Haas BJ

References (17)

Title : Distinctive expansion of potential virulence genes in the genome of the oomycete fish pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica - Jiang_2013_PLoS.Genet_9_e1003272
Author(s) : Jiang RH , de Bruijn I , Haas BJ , Belmonte R , Lobach L , Christie J , Van den Ackerveken G , Bottin A , Bulone V , Diaz-Moreno SM , Dumas B , Fan L , Gaulin E , Govers F , Grenville-Briggs LJ , Horner NR , Levin JZ , Mammella M , Meijer HJ , Morris P , Nusbaum C , Oome S , Phillips AJ , van Rooyen D , Rzeszutek E , Saraiva M , Secombes CJ , Seidl MF , Snel B , Stassen JH , Sykes S , Tripathy S , van den Berg H , Vega-Arreguin JC , Wawra S , Young SK , Zeng Q , Dieguez-Uribeondo J , Russ C , Tyler BM , van West P
Ref : PLoS Genet , 9 :e1003272 , 2013
Abstract : Oomycetes in the class Saprolegniomycetidae of the Eukaryotic kingdom Stramenopila have evolved as severe pathogens of amphibians, crustaceans, fish and insects, resulting in major losses in aquaculture and damage to aquatic ecosystems. We have sequenced the 63 Mb genome of the fresh water fish pathogen, Saprolegnia parasitica. Approximately 1/3 of the assembled genome exhibits loss of heterozygosity, indicating an efficient mechanism for revealing new variation. Comparison of S. parasitica with plant pathogenic oomycetes suggests that during evolution the host cellular environment has driven distinct patterns of gene expansion and loss in the genomes of plant and animal pathogens. S. parasitica possesses one of the largest repertoires of proteases (270) among eukaryotes that are deployed in waves at different points during infection as determined from RNA-Seq data. In contrast, despite being capable of living saprotrophically, parasitism has led to loss of inorganic nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways, strikingly similar to losses in obligate plant pathogenic oomycetes and fungi. The large gene families that are hallmarks of plant pathogenic oomycetes such as Phytophthora appear to be lacking in S. parasitica, including those encoding RXLR effectors, Crinkler's, and Necrosis Inducing-Like Proteins (NLP). S. parasitica also has a very large kinome of 543 kinases, 10% of which is induced upon infection. Moreover, S. parasitica encodes several genes typical of animals or animal-pathogens and lacking from other oomycetes, including disintegrins and galactose-binding lectins, whose expression and evolutionary origins implicate horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of animal pathogenesis in S. parasitica.
ESTHER : Jiang_2013_PLoS.Genet_9_e1003272
PubMedSearch : Jiang_2013_PLoS.Genet_9_e1003272
PubMedID: 23785293
Gene_locus related to this paper: sappc-a0a067bqc9 , sappc-a0a067cbi1

Title : Comparative genomics of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and their positions within the clade most commonly associated with Methicillin-resistant S. aureus hospital-acquired infection in the United States - Kos_2012_MBio_3_e00112
Author(s) : Kos VN , Desjardins CA , Griggs A , Cerqueira G , Van Tonder A , Holden MT , Godfrey P , Palmer KL , Bodi K , Mongodin EF , Wortman J , Feldgarden M , Lawley T , Gill SR , Haas BJ , Birren B , Gilmore MS
Ref : MBio , 3 : , 2012
Abstract : Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are leading causes of hospital-acquired infections in the United States, and clonal cluster 5 (CC5) is the predominant lineage responsible for these infections. Since 2002, there have been 12 cases of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) infection in the United States-all CC5 strains. To understand this genetic background and what distinguishes it from other lineages, we generated and analyzed high-quality draft genome sequences for all available VRSA strains. Sequence comparisons show unambiguously that each strain independently acquired Tn1546 and that all VRSA strains last shared a common ancestor over 50 years ago, well before the occurrence of vancomycin resistance in this species. In contrast to existing hypotheses on what predisposes this lineage to acquire Tn1546, the barrier posed by restriction systems appears to be intact in most VRSA strains. However, VRSA (and other CC5) strains were found to possess a constellation of traits that appears to be optimized for proliferation in precisely the types of polymicrobic infection where transfer could occur. They lack a bacteriocin operon that would be predicted to limit the occurrence of non-CC5 strains in mixed infection and harbor a cluster of unique superantigens and lipoproteins to confound host immunity. A frameshift in dprA, which in other microbes influences uptake of foreign DNA, may also make this lineage conducive to foreign DNA acquisition. IMPORTANCE: Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection now ranks among the leading causes of death in the United States. Vancomycin is a key last-line bactericidal drug for treating these infections. However, since 2002, vancomycin resistance has entered this species. Of the now 12 cases of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), each was believed to represent a new acquisition of the vancomycin-resistant transposon Tn1546 from enterococcal donors. All acquisitions of Tn1546 so far have occurred in MRSA strains of the clonal cluster 5 genetic background, the most common hospital lineage causing hospital-acquired MRSA infection. To understand the nature of these strains, we determined and examined the nucleotide sequences of the genomes of all available VRSA. Genome comparison identified candidate features that position strains of this lineage well for acquiring resistance to antibiotics in mixed infection.
ESTHER : Kos_2012_MBio_3_e00112
PubMedSearch : Kos_2012_MBio_3_e00112
PubMedID: 22617140
Gene_locus related to this paper: staau-SA2240

Title : Genomic epidemiology of the Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreaks in Europe, 2011 - Grad_2012_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_109_3065
Author(s) : Grad YH , Lipsitch M , Feldgarden M , Arachchi HM , Cerqueira GC , FitzGerald M , Godfrey P , Haas BJ , Murphy CI , Russ C , Sykes S , Walker BJ , Wortman JR , Young S , Zeng Q , Abouelleil A , Bochicchio J , Chauvin S , Desmet T , Gujja S , McCowan C , Montmayeur A , Steelman S , Frimodt-Moller J , Petersen AM , Struve C , Krogfelt KA , Bingen E , Weill FX , Lander ES , Nusbaum C , Birren BW , Hung DT , Hanage WP
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 109 :3065 , 2012
Abstract : The degree to which molecular epidemiology reveals information about the sources and transmission patterns of an outbreak depends on the resolution of the technology used and the samples studied. Isolates of Escherichia coli O104:H4 from the outbreak centered in Germany in May-July 2011, and the much smaller outbreak in southwest France in June 2011, were indistinguishable by standard tests. We report a molecular epidemiological analysis using multiplatform whole-genome sequencing and analysis of multiple isolates from the German and French outbreaks. Isolates from the German outbreak showed remarkably little diversity, with only two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in isolates from four individuals. Surprisingly, we found much greater diversity (19 SNPs) in isolates from seven individuals infected in the French outbreak. The German isolates form a clade within the more diverse French outbreak strains. Moreover, five isolates derived from a single infected individual from the French outbreak had extremely limited diversity. The striking difference in diversity between the German and French outbreak samples is consistent with several hypotheses, including a bottleneck that purged diversity in the German isolates, variation in mutation rates in the two E. coli outbreak populations, or uneven distribution of diversity in the seed populations that led to each outbreak.
ESTHER : Grad_2012_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_109_3065
PubMedSearch : Grad_2012_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_109_3065
PubMedID: 22315421
Gene_locus related to this paper: ecoli-fes , ecoli-MCMK , ecoli-yaim , ecoli-ycfp , ecoli-YFBB , ecoli-yhet , ecoli-yiel , ecoli-yqia , ecoli-YfhR

