3_e38
PubMedID: 15685292
Gene_locus related to this paper: orysa-Q7XTC5 , orysa-Q852M6 , orysa-Q8GSE8 , orysa-Q9S7P1 , orysa-Q9FYP7 , orysa-Q5ZBH3 , orysa-Q5ZA26 , orysa-Q5JLP6 , orysa-Q8H5P9 , orysa-Q8H5P5 , orysa-Q7F1Y5 , orysa-Q949C9 , orysa-cbp1 , orysa-cbp3 , orysa-cbpx , orysa-Q33B71 , orysa-Q8GSJ3 , orysa-LPL1 , orysa-Q6YSZ8 , orysa-Q8S5X5 , orysa-Q8LIG3 , orysa-Q6K7F5 , orysa-Q7F1B1 , orysa-Q8H4S9 , orysa-Q69UB1 , orysa-Q9FW17 , orysa-Q337C3 , orysa-Q7F959 , orysa-Q84QZ6 , orysa-Q84QY7 , orysa-Q851E3 , orysa-Q6YTH5 , orysa-Q0JK71 , orysa-Q8S1D9 , orysa-Q5N8V4 , orysa-Q0JCY4 , orysa-Q8GTK2 , orysa-B9EWJ8 , orysa-Q8H3K6 , orysa-Q6ZDG8 , orysa-Q6ZDG6 , orysa-Q6ZDG5 , orysa-Q6ZDG4 , orysa-Q5NAI4 , orysa-Q658B2 , orysa-Q5JMQ8 , orysa-Q5QMD9 , orysa-Q5N7L1 , orysa-Q8RYV9 , orysa-Q8H3R3 , orysa-Q5SNH3 , orysa-Q8W0F0 , orysa-pir7a , orysa-pir7b , orysa-q2qlm4 , orysa-q2qm78 , orysa-q2qm82 , orysa-q2qn31 , orysa-q2qnj4 , orysa-q2qnt9 , orysa-q2qur1 , orysa-q2qx94 , orysa-q2qyi1 , orysa-q2qyj1 , orysa-q2r051 , orysa-q2r077 , orysa-q2ram0 , orysa-q2rat1 , orysa-q2rbb3 , orysa-Q4VWY7 , orysa-q5na00 , orysa-q5nbu1 , orysa-Q5QLC0 , orysa-q5smv5 , orysa-Q5VP27 , orysa-q5vrt2 , orysa-q5w6c5 , orysa-q5z5a3 , orysa-q5z9i2 , orysa-q5z417 , orysa-q5z901 , orysa-Q5ZAM8 , orysa-Q5ZBI5 , orysa-Q5ZCR3 , orysa-q6atz0 , orysa-q6ave2 , orysa-q6f358 , orysa-q6h6s1 , orysa-q6h7i6 , orysa-q6i5q3 , orysa-q6i5u7 , orysa-q6j657 , orysa-q6k3d9 , orysa-q6k4q2 , orysa-q6k880 , orysa-q6l5b6 , orysa-Q6L5F5 , orysa-q6l556 , orysj-q6yse8 , orysa-q6yy42 , orysa-q6yzk1 , orysa-q6z8b1 , orysa-q6z995 , orysa-q6zc62 , orysa-q6zia4 , orysa-q6zjq6 , orysa-q7x7y5 , orysa-Q7XC50 , orysa-q7xej4 , orysa-q7xem8 , orysa-q7xkj9 , orysa-q7xr62 , orysa-q7xr63 , orysa-q7xr64 , orysa-q7xsg1 , orysa-q7xsq2 , orysa-q7xts6 , orysa-q7xv53 , orysa-Q7XVB5 , orysa-Q8L562 , orysa-Q8LQS5 , orysa-Q8RZ40 , orysa-Q8RZ79 , orysa-Q8S0U8 , orysa-Q8S0V0 , orysa-Q8S125 , orysa-Q8SAY7 , orysa-Q8SAY9 , orysa-Q8W3C6 , orysa-Q8W3F2 , orysa-Q8W3F4 , orysa-Q8W3F6 , orysa-Q9LHX5 , orysa-q33aq0 , orysa-q53lh1 , orysa-q53m20 , orysa-q53nd8 , orysa-q60e79 , orysa-q60ew8 , orysa-q67iz2 , orysa-q67iz3 , orysa-q67iz7 , orysa-q67iz8 , orysa-q67j02 , orysa-q67j05 , orysa-q67j07 , orysa-q67j09 , orysa-q67j10 , orysa-q67tr6 , orysa-q67tv0 , orysa-q67uz1 , orysa-q67v34 , orysa-q67wz5 , orysa-q69j38 , orysa-q69k08 , orysa-q69md7 , orysa-q69me0 , orysa-q69pf3 , orysa-q69ti3 , orysa-q69xr2 , orysa-q69y12 , orysa-q69y21 , orysa-q75hy2 , orysa-q75i01 , orysa-Q94JD7 , orysa-Q0J0A4 , orysa-q651a8 , orysa-q651z3 , orysa-q652g4 , orysa-q688m0 , orysa-q688m8 , orysa-q688m9 , orysa-Q6H8G1 , orysi-a2wn01 , orysi-a2xc83 , orysi-a2yh83 , orysi-a2z179 , orysi-a2zef2 , orysi-b8a7e6 , orysi-b8a7e7 , orysi-b8bfe5 , orysi-b8bhp9 , orysj-a3b9l8 , orysj-b9eub8 , orysj-b9eya5 , orysj-b9fi05 , orysj-b9fkb0 , orysj-b9fn42 , orysj-b9gbb7 , orysj-cgep , orysj-PLA7 , orysj-q0d4u5 , orysj-q0djj0 , orysj-q0jaf0 , orysj-q5jl22 , orysj-q5jlw7 , orysj-q5z419 , orysj-q6h7q9 , orysj-q6yvk6 , orysj-q6z6i1 , orysj-q7f8x1 , orysj-q7xcx3 , orysj-q9fwm6 , orysj-q10j20 , orysj-q10ss2 , orysj-q69uw6 , orysj-q94d71 , orysj-q338c0 , orysi-b8bly4 , orysj-b9gbs4 , orysi-a2zb88 , orysj-b9gbs1 , orysi-b8b698 , orysj-pla4 , orysj-pla1

Title : New generation dopaminergic agents. 2. Discovery of 3-OH-phenoxyethylamine and 3-OH-N1-phenylpiperazine dopaminergic templates - Mewshaw_1998_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_8_295
Author(s) : Mewshaw RE , Husbands MG , Gildersleeve ES , Webb MB , Shi X , Mazandarani H , Cockett MI , Ochalski R , Brennan JA , Abou-Gharbia M , Marquis K , McGaughey GB , Coupet J , Andree TH
Ref : Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Lett , 8 :295 , 1998
Abstract : Described in this report is a systematic study which led to the identification of two new dopamine D2 partial agonists (5 and 17). Phenols 5 and 17 represent prototypes of two new classes of D2 partial agonists as well as templates for the future design of novel dopaminergic agents.
ESTHER : Mewshaw_1998_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_8_295
PubMedSearch : Mewshaw_1998_Bioorg.Med.Chem.Lett_8_295
PubMedID: 9871673