Title : Comparative functional genomics of the fission yeasts - Rhind_2011_Science_332_930
Author(s) : Rhind N , Chen Z , Yassour M , Thompson DA , Haas BJ , Habib N , Wapinski I , Roy S , Lin MF , Heiman DI , Young SK , Furuya K , Guo Y , Pidoux A , Chen HM , Robbertse B , Goldberg JM , Aoki K , Bayne EH , Berlin AM , Desjardins CA , Dobbs E , Dukaj L , Fan L , Fitzgerald MG , French C , Gujja S , Hansen K , Keifenheim D , Levin JZ , Mosher RA , Muller CA , Pfiffner J , Priest M , Russ C , Smialowska A , Swoboda P , Sykes SM , Vaughn M , Vengrova S , Yoder R , Zeng Q , Allshire R , Baulcombe D , Birren BW , Brown W , Ekwall K , Kellis M , Leatherwood J , Levin H , Margalit H , Martienssen R , Nieduszynski CA , Spatafora JW , Friedman N , Dalgaard JZ , Baumann P , Niki H , Regev A , Nusbaum C
Ref : Science , 332 :930 , 2011
Abstract : The fission yeast clade--comprising Schizosaccharomyces pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus--occupies the basal branch of Ascomycete fungi and is an important model of eukaryote biology. A comparative annotation of these genomes identified a near extinction of transposons and the associated innovation of transposon-free centromeres. Expression analysis established that meiotic genes are subject to antisense transcription during vegetative growth, which suggests a mechanism for their tight regulation. In addition, trans-acting regulators control new genes within the context of expanded functional modules for meiosis and stress response. Differences in gene content and regulation also explain why, unlike the budding yeast of Saccharomycotina, fission yeasts cannot use ethanol as a primary carbon source. These analyses elucidate the genome structure and gene regulation of fission yeast and provide tools for investigation across the Schizosaccharomyces clade.
ESTHER : Rhind_2011_Science_332_930
PubMedSearch : Rhind_2011_Science_332_930
PubMedID: 21511999
Gene_locus related to this paper: schjy-b6jxl8 , schjy-b6k0k9 , schjy-b6k7s4 , schjy-b6k575 , schcr-s9vnl9 , schoy-s9q625 , schjy-kex1 , schpo-ykv6

Title : Comparative genomic analysis of human fungal pathogens causing paracoccidioidomycosis - Desjardins_2011_PLoS.Genet_7_e1002345
Author(s) : Desjardins CA , Champion MD , Holder JW , Muszewska A , Goldberg J , Bailao AM , Brigido MM , Ferreira ME , Garcia AM , Grynberg M , Gujja S , Heiman DI , Henn MR , Kodira CD , Leon-Narvaez H , Longo LV , Ma LJ , Malavazi I , Matsuo AL , Morais FV , Pereira M , Rodriguez-Brito S , Sakthikumar S , Salem-Izacc SM , Sykes SM , Teixeira MM , Vallejo MC , Walter ME , Yandava C , Young S , Zeng Q , Zucker J , Felipe MS , Goldman GH , Haas BJ , McEwen JG , Nino-Vega G , Puccia R , San-Blas G , Soares CMF , Birren BW , Cuomo CA
Ref : PLoS Genet , 7 :e1002345 , 2011
Abstract : Paracoccidioides is a fungal pathogen and the cause of paracoccidioidomycosis, a health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Infection by Paracoccidioides, a dimorphic fungus in the order Onygenales, is coupled with a thermally regulated transition from a soil-dwelling filamentous form to a yeast-like pathogenic form. To better understand the genetic basis of growth and pathogenicity in Paracoccidioides, we sequenced the genomes of two strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb03 and Pb18) and one strain of Paracoccidioides lutzii (Pb01). These genomes range in size from 29.1 Mb to 32.9 Mb and encode 7,610 to 8,130 genes. To enable genetic studies, we mapped 94% of the P. brasiliensis Pb18 assembly onto five chromosomes. We characterized gene family content across Onygenales and related fungi, and within Paracoccidioides we found expansions of the fungal-specific kinase family FunK1. Additionally, the Onygenales have lost many genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and fewer genes involved in protein metabolism, resulting in a higher ratio of proteases to carbohydrate active enzymes in the Onygenales than their relatives. To determine if gene content correlated with growth on different substrates, we screened the non-pathogenic onygenale Uncinocarpus reesii, which has orthologs for 91% of Paracoccidioides metabolic genes, for growth on 190 carbon sources. U. reesii showed growth on a limited range of carbohydrates, primarily basic plant sugars and cell wall components; this suggests that Onygenales, including dimorphic fungi, can degrade cellulosic plant material in the soil. In addition, U. reesii grew on gelatin and a wide range of dipeptides and amino acids, indicating a preference for proteinaceous growth substrates over carbohydrates, which may enable these fungi to also degrade animal biomass. These capabilities for degrading plant and animal substrates suggest a duality in lifestyle that could enable pathogenic species of Onygenales to transfer from soil to animal hosts.
ESTHER : Desjardins_2011_PLoS.Genet_7_e1002345
PubMedSearch : Desjardins_2011_PLoS.Genet_7_e1002345
PubMedID: 22046142
Gene_locus related to this paper: parbd-c1gc95 , parbp-c0s0d7 , parbp-c0s257 , parbd-c1g8z9 , parba-c1grf0 , parbp-c0s816 , parbp-c0s5g4 , parbd-c1g5f5 , parbd-c1fzf9 , parba-kex1 , parbd-kex1 , parbp-kex1 , parba-cbpya , parbp-cbpya

Title : A catalog of reference genomes from the human microbiome - Nelson_2010_Science_328_994
Author(s) : Nelson KE , Weinstock GM , Highlander SK , Worley KC , Creasy HH , Wortman JR , Rusch DB , Mitreva M , Sodergren E , Chinwalla AT , Feldgarden M , Gevers D , Haas BJ , Madupu R , Ward DV , Birren BW , Gibbs RA , Methe B , Petrosino JF , Strausberg RL , Sutton GG , White OR , Wilson RK , Durkin S , Giglio MG , Gujja S , Howarth C , Kodira CD , Kyrpides N , Mehta T , Muzny DM , Pearson M , Pepin K , Pati A , Qin X , Yandava C , Zeng Q , Zhang L , Berlin AM , Chen L , Hepburn TA , Johnson J , McCorrison J , Miller J , Minx P , Nusbaum C , Russ C , Sykes SM , Tomlinson CM , Young S , Warren WC , Badger J , Crabtree J , Markowitz VM , Orvis J , Cree A , Ferriera S , Fulton LL , Fulton RS , Gillis M , Hemphill LD , Joshi V , Kovar C , Torralba M , Wetterstrand KA , Abouellleil A , Wollam AM , Buhay CJ , Ding Y , Dugan S , Fitzgerald MG , Holder M , Hostetler J , Clifton SW , Allen-Vercoe E , Earl AM , Farmer CN , Liolios K , Surette MG , Xu Q , Pohl C , Wilczek-Boney K , Zhu D
Ref : Science , 328 :994 , 2010
Abstract : The human microbiome refers to the community of microorganisms, including prokaryotes, viruses, and microbial eukaryotes, that populate the human body. The National Institutes of Health launched an initiative that focuses on describing the diversity of microbial species that are associated with health and disease. The first phase of this initiative includes the sequencing of hundreds of microbial reference genomes, coupled to metagenomic sequencing from multiple body sites. Here we present results from an initial reference genome sequencing of 178 microbial genomes. From 547,968 predicted polypeptides that correspond to the gene complement of these strains, previously unidentified ("novel") polypeptides that had both unmasked sequence length greater than 100 amino acids and no BLASTP match to any nonreference entry in the nonredundant subset were defined. This analysis resulted in a set of 30,867 polypeptides, of which 29,987 (approximately 97%) were unique. In addition, this set of microbial genomes allows for approximately 40% of random sequences from the microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract to be associated with organisms based on the match criteria used. Insights into pan-genome analysis suggest that we are still far from saturating microbial species genetic data sets. In addition, the associated metrics and standards used by our group for quality assurance are presented.
ESTHER : Nelson_2010_Science_328_994
PubMedSearch : Nelson_2010_Science_328_994
PubMedID: 20489017
Gene_locus related to this paper: strp2-q04l35 , strpn-AXE1 , strpn-pepx

Title : Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis - Chan_2010_Nat.Biotechnol_28_951
Author(s) : Chan AP , Crabtree J , Zhao Q , Lorenzi H , Orvis J , Puiu D , Melake-Berhan A , Jones KM , Redman J , Chen G , Cahoon EB , Gedil M , Stanke M , Haas BJ , Wortman JR , Fraser-Liggett CM , Ravel J , Rabinowicz PD
Ref : Nat Biotechnol , 28 :951 , 2010
Abstract : Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oilseed crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family, which comprises approximately 6,300 species that include cassava (Manihot esculenta), rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas). It is primarily of economic interest as a source of castor oil, used for the production of high-quality lubricants because of its high proportion of the unusual fatty acid ricinoleic acid. However, castor bean genomics is also relevant to biosecurity as the seeds contain high levels of ricin, a highly toxic, ribosome-inactivating protein. Here we report the draft genome sequence of castor bean (4.6-fold coverage), the first for a member of the Euphorbiaceae. Whereas most of the key genes involved in oil synthesis and turnover are single copy, the number of members of the ricin gene family is larger than previously thought. Comparative genomics analysis suggests the presence of an ancient hexaploidization event that is conserved across the dicotyledonous lineage.
ESTHER : Chan_2010_Nat.Biotechnol_28_951
PubMedSearch : Chan_2010_Nat.Biotechnol_28_951
PubMedID: 20729833
Gene_locus related to this paper: ricco-b9r7h7 , ricco-b9re31 , ricco-b9rgi7 , ricco-b9riy7 , ricco-b9rlg6 , ricco-b9rm64 , ricco-b9rsg5 , ricco-b9rtk6 , ricco-b9rtt3 , ricco-b9ry83 , ricco-b9s8p2 , ricco-b9s817 , ricco-b9sby7 , ricco-b9scn1 , ricco-b9scn2 , ricco-b9scn3 , ricco-b9scn5 , ricco-b9ssj7 , ricco-b9ssj8 , ricco-b9sx01 , ricco-b9szu0 , ricco-b9t4l4 , ricco-b9t5x2 , ricco-b9tb84 , ricco-b9rkb0 , ricco-b9rru1 , ricco-b9rdy5 , ricco-b9tey4 , ricco-b9sfw5 , ricco-b9sjw6 , ricco-b9shs6 , ricco-b9rsl2 , ricco-b9r7f8 , ricco-b9rne4 , ricco-b9r8z8 , ricco-b9rf65 , ricco-b9rjk8 , ricco-b9sip5 , ricco-b9t3r4

Title : Genome sequences of the human body louse and its primary endosymbiont provide insights into the permanent parasitic lifestyle - Kirkness_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_12168
Author(s) : Kirkness EF , Haas BJ , Sun W , Braig HR , Perotti MA , Clark JM , Lee SH , Robertson HM , Kennedy RC , Elhaik E , Gerlach D , Kriventseva EV , Elsik CG , Graur D , Hill CA , Veenstra JA , Walenz B , Tubio JM , Ribeiro JM , Rozas J , Johnston JS , Reese JT , Popadic A , Tojo M , Raoult D , Reed DL , Tomoyasu Y , Kraus E , Mittapalli O , Margam VM , Li HM , Meyer JM , Johnson RM , Romero-Severson J , Vanzee JP , Alvarez-Ponce D , Vieira FG , Aguade M , Guirao-Rico S , Anzola JM , Yoon KS , Strycharz JP , Unger MF , Christley S , Lobo NF , Seufferheld MJ , Wang N , Dasch GA , Struchiner CJ , Madey G , Hannick LI , Bidwell S , Joardar V , Caler E , Shao R , Barker SC , Cameron S , Bruggner RV , Regier A , Johnson J , Viswanathan L , Utterback TR , Sutton GG , Lawson D , Waterhouse RM , Venter JC , Strausberg RL , Berenbaum MR , Collins FH , Zdobnov EM , Pittendrigh BR
Ref : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A , 107 :12168 , 2010
Abstract : As an obligatory parasite of humans, the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) is an important vector for human diseases, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Here, we present genome sequences of the body louse and its primary bacterial endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola. The body louse has the smallest known insect genome, spanning 108 Mb. Despite its status as an obligate parasite, it retains a remarkably complete basal insect repertoire of 10,773 protein-coding genes and 57 microRNAs. Representing hemimetabolous insects, the genome of the body louse thus provides a reference for studies of holometabolous insects. Compared with other insect genomes, the body louse genome contains significantly fewer genes associated with environmental sensing and response, including odorant and gustatory receptors and detoxifying enzymes. The unique architecture of the 18 minicircular mitochondrial chromosomes of the body louse may be linked to the loss of the gene encoding the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein. The genome of the obligatory louse endosymbiont Candidatus Riesia pediculicola encodes less than 600 genes on a short, linear chromosome and a circular plasmid. The plasmid harbors a unique arrangement of genes required for the synthesis of pantothenate, an essential vitamin deficient in the louse diet. The human body louse, its primary endosymbiont, and the bacterial pathogens that it vectors all possess genomes reduced in size compared with their free-living close relatives. Thus, the body louse genome project offers unique information and tools to use in advancing understanding of coevolution among vectors, symbionts, and pathogens.
ESTHER : Kirkness_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_12168
PubMedSearch : Kirkness_2010_Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A_107_12168
PubMedID: 20566863
Gene_locus related to this paper: pedhb-ACHE1 , pedhb-ACHE2 , pedhc-e0v9b5 , pedhc-e0v9b6 , pedhc-e0v9b7 , pedhc-e0vbv5 , pedhc-e0vcd0 , pedhc-e0vcl7 , pedhc-e0vd69 , pedhc-e0ve50 , pedhc-e0vel6 , pedhc-e0vel7 , pedhc-e0vf98 , pedhc-e0vfs8 , pedhc-e0vfv0 , pedhc-e0vg01 , pedhc-e0vha2 , pedhc-e0vha4 , pedhc-e0vi52 , pedhc-e0vp42 , pedhc-e0vqu6 , pedhc-e0vuj9 , pedhc-e0vup6 , pedhc-e0vv55 , pedhc-e0vwv3 , pedhc-e0vxf7 , pedhc-e0vxg1 , pedhc-e0w4a6 , pedhc-e0w4c8 , pedhc-e0w271 , pedhc-e0w444 , pedhc-e0vym0 , pedhc-e0vdk9 , pedhc-e0vk10 , pedhc-e0vgw4 , pedhc-e0vgw7 , pedhc-e0vga1 , pedhc-e0w3s1 , pedhc-e0vzt2

Title : The genome of the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni - Berriman_2009_Nature_460_352
Author(s) : Berriman M , Haas BJ , LoVerde PT , Wilson RA , Dillon GP , Cerqueira GC , Mashiyama ST , Al-Lazikani B , Andrade LF , Ashton PD , Aslett MA , Bartholomeu DC , Blandin G , Caffrey CR , Coghlan A , Coulson R , Day TA , Delcher A , DeMarco R , Djikeng A , Eyre T , Gamble JA , Ghedin E , Gu Y , Hertz-Fowler C , Hirai H , Hirai Y , Houston R , Ivens A , Johnston DA , Lacerda D , Macedo CD , McVeigh P , Ning Z , Oliveira G , Overington JP , Parkhill J , Pertea M , Pierce RJ , Protasio AV , Quail MA , Rajandream MA , Rogers J , Sajid M , Salzberg SL , Stanke M , Tivey AR , White O , Williams DL , Wortman J , Wu W , Zamanian M , Zerlotini A , Fraser-Liggett CM , Barrell BG , El-Sayed NM
Ref : Nature , 460 :352 , 2009
Abstract : Schistosoma mansoni is responsible for the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis that affects 210 million people in 76 countries. Here we present analysis of the 363 megabase nuclear genome of the blood fluke. It encodes at least 11,809 genes, with an unusual intron size distribution, and new families of micro-exon genes that undergo frequent alternative splicing. As the first sequenced flatworm, and a representative of the Lophotrochozoa, it offers insights into early events in the evolution of the animals, including the development of a body pattern with bilateral symmetry, and the development of tissues into organs. Our analysis has been informed by the need to find new drug targets. The deficits in lipid metabolism that make schistosomes dependent on the host are revealed, and the identification of membrane receptors, ion channels and more than 300 proteases provide new insights into the biology of the life cycle and new targets. Bioinformatics approaches have identified metabolic chokepoints, and a chemogenomic screen has pinpointed schistosome proteins for which existing drugs may be active. The information generated provides an invaluable resource for the research community to develop much needed new control tools for the treatment and eradication of this important and neglected disease.
ESTHER : Berriman_2009_Nature_460_352
PubMedSearch : Berriman_2009_Nature_460_352
PubMedID: 19606141
Gene_locus related to this paper: schma-ACHE1 , schma-ACHE2 , schma-c4qb79 , schma-c4qmk4 , schma-g4v9h7 , schma-BCHE , schma-g4vmf3

Title : Genome sequence and analysis of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans - Haas_2009_Nature_461_393
Author(s) : Haas BJ , Kamoun S , Zody MC , Jiang RH , Handsaker RE , Cano LM , Grabherr M , Kodira CD , Raffaele S , Torto-Alalibo T , Bozkurt TO , Ah-Fong AM , Alvarado L , Anderson VL , Armstrong MR , Avrova A , Baxter L , Beynon J , Boevink PC , Bollmann SR , Bos JI , Bulone V , Cai G , Cakir C , Carrington JC , Chawner M , Conti L , Costanzo S , Ewan R , Fahlgren N , Fischbach MA , Fugelstad J , Gilroy EM , Gnerre S , Green PJ , Grenville-Briggs LJ , Griffith J , Grunwald NJ , Horn K , Horner NR , Hu CH , Huitema E , Jeong DH , Jones AM , Jones JD , Jones RW , Karlsson EK , Kunjeti SG , Lamour K , Liu Z , Ma L , Maclean D , Chibucos MC , McDonald H , McWalters J , Meijer HJ , Morgan W , Morris PF , Munro CA , O'Neill K , Ospina-Giraldo M , Pinzon A , Pritchard L , Ramsahoye B , Ren Q , Restrepo S , Roy S , Sadanandom A , Savidor A , Schornack S , Schwartz DC , Schumann UD , Schwessinger B , Seyer L , Sharpe T , Silvar C , Song J , Studholme DJ , Sykes S , Thines M , van de Vondervoort PJ , Phuntumart V , Wawra S , Weide R , Win J , Young C , Zhou S , Fry W , Meyers BC , van West P , Ristaino J , Govers F , Birch PR , Whisson SC , Judelson HS , Nusbaum C
Ref : Nature , 461 :393 , 2009
Abstract : Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. As the agent of the Irish potato famine in the mid-nineteenth century, P. infestans has had a tremendous effect on human history, resulting in famine and population displacement. To this day, it affects world agriculture by causing the most destructive disease of potato, the fourth largest food crop and a critical alternative to the major cereal crops for feeding the world's population. Current annual worldwide potato crop losses due to late blight are conservatively estimated at $$6.7 billion. Management of this devastating pathogen is challenged by its remarkable speed of adaptation to control strategies such as genetically resistant cultivars. Here we report the sequence of the P. infestans genome, which at approximately 240 megabases (Mb) is by far the largest and most complex genome sequenced so far in the chromalveolates. Its expansion results from a proliferation of repetitive DNA accounting for approximately 74% of the genome. Comparison with two other Phytophthora genomes showed rapid turnover and extensive expansion of specific families of secreted disease effector proteins, including many genes that are induced during infection or are predicted to have activities that alter host physiology. These fast-evolving effector genes are localized to highly dynamic and expanded regions of the P. infestans genome. This probably plays a crucial part in the rapid adaptability of the pathogen to host plants and underpins its evolutionary potential.
ESTHER : Haas_2009_Nature_461_393
PubMedSearch : Haas_2009_Nature_461_393
PubMedID: 19741609
Gene_locus related to this paper: phyin-ENDO2 , phyin-q2m440 , phyin-q58g92 , phyit-d0mqp1 , phyit-d0mqp2 , phyit-d0mt75 , phyit-d0muv1 , phyit-d0mv34 , phyit-d0mv35 , phyit-d0mwf9 , phyit-d0mxu5 , phyit-d0n935 , phyit-d0nax9 , phyit-d0nfs3 , phyit-d0nhj2 , phyit-d0nhj4 , phyit-d0nhj8 , phyit-d0ni28 , phyit-d0nj14 , phyit-d0nj53 , phyit-d0nj54 , phyit-d0njf2 , phyit-d0nkm4 , phyit-d0nr53 , phyit-d0nrb1 , phyit-d0nrk9 , phyit-d0nrl4 , phyit-d0ns26 , phyit-d0ns42 , phyit-d0ns43 , phyit-d0nsr8 , phyit-d0nu41 , phyit-d0nvt3 , phyit-d0nwb6 , phyit-d0nwm8 , phyit-d0nzc0 , phyit-d0nzc1 , phyit-d0p0z1 , phyit-d0p3z2 , phyit-kex1 , phyit-d0n6q6 , phyit-d0n4i8 , phyit-d0mqf7 , phyit-d0n5g6

Title : Genomic islands in the pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus - Fedorova_2008_PLoS.Genet_4_e1000046
Author(s) : Fedorova ND , Khaldi N , Joardar VS , Maiti R , Amedeo P , Anderson MJ , Crabtree J , Silva JC , Badger JH , Albarraq A , Angiuoli S , Bussey H , Bowyer P , Cotty PJ , Dyer PS , Egan A , Galens K , Fraser-Liggett CM , Haas BJ , Inman JM , Kent R , Lemieux S , Malavazi I , Orvis J , Roemer T , Ronning CM , Sundaram JP , Sutton G , Turner G , Venter JC , White OR , Whitty BR , Youngman P , Wolfe KH , Goldman GH , Wortman JR , Jiang B , Denning DW , Nierman WC
Ref : PLoS Genet , 4 :e1000046 , 2008
Abstract : We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate of the important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, A1163, and two closely related but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of A1163 with the recently sequenced A. fumigatus isolate Af293 has identified core, variable and up to 2% unique genes in each genome. While the core genes are 99.8% identical at the nucleotide level, identity for variable genes can be as low 40%. The most divergent loci appear to contain heterokaryon incompatibility (het) genes associated with fungal programmed cell death such as developmental regulator rosA. Cross-species comparison has revealed that 8.5%, 13.5% and 12.6%, respectively, of A. fumigatus, N. fischeri and A. clavatus genes are species-specific. These genes are significantly smaller in size than core genes, contain fewer exons and exhibit a subtelomeric bias. Most of them cluster together in 13 chromosomal islands, which are enriched for pseudogenes, transposons and other repetitive elements. At least 20% of A. fumigatus-specific genes appear to be functional and involved in carbohydrate and chitin catabolism, transport, detoxification, secondary metabolism and other functions that may facilitate the adaptation to heterogeneous environments such as soil or a mammalian host. Contrary to what was suggested previously, their origin cannot be attributed to horizontal gene transfer (HGT), but instead is likely to involve duplication, diversification and differential gene loss (DDL). The role of duplication in the origin of lineage-specific genes is further underlined by the discovery of genomic islands that seem to function as designated "gene dumps" and, perhaps, simultaneously, as "gene factories".
ESTHER : Fedorova_2008_PLoS.Genet_4_e1000046
PubMedSearch : Fedorova_2008_PLoS.Genet_4_e1000046
PubMedID: 18404212
Gene_locus related to this paper: aspcl-a1c4m6 , aspcl-a1c5a7 , aspcl-a1c6w3 , aspcl-a1c8p7 , aspcl-a1c8q9 , aspcl-a1c9k4 , aspcl-a1c759 , aspcl-a1c786 , aspcl-a1c823 , aspcl-a1c859 , aspcl-a1c881 , aspcl-a1c994 , aspcl-a1cag4 , aspcl-a1caj8 , aspcl-a1cas0 , aspcl-a1cc86 , aspcl-a1ccq2 , aspcl-a1cfv7 , aspcl-a1chj6 , aspcl-a1cif4 , aspcl-a1ck14 , aspcl-a1cke4 , aspcl-a1ckq1 , aspcl-a1cli1 , aspcl-a1cln8 , aspcl-a1cm72 , aspcl-a1cns2 , aspcl-a1cpk9 , aspcl-a1cra8 , aspcl-a1crr5 , aspcl-a1crs9 , aspcl-a1cs04 , aspcl-a1cs39 , aspcl-a1cu39 , aspcl-atg15 , aspcl-axe1 , aspcl-cuti1 , aspcl-cuti3 , aspcl-dapb , aspcl-dpp4 , aspcl-dpp5 , aspcl-faeb , aspcl-faec1 , aspcl-faec2 , aspfc-b0xp50 , aspfc-b0xu40 , aspfc-b0xzj6 , aspfc-b0y2h6 , aspfc-b0y962 , aspfc-b0yaj6 , aspfc-dpp5 , aspfu-DPP4 , aspfu-faeb1 , aspfu-faec , aspfu-ppme1 , aspfu-q4w9r3 , aspfu-q4w9t5 , aspfu-q4w9z4 , aspfu-q4wa57 , aspfu-q4wa78 , aspfu-q4wag0 , aspfu-q4wal3 , aspfu-q4wbc5 , aspfu-q4wbj7 , aspfu-q4wdg2 , aspfu-q4wf06 , aspfu-q4wf29 , aspfu-q4wf56 , aspfu-q4wfq9 , aspfu-q4wg73 , aspfu-q4wgm4 , aspfu-q4win2 , aspfu-q4wk31 , aspfu-q4wk44 , aspfu-q4wk90 , aspfu-q4wm12 , aspfu-q4wm84 , aspfu-q4wm86 , aspfu-q4wmr0 , aspfu-q4wny7 , aspfu-q4wp19 , aspfu-q4wpb9 , aspfu-q4wqj8 , aspfu-q4wqv2 , aspfu-q4wrr7 , aspfu-q4wu51 , aspfu-q4wub2 , aspfu-q4wui7 , aspfu-q4wuk8 , aspfu-q4wum3 , aspfu-q4wuw0 , aspfu-q4wvy1 , aspfu-q4ww22 , aspfu-q4wx13 , aspfu-q4wxd0 , aspfu-q4wxe4 , aspfu-q4wxr1 , aspfu-q4wyq5 , aspfu-q4wz16 , aspfu-q4wzd5 , aspfu-q4wzh6 , aspfu-q4x0n6 , aspfu-q4x1n0 , aspfu-q4x1w9 , aspfu-q4x078 , neofi-a1cwa6 , neofi-a1d4m8 , neofi-a1d4p0 , neofi-a1d5p2 , neofi-a1d104 , neofi-a1d380 , neofi-a1d512 , neofi-a1d654 , neofi-a1da18 , neofi-a1dal8 , neofi-a1df46 , neofi-a1dhj0 , neofi-a1di44 , neofi-a1dk35 , neofi-a1dki7 , neofi-a1dkt6 , neofi-a1dn55 , neofi-atg15 , neofi-axe1 , neofi-faeb1 , neofi-faeb2 , neofi-faec , aspcl-a1cd34 , aspcl-a1cd88 , neofi-a1dc66 , aspcl-a1ceh5 , neofi-a1dfr9 , aspfm-a0a084bf80 , aspcl-a1cqb5 , aspcl-a1cs44 , neofi-a1d517 , neofi-a1dbz0 , neofi-a1cuz0 , aspcl-a1c5e8 , neofi-a1d0b8 , aspcl-a1cdf0 , aspcl-a1ccd3 , neofi-a1da82 , neofi-a1d5e6 , aspcl-kex1 , aspcl-cbpya

Title : Draft genome sequence of the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis - Carlton_2007_Science_315_207
Author(s) : Carlton JM , Hirt RP , Silva JC , Delcher AL , Schatz M , Zhao Q , Wortman JR , Bidwell SL , Alsmark UC , Besteiro S , Sicheritz-Ponten T , Noel CJ , Dacks JB , Foster PG , Simillion C , Van de Peer Y , Miranda-Saavedra D , Barton GJ , Westrop GD , Muller S , Dessi D , Fiori PL , Ren Q , Paulsen I , Zhang H , Bastida-Corcuera FD , Simoes-Barbosa A , Brown MT , Hayes RD , Mukherjee M , Okumura CY , Schneider R , Smith AJ , Vanacova S , Villalvazo M , Haas BJ , Pertea M , Feldblyum TV , Utterback TR , Shu CL , Osoegawa K , de Jong PJ , Hrdy I , Horvathova L , Zubacova Z , Dolezal P , Malik SB , Logsdon JM, Jr. , Henze K , Gupta A , Wang CC , Dunne RL , Upcroft JA , Upcroft P , White O , Salzberg SL , Tang P , Chiu CH , Lee YS , Embley TM , Coombs GH , Mottram JC , Tachezy J , Fraser-Liggett CM , Johnson PJ
Ref : Science , 315 :207 , 2007
Abstract : We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the approximately 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion, in conjunction with the shaping of metabolic pathways that likely transpired through lateral gene transfer from bacteria, and amplification of specific gene families implicated in pathogenesis and phagocytosis of host proteins may exemplify adaptations of the parasite during its transition to a urogenital environment. The genome sequence predicts previously unknown functions for the hydrogenosome, which support a common evolutionary origin of this unusual organelle with mitochondria.
ESTHER : Carlton_2007_Science_315_207
PubMedSearch : Carlton_2007_Science_315_207
PubMedID: 17218520
Gene_locus related to this paper: triva-a2d7i4 , triva-a2d9w5 , triva-a2d766 , triva-a2dah5 , triva-a2dlx9 , triva-a2dul1 , triva-a2dy49 , triva-a2e6h5 , triva-a2e7p9 , triva-a2e9l3 , triva-a2e414 , triva-a2e613 , triva-a2e983 , triva-a2eau8 , triva-a2ekb9 , triva-a2en58 , triva-a2erp5 , triva-a2et59 , triva-a2f7u4 , triva-a2f801 , triva-a2fa76 , triva-a2fbq3 , triva-a2fe47 , triva-a2fgl0 , triva-a2fhp7 , triva-a2fie6 , triva-a2fk22 , triva-a2fla2 , triva-a2fqm0 , triva-a2fqq2 , triva-a2frq0 , triva-a2frr3 , triva-a2fsq9 , triva-a2fsz5 , triva-a2fux4 , triva-a2fz57 , triva-a2g2h0 , triva-a2g9x0 , triva-a2fqi4

Title : Genome sequence of Babesia bovis and comparative analysis of apicomplexan hemoprotozoa - Brayton_2007_PLoS.Pathog_3_1401
Author(s) : Brayton KA , Lau AO , Herndon DR , Hannick L , Kappmeyer LS , Berens SJ , Bidwell SL , Brown WC , Crabtree J , Fadrosh D , Feldblum T , Forberger HA , Haas BJ , Howell JM , Khouri H , Koo H , Mann DJ , Norimine J , Paulsen IT , Radune D , Ren Q , Smith RK, Jr. , Suarez CE , White O , Wortman JR , Knowles DP, Jr. , McElwain TF , Nene VM
Ref : PLoS Pathog , 3 :1401 , 2007
Abstract : Babesia bovis is an apicomplexan tick-transmitted pathogen of cattle imposing a global risk and severe constraints to livestock health and economic development. The complete genome sequence was undertaken to facilitate vaccine antigen discovery, and to allow for comparative analysis with the related apicomplexan hemoprotozoa Theileria parva and Plasmodium falciparum. At 8.2 Mbp, the B. bovis genome is similar in size to that of Theileria spp. Structural features of the B. bovis and T. parva genomes are remarkably similar, and extensive synteny is present despite several chromosomal rearrangements. In contrast, B. bovis and P. falciparum, which have similar clinical and pathological features, have major differences in genome size, chromosome number, and gene complement. Chromosomal synteny with P. falciparum is limited to microregions. The B. bovis genome sequence has allowed wide scale analyses of the polymorphic variant erythrocyte surface antigen protein (ves1 gene) family that, similar to the P. falciparum var genes, is postulated to play a role in cytoadhesion, sequestration, and immune evasion. The approximately 150 ves1 genes are found in clusters that are distributed throughout each chromosome, with an increased concentration adjacent to a physical gap on chromosome 1 that contains multiple ves1-like sequences. ves1 clusters are frequently linked to a novel family of variant genes termed smorfs that may themselves contribute to immune evasion, may play a role in variant erythrocyte surface antigen protein biology, or both. Initial expression analysis of ves1 and smorf genes indicates coincident transcription of multiple variants. B. bovis displays a limited metabolic potential, with numerous missing pathways, including two pathways previously described for the P. falciparum apicoplast. This reduced metabolic potential is reflected in the B. bovis apicoplast, which appears to have fewer nuclear genes targeted to it than other apicoplast containing organisms. Finally, comparative analyses have identified several novel vaccine candidates including a positional homolog of p67 and SPAG-1, Theileria sporozoite antigens targeted for vaccine development. The genome sequence provides a greater understanding of B. bovis metabolism and potential avenues for drug therapies and vaccine development.
ESTHER : Brayton_2007_PLoS.Pathog_3_1401
PubMedSearch : Brayton_2007_PLoS.Pathog_3_1401
PubMedID: 17953480
Gene_locus related to this paper: babbo-a7amu4 , babbo-a7as90 , babbo-a7au28 , babbo-a7avh4

Title : Macronuclear genome sequence of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a model eukaryote - Eisen_2006_PLoS.Biol_4_e286
Author(s) : Eisen JA , Coyne RS , Wu M , Wu D , Thiagarajan M , Wortman JR , Badger JH , Ren Q , Amedeo P , Jones KM , Tallon LJ , Delcher AL , Salzberg SL , Silva JC , Haas BJ , Majoros WH , Farzad M , Carlton JM , Smith RK, Jr. , Garg J , Pearlman RE , Karrer KM , Sun L , Manning G , Elde NC , Turkewitz AP , Asai DJ , Wilkes DE , Wang Y , Cai H , Collins K , Stewart BA , Lee SR , Wilamowska K , Weinberg Z , Ruzzo WL , Wloga D , Gaertig J , Frankel J , Tsao CC , Gorovsky MA , Keeling PJ , Waller RF , Patron NJ , Cherry JM , Stover NA , Krieger CJ , del Toro C , Ryder HF , Williamson SC , Barbeau RA , Hamilton EP , Orias E
Ref : PLoS Biol , 4 :e286 , 2006
Abstract : The ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is a model organism for molecular and cellular biology. Like other ciliates, this species has separate germline and soma functions that are embodied by distinct nuclei within a single cell. The germline-like micronucleus (MIC) has its genome held in reserve for sexual reproduction. The soma-like macronucleus (MAC), which possesses a genome processed from that of the MIC, is the center of gene expression and does not directly contribute DNA to sexual progeny. We report here the shotgun sequencing, assembly, and analysis of the MAC genome of T. thermophila, which is approximately 104 Mb in length and composed of approximately 225 chromosomes. Overall, the gene set is robust, with more than 27,000 predicted protein-coding genes, 15,000 of which have strong matches to genes in other organisms. The functional diversity encoded by these genes is substantial and reflects the complexity of processes required for a free-living, predatory, single-celled organism. This is highlighted by the abundance of lineage-specific duplications of genes with predicted roles in sensing and responding to environmental conditions (e.g., kinases), using diverse resources (e.g., proteases and transporters), and generating structural complexity (e.g., kinesins and dyneins). In contrast to the other lineages of alveolates (apicomplexans and dinoflagellates), no compelling evidence could be found for plastid-derived genes in the genome. UGA, the only T. thermophila stop codon, is used in some genes to encode selenocysteine, thus making this organism the first known with the potential to translate all 64 codons in nuclear genes into amino acids. We present genomic evidence supporting the hypothesis that the excision of DNA from the MIC to generate the MAC specifically targets foreign DNA as a form of genome self-defense. The combination of the genome sequence, the functional diversity encoded therein, and the presence of some pathways missing from other model organisms makes T. thermophila an ideal model for functional genomic studies to address biological, biomedical, and biotechnological questions of fundamental importance.
ESTHER : Eisen_2006_PLoS.Biol_4_e286
PubMedSearch : Eisen_2006_PLoS.Biol_4_e286
PubMedID: 16933976
Gene_locus related to this paper: tetts-i7mam3 , tetts-i7ml33

Title : The genome of the basidiomycetous yeast and human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans - Loftus_2005_Science_307_1321
Author(s) : Loftus BJ , Fung E , Roncaglia P , Rowley D , Amedeo P , Bruno D , Vamathevan J , Miranda M , Anderson IJ , Fraser JA , Allen JE , Bosdet IE , Brent MR , Chiu R , Doering TL , Donlin MJ , D'Souza CA , Fox DS , Grinberg V , Fu J , Fukushima M , Haas BJ , Huang JC , Janbon G , Jones SJ , Koo HL , Krzywinski MI , Kwon-Chung JK , Lengeler KB , Maiti R , Marra MA , Marra RE , Mathewson CA , Mitchell TG , Pertea M , Riggs FR , Salzberg SL , Schein JE , Shvartsbeyn A , Shin H , Shumway M , Specht CA , Suh BB , Tenney A , Utterback TR , Wickes BL , Wortman JR , Wye NH , Kronstad JW , Lodge JK , Heitman J , Davis RW , Fraser CM , Hyman RW
Ref : Science , 307 :1321 , 2005
Abstract : Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous yeast ubiquitous in the environment, a model for fungal pathogenesis, and an opportunistic human pathogen of global importance. We have sequenced its approximately 20-megabase genome, which contains approximately 6500 intron-rich gene structures and encodes a transcriptome abundant in alternatively spliced and antisense messages. The genome is rich in transposons, many of which cluster at candidate centromeric regions. The presence of these transposons may drive karyotype instability and phenotypic variation. C. neoformans encodes unique genes that may contribute to its unusual virulence properties, and comparison of two phenotypically distinct strains reveals variation in gene content in addition to sequence polymorphisms between the genomes.
ESTHER : Loftus_2005_Science_307_1321
PubMedSearch : Loftus_2005_Science_307_1321
PubMedID: 15653466
Gene_locus related to this paper: cryne-apth1 , cryne-ppme1 , cryne-q5k7g1 , cryne-q5k7h2 , cryne-q5k7p6 , cryne-q5k8p2 , cryne-q5k8s0 , cryne-q5k9e7 , cryne-q5k9p3 , cryne-q5k9y9 , cryne-q5k721 , cryne-q5k987 , cryne-q5ka03 , cryne-q5ka24 , cryne-q5ka58 , cryne-q5kat4 , cryne-q5kav3 , cryne-q5kbu4 , cryne-q5kbw4 , cryne-q5kc00 , cryne-q5kec5 , cryne-q5kei3 , cryne-q5kei7 , cryne-q5ker2 , cryne-q5key5 , cryne-q5kf48 , cryne-q5kfk6 , cryne-q5kfz0 , cryne-q5kgq3 , cryne-q5kh37 , cryne-q5khb0 , cryne-q5khb9 , cryne-q5kip7 , cryne-q5kiu5 , cryne-q5kj56 , cryne-q5kjf8 , cryne-q5kjh3 , cryne-q5kjp9 , cryne-q5kjw7 , cryne-q5kky1 , cryne-q5kkz7 , cryne-q5kl13 , cryne-q5klu9 , cryne-q5km63 , cryne-q5kme9 , cryne-q5kni1 , cryne-q5knq0 , cryne-q5knr2 , cryne-q5knw0 , cryne-q5kq08 , cryne-Q5KCH9 , cryne-q55ta1 , cryne-q5kjh4 , crynj-q5knp8 , crynj-q5kpe0

Title : Comparative genomics of trypanosomatid parasitic protozoa - El-Sayed_2005_Science_309_404
Author(s) : El-Sayed NM , Myler PJ , Blandin G , Berriman M , Crabtree J , Aggarwal G , Caler E , Renauld H , Worthey EA , Hertz-Fowler C , Ghedin E , Peacock C , Bartholomeu DC , Haas BJ , Tran AN , Wortman JR , Alsmark UC , Angiuoli S , Anupama A , Badger J , Bringaud F , Cadag E , Carlton JM , Cerqueira GC , Creasy T , Delcher AL , Djikeng A , Embley TM , Hauser C , Ivens AC , Kummerfeld SK , Pereira-Leal JB , Nilsson D , Peterson J , Salzberg SL , Shallom J , Silva JC , Sundaram J , Westenberger S , White O , Melville SE , Donelson JE , Andersson B , Stuart KD , Hall N
Ref : Science , 309 :404 , 2005
Abstract : A comparison of gene content and genome architecture of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania major, three related pathogens with different life cycles and disease pathology, revealed a conserved core proteome of about 6200 genes in large syntenic polycistronic gene clusters. Many species-specific genes, especially large surface antigen families, occur at nonsyntenic chromosome-internal and subtelomeric regions. Retroelements, structural RNAs, and gene family expansion are often associated with syntenic discontinuities that-along with gene divergence, acquisition and loss, and rearrangement within the syntenic regions-have shaped the genomes of each parasite. Contrary to recent reports, our analyses reveal no evidence that these species are descended from an ancestor that contained a photosynthetic endosymbiont.
ESTHER : El-Sayed_2005_Science_309_404
PubMedSearch : El-Sayed_2005_Science_309_404
PubMedID: 16020724
Gene_locus related to this paper: tryb2-q382c1 , trycr-q4dhv2 , trycr-q4dpt2 , trycr-q4dpy4

Title : Full-length messenger RNA sequences greatly improve genome annotation - Haas_2002_Genome.Biol_3_RESEARCH0029
Author(s) : Haas BJ , Volfovsky N , Town CD , Troukhan M , Alexandrov N , Feldmann KA , Flavell RB , White O , Salzberg SL
Ref : Genome Biol , 3 :RESEARCH0029 , 2002
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Annotation of eukaryotic genomes is a complex endeavor that requires the integration of evidence from multiple, often contradictory, sources. With the ever-increasing amount of genome sequence data now available, methods for accurate identification of large numbers of genes have become urgently needed. In an effort to create a set of very high-quality gene models, we used the sequence of 5,000 full-length gene transcripts from Arabidopsis to re-annotate its genome. We have mapped these transcripts to their exact chromosomal locations and, using alignment programs, have created gene models that provide a reference set for this organism.
RESULTS: Approximately 35% of the transcripts indicated that previously annotated genes needed modification, and 5% of the transcripts represented newly discovered genes. We also discovered that multiple transcription initiation sites appear to be much more common than previously known, and we report numerous cases of alternative mRNA splicing. We include a comparison of different alignment software and an analysis of how the transcript data improved the previously published annotation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that sequencing of large numbers of full-length transcripts followed by computational mapping greatly improves identification of the complete exon structures of eukaryotic genes. In addition, we are able to find numerous introns in the untranslated regions of the genes.
ESTHER : Haas_2002_Genome.Biol_3_RESEARCH0029
PubMedSearch : Haas_2002_Genome.Biol_3_RESEARCH0029
PubMedID: 12093376
Gene_locus related to this paper: arath-AT1G74640 , arath-At2g47630 , arath-AT4G17480 , arath-AT4G24380 , arath-At5g11650 , arath-AT5G19290 , arath-AT5G19630 , arath-AT5G20060 , arath-AT5G20520 , arath-AtD14 , arath-F1O17.3 , arath-F1O17.5 , arath-F1P2.110 , arath-F12L6.7 , arath-F22K18.40 , arath-At3g60340 , arath-LCAT1 , arath-PLA16 , arath-Q8L996 , arath-q8lae9 , arath-Q8LF34 , arath-Q8LFB7 , arath-Q8LFU1 , arath-q8s8g6 , arath-q9ffg7 , arath-Q9LNR2 , arath-SCP40 , arath-At4g12230 , arath-AT4G10030 , arath-T5M16.2 , arath-MES14 , arath-T19F11.2 , arath-Y1457 , arath-T26B15.8 , arath-SFGH , arath-f4jt